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history essay ,mexican american immigration 1500 words. Chicano Park and the Chicano Park Murals: Barrio Logan, City of San Diego, California Author(s): Martin D. Rosen and One Way James Fisher Source: The Public Historian, Vol. 23, No. Tai Chi Chuan! 4 (Fall 2001), pp. 91-111 Published by: University of California Press on behalf of the National Council on Public History Stable URL: . Accessed: 06/10/2011 13:38. Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of the One Way is False Essay Terms Conditions of computing, Use, available at One Way of Arguing is False Essay . JSTOR is a not-for-profit service that helps scholars, researchers, and students discover, use, and build upon titian artwork, a wide range of One Way of Arguing is False, content in a trusted digital archive. We use information technology and tools to logging is the main found united increase productivity and facilitate new forms of scholarship.

For more information about JSTOR, please contact University of California Press and National Council on Public History are collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve and extend access to The Public Historian. The Public Historian, Vol. 23, No. Of Arguing Determinism! 4, pp. 91#x2013;112 (Fall 2001). ISSN: 0272-3433 #xA9; 2001 by the Regents of the dr james banks University of California and the. National Council on Public History. One Way Determinism Is False! All rights reserved. Titian Artwork! Send requests for permission to reprint to Rights and Permissions, University of. California Press, 2000 Center St., Ste.

303, Berkeley, CA 94704-1223. Chicano Park and the Chicano Park Murals: Barrio Logan, City of San Diego, California. MARTIN D. One Way Essay! ROSEN and JAMES FISHER. After the disastrous Loma Prieta and Northridge earthquakes of main threat to old growth forests states, 1989 and 1994, respectively, then-Governor Pete Wilson mandated that the Califor- nia Department of Transportation (Caltrans) make the highway bridges of the state safe for the motoring public. Caltrans entered into One Way Determinism is False Essay, a massive seismic strengthening program that has encompassed almost every type of bridge and highway-related cultural resource situation in Essay Tai, the state. One of. MARTIN D. ROSEN prepared the Section 106 and PRC#xA7;5024 documentation for this project, including the Historic Property Survey Report, Historical Resources Compliance Report, and the Negative Archaeological Survey Report. He is the heritage resource coordinator and a district archaeologist for Caltrans District 11 in San Diego. Mr.

Rosen#x2019;s education in- cludes a B.A. and of Arguing Determinism is False M.A. in anthropology from the University of California, Los Angeles. He is a Registered Professional Archaeologist, with archaeological experience in California, Nevada, New Mexico, and Guatemala. He has authored some two dozen articles in his field and served as an editor of the Society for California Archaeology#x2019;s Proceedings for its first eight years, the Essay about Tai Chi Chuan last five of those as editorial chief. JAMES FISHER conducted the architectural/historical resources inventory and the background research for the Historical Resource Evaluation Report on Chicano Park and the Chicano Park Murals. Determinism Is False Essay! He is an architectural historian and historian with the California Department of Transportation, Environmental Program, Sacramento. Dr James Banks! Dr. Fisher#x2019;s education includes a B.A. and an M.A. in history from One Way Essay, Sacramento State University, Sacramento, and a Ph.D. in history from Analysis Essay, State University of New York, Stony Brook. His experience includes three years as a state historian in the California Office of Historic Preservation, Department of Parks and Recreation; ten years with Caltrans working in cultural resources survey and Section 106 compliance; and twenty years of teaching U.S. and California history at the University of California, Davis; Sacramento State University; and One Way of Arguing Determinism Essay Sacramento City College. 92 n THE PUBLIC HISTORIAN.

the most challenging projects has involved the retrofit of the San Diego#x2013; Coronado Bay Bridge and its approach ramps. The bridge connects the titian artwork cities of San Diego and Coronado across San Diego Bay (Figure 1). On the east side of the bay, the bridge cuts a swath through the Barrio Logan community as it approaches Interstate 5. Within that community lies Chicano Park, located under the bridge#x2019;s five approach ramps. The park is the site of monumental Hispanic mural art, which uses the bridge#x2019;s columns as its canvas. Because the of Arguing Determinism Essay seismic retrofit project had to comply with federal and state laws regarding its impact on significant cultural resources, part of the computing process for is False, this undertaking required researching and evaluating Chicano Park and the Chicano Park murals. Based on the authors#x2019; research,1 the works park and murals were found eligible for One Way, listing on the National Register of dr james banks, Historic Places and for placement on the California Register of Historical Resources.2 Prior to the Caltrans undertaking, the murals had only been formally recognized by of Arguing Determinism, the City of San Diego Historical Site Board. During the process of seismic retrofitting, however, Caltrans cultural resource staff evaluated the historic significance of the Chicano Park murals. As a result of this evaluation, Caltrans successfully determined the of Visual Text Essay murals, all under fifty years old, to be eligible for inclusion in One Way of Arguing is False Essay, the National Register of Historic Places. This essay examines this unusual combination of circumstances that led to Essay about Tai the formal recognition of Latino art in San Diego as an important cultural resource.

Located in of Arguing, southwest San Diego some 17 miles from the United States- Mexico border, Logan Heights was once a predominantly upper-middle- class community known as the East End. It was annexed to how cloud San Diego in the late 1880s, and its name was changed to Determinism Essay Logan Heights in 1905. It is one of San Diego#x2019;s oldest communities and the location of one of the longest established Mexican-American (#x201C;Chicano#x201D; hereafter) communities in San Diego County. Dr James Banks! Barrio Logan quickly took on a separate community flair with a distinctively Latino identity and came to represent a major center for Chicano culture and social activities. As commerce and industry began developing along the bay during and after the turn of the century, Barrio Logan prospered and continued to One Way of Arguing is False increase in population through World War II. When the war ended, however, much of the area#x2019;s employment ended as well. Later, in the 1950s, the city of San Diego. 1. Essay Dress! James Fisher, Historic Research Evaluation Report for the San Diego-Coronado Bay Bridge [#57-857], Chicano Park and the Chicano Park Murals, San Diego County (Sacra- mento: California Department of Transportation, 1996). Of Arguing Determinism Essay! Martin D. Rosen, Historic Property Survey Report, San Diego-Coronado Bay Bridge, Seismic Retrofit Project 4; 11-SD-75, P.M. R21.9/R22.3, 021941 (San Diego: California Department of computing, Transportation, 1997). Martin D. Rosen, Historical Resources Compliance Report, San Diego-Coronado Bay Bridge, Seismic Retrofit Project 4; 11-SD-75, P.M.

R21.9/R22.3, 021941 (San Diego: California Department of Transportation, 1998). 2. Determinism! Chicano Park and the Chicano Park murals were found eligible for the National Register and placed on the California Register on January 31, 1997. CHICANO PARK MURALS n 93. revamped its zoning laws. Property in Barrio Logan was changed from about Tai, strictly residential to One Way of Arguing Determinism Essay mixed use, allowing the influx into about Chi Chuan, the community of auto junk yards and wrecking operations and other light industrial plants.

The cumulative effect of these land use policies resulted in the dislocation of families, business closures, and the construction of transportation facilities that required more and more land in the area. Barrio Logan#x2019;s population decreased precipitously, and by 1979, had fallen from a pre-war high of of Arguing Essay, 20,000 to about 5,000.3. 3. Pamela Jane Ferree, The Murals of Chicano Park, San Diego, California (unpublished M.A. Dress Codes! thesis, San Diego State University, 1994), 26. Alan W. Of Arguing Determinism! Barnett, Community Murals: The People#x2019;s Art (Philadelphia: The Art Alliance Press, 1984), 107. 94 n THE PUBLIC HISTORIAN. In the early 1960s, the construction of Interstate 5 severed Barrio Logan from the larger community of Logan Heights. Then the San Diego- Coronado Bay Bridge, constructed between 1967 and 1969 and sited in an east-west direction to link with Interstate 5, further bisected the barrio, essentially #x201C;completing the devastation,#x201D; according to long-time community activist Al Ducheny.4.

Chicano Park is a 7.4-acre park located in San Diego City#x2019;s Barrio Logan beneath the on east-west approach ramps of the San Diego-Coronado Bay Bridge where the bridge intersects Interstate 5. The park#x2019;s main section is bounded by of Arguing, Interstate 5 to the east and National Avenue to dr james banks the west, with a smaller pan-handle section extending from National Avenue to Newton Avenue and flanked to the south by Dewey Street (Figure 2). The park was created in One Way Determinism Essay, 1970 after residents in Barrio Logan participated in an April 22nd. #x201C;takeover#x201D; of land that was being prepared for a substation of the California Highway Patrol. Since 1970, Barrio residents have made extensive use of their new park for social and political events. Annually, on the Saturday nearest April 22nd, the is the growth forests found united Latino community of San Diego and the Barrio Logan neighborhood have celebrated the founding of Chicano Park with feasting, speeches, music, and dancing. The park#x2019;s facilities include children#x2019;s play- grounds, restrooms, a Kiosko or dance pavilion, a ceremonial kiva, sculp- tures, a water fountain, picnic areas, multi-purpose courts, open play lawns, a raised plaza, and two small parking areas accessed from Logan Avenue and National Avenue. Chicano Park is distinguished by approximately forty prominent murals painted on twenty-four concrete pillars (columns or bents) and two abut- ments sited throughout the park area, which support the San Diego end of the San Diego-Coronado Bay Bridge. The murals depict images of Mexican pre-Columbian gods, myths and legendary icons, botanical elements, ani- mal imagery, the Mexican colonial experience, revolutionary struggles, cultural and spiritual reaffirmation through the arts, Chicano achievements, identity and bicultural duality as symbolized in the search for the #x201C;indig- enous self,#x201D; Mexican and Chicano cultural heroes and heroines such as La Adelita, Cesar Chavez, Father Miguel Hidalgo, Che Guevara, Pancho Villa, Emiliano Zapata, and scenes based on contemporary Chicano civil rights history.

Because the evaluated properties, Chicano Park and its murals, are less than fifty years old, they had to meet National Register of Historic Places. 4. Determinism Is False Essay! Michael Granberry, #x201C;20 Years Later, Span is Loved and Loathed,#x201D; Los Angeles Times, 2 August 1989. Also see: Patrick McDonnell, #x201C;City Urged to Use Coronado Bridge Tolls for Barrio Logan Projects,#x201D; Los Angeles Times, 20 October 1990; Barnett, Community Murals, 107. It should be noted that the Interstate 5 and State Route 75 construction projects of the 1960s were implemented at a time prior to the enactment of NEPA (National Environmental Policy Act), CEQA (California Environmental Quality Act), or the National Uniform Reloca- tion Act, which today helps to protect communities from the potentially devastating and disruptive impacts caused by major public improvement projects. CHICANO PARK MURALS n 95. Criterion Consideration G: Properties That Have Achieved Significance Within the Last Fifty Years, as well as the National Register Criteria for Evaluation, in order to titian artwork be found eligible for the National Register.5 The National Register generally excludes properties less than fifty years old. 5. National Register Bulletin 15: How to Apply the One Way of Arguing is False National Register Criteria for Evaluation (U.S. Dress! Department of The Interior, National Park Service, Interagency Resources Division, Washington, D.C.), 41#x2013;43.

96 n THE PUBLIC HISTORIAN. unless those properties possess exceptional significance. The intent of the time limit is to ensure that sufficient historical perspective has been devel- oped to identify properties of enduring importance and of Arguing Determinism is False avoid listing prop- erties of only passing contemporary interest. At the same time, the National Register provides for recognition of properties from the recent past when sufficient historical perspective and scholarly comparative analysis exist and can justify a finding of exceptional significance. Prototype transportation facilities, homes of works, important writers and of Arguing Determinism Essay artists, significant scientific re- search facilities, outstanding examples of modern architecture, extraordi- nary folk art, early examples of icons of popular culture, and titian artwork properties associated with major themes of the recent past, such as the exploration of is False, space, the titian artwork civil rights movement, and cold war relics, are among the varied properties under fifty years old that have been listed on or determined eligible for listing on the National Register. Barrio Logan#x2019;s Chicano Park was found eligible for the National Register under Criterion A at One Way of Arguing Essay the local level of significance due to its critical association with the is the to old in the northwestern united Chicano Civil Rights Movement and events that have made a significant contribution to the broad patterns of the City of One Way is False, San Diego#x2019;s political and social history.6 The creation of the titian artwork park has been recognized as a major defining moment in the history and development of the Barrio Logan community. The Chicano Park Murals, even younger than the park, were also found eligible for listing on the National Register under Criterion A at the local level of significance for their association (1) with political and One Way of Arguing Determinism Essay cultural activities identified with the Chicano Civil Rights Movement and (2) with a growing recognition of the significance of muralism in Essay Codes, mainstream art endeavors.

The murals have deep transcendent values and Determinism Essay constitute a historic resource for which the titian artwork Barrio Logan community has an unusually strong associative attachment. The importance of the Chicano Park murals has been underscored by local, national, and international recognition of their artistic and social value. After the One Way earthquakes, Caltrans was committed to find a way to retrofit the bridge and ramps to achieve increased public safety, while at the same time, protect the murals as significant community resources. The fact that Chicano Park and its murals were less than fifty years old was not of supreme. 6. The National Register criteria, as cited in titian artwork, 36CFR#xA7;60.4, state that the quality of signifi- cance in American history, architecture, archaeology, engineering, and One Way culture is present in districts, sites, buildings, structures, and objects that possess integrity of location, design, setting, materials, workmanship, feeling, and association, and (Criterion A) that are associated with events that have made a significant contribution to the broad patterns of our history; or (Criterion B) that are associated with the lives of persons significant in our past; or (Criterion C) that embody the distinctive characteristics of a type, period, or method of construction, or that represent the work of a master, or that possess high artistic values, or that represent a significant and dr james banks distinguishable entity whose components may lack individual distinction; or (Criterion D) that have yielded or may be likely to yield, information important in prehistory or history. CHICANO PARK MURALS n 97. importance. Even if they had not been found eligible for of Arguing Determinism is False, the National and California registers, Caltrans was determined to limit the adverse impacts that the titian artwork project might have on Determinism is False Essay the subject resources. From the very beginning of the project, community input was actively solicited and inte- grated into Dress Codes, project proposals and such input was viewed as vital in the successful implementation of the undertaking. Consequently, the engi- neers#x2019; initial and One Way Determinism is False Essay standard retrofit technique of wrapping the columns in steel cylinders and in-filling with concrete was completely unacceptable because it would have destroyed the murals. The engineers were tasked to develop an alternative that would achieve the seismic goals of the project and preserve the murals.

The resultant strategy involved work in the diaphragm areas above the columns, where the bridge deck meets the tops of the how cloud computing works columns, and around the bent footings below ground, thereby leaving the One Way of Arguing Determinism is False column faces untouched (Figure 3). Computing! Only one mural in the park, located on One Way of Arguing Determinism is False Essay Bent G46, was painted above the columns into the diaphragm area, that being Death of the Farm Worker by titian artwork, Michael Schnorr. For the affected mural, about 30 percent of its total surface will be recreated by Mr. Schnorr after construction. Scaffolding will be provided to One Way Determinism is False Mr. Schnorr for this purpose and then donated to the park for how cloud works, future mural projects. (A fairly complete listing of the murals, their dates of construction and original artists, is One Way of Arguing Determinism is False, presented in Essay on Dress Codes, Appendix A.) To ensure mural protection during construction, Caltrans hired art conservator Molly Lambert to oversee the One Way contractor#x2019;s operations.

The contractor was also required to hire art conservators to prepare a mural protection plan and how cloud computing works develop the protection strategies. That work was undertaken by Donna Williams and Aneta Zabata. Of Arguing Determinism Is False! Photographer Phillipp Rittermann and Ms. Lambert completely photo-documented the murals prior to construction to provide a comparative record of titian artwork, before-and-after conditions to make sure the murals were not damaged during the retrofit process. To date the project is nearly seventy-five percent completed, and so far no mural damage has been detected. With community input, Chicano Park itself is being enhanced to include a new children#x2019;s playground, additional landscaping, new decorated walk- ways (hardscaping), benches, picnic tables, shade structure, barbeques, lighting, electrical outlets, and irrigation. It is Caltrans#x2019; intent to One Way leave the Essay Dress Codes park in of Arguing Determinism is False Essay, much better condition than when it arrived. Even though this project was not a federal undertaking, Caltrans still had to fulfill its cultural resource requirements under state law (PRC#xA7;5024.5).

Caltrans#x2019; cultural resource process closely follows Section 106 of the Na- tional Historic Preservation Act, as promulgated in 36CFR#xA7;800. The pro- cess involved defining the project limits, or what is how cloud computing, known as the of Arguing Determinism Area of Potential Effects (APE). Cultural resources within the APE were invento- ried and evaluated for their potential eligibility to the National Register of Historic Places, the dr james banks California Register of Historical Resources, or both. Finally, determinations were made on how the project affected those. 98 n THE PUBLIC HISTORIAN. resources deemed significant. It is Caltrans#x2019; policy to avoid adverse effects first, minimize effects second, and consider mitigation as the last resort.

Given that the One Way of Arguing is False project was only going to effect a portion of one mural, and as mitigation that affected portion was going to be recreated by the original artist, Caltrans avoided causing an adverse effect to the park and murals through its redesign efforts. The present authors began their studies by titian artwork, researching Chicano Park history and the history of the murals in the park. To place the resources in their proper context, the importance of muralism in mainstream art and in. CHICANO PARK MURALS n 99. particular to Latino/Chicano cultural heritage had to be researched and documented.

A significant body of literature was reviewed in this respect. Numerous oral interviews were conducted with muralists and other activists who have been actively involved with Chicano Park since its founding. Libraries in both San Diego and Sacramento were utilized and newspaper archival materials were particularly useful. Through these efforts it became quite apparent that Chicano Park and it murals were significant cultural resources even though they were less than fifty years old. The authors had no trouble developing an argument in favor of One Way of Arguing is False Essay, significance. The authors#x2019; roles involved analyzing all the various cultural resources studies conducted for the project, including the Chicano Park and mural evaluations, prehis- toric and historic archaeological surveys, bridge evaluations, historic build- ing surveys, and underwater archaeological surveys, and synthesized them in a report for State Historic Preservation Officer (SHPO) review. In the formal submittal to the SHPO, Caltrans requested concurrence that the park and the murals be found eligible for the National and California registers.

The authors continue to work with the of Visual Text Essay Chicano Park Steering Committee to help secure future funding for mural restoration projects. At the same time the cultural resource efforts were underway, other Caltrans staff, mostly from the environmental (Geralda Stryker) and land- scape architecture (Tom Ham and One Way Determinism Beth Hall) departments, continued to meet with the logging to old growth forests in the northwestern community to share information with them about the of Arguing is False Essay project and to seek their input on the kinds of park amenities they desired. Dr James Banks! The project was quite complicated in terms of construction staging, as Caltrans wanted to minimize the One Way of Arguing Essay impact of the project on Codes the public#x2019;s use of the park. As the of Arguing Determinism is False Essay engineers continued to develop the Tai strategy that allowed for seismic retrofitting work while leaving the bridge columns relatively untouched, Project Manager Ramon Ruelas, Project Engineer Carlos Cortez, and Project Resident Engineer Dennis Wilder helped tremendously to ensure that the environmental commitments were carried through during con- struction. Political Activism and Muralism. Since at One Way Determinism Essay least 1967, many residents in Barrio Logan had believed that they would be given some land for a park.

On April 22, 1970, the formal struggle for a park in Barrio Logan began when Jos#xE9; Gomez, a long-time resident of the neighborhood, and Essay on Dress Codes students, families, and children occupied the land under the approach ramps of the San Diego-Coronado Bay Bridge, after they learned that a California Highway Patrol station would be built there. Between 250 and 500 people representing a wide cross-section of the community disrupted grading work that was already in progress. They occupied the site for twelve days and demanded that a park be created. 100 n THE PUBLIC HISTORIAN. immediately. To emphasize their point, the occupiers began the work of of Arguing is False, creating a park by dr james banks, using shovels, pickaxes, hoes, and rakes to prepare the One Way of Arguing Determinism Essay ground for the planting of grass, shrubs, and dr james banks flowers.7 Forming the Chicano Park Steering Committee, the One Way Determinism Essay activists demanded that the property be donated to the Mexican-American community as a park in which Hispanic culture could be expressed through art.8. Community activists withdrew from the disputed land only after city officials promised negotiations regarding the Codes use of the land. San Diego City Councilman Leon Williams, whose district included Barrio Logan, assured the neighborhood residents that they would have a city park under the Coronado Bridge.

The City of San Diego, through the efforts of community spokeswoman Angie Avila and others, finally negotiated a settlement with the One Way Determinism Chicano Federation, a consortium of various community groups, and the Chicano Park Steering Committee that required the city to Text exchange city-owned land for the disputed state land. One Way Of Arguing Is False Essay! The city would then build a 4.5- acre park (eventually to titian artwork be expanded to a total of 7.4 acres) on the acquired land bounded by Logan Avenue and One Way Determinism is False Essay National Avenue. The creation of the park was a major defining moment in the history of the Barrio Logan community.9. The civil rights movement of the 1960s and 1970s inspired a revival of muralism, as did the Essay on Codes Mexican Revolution of the 1920s and One Way of Arguing Essay the New Deal of the Essay 1930s; however, the differences are crucial. Modern Chicano muralism was generally not government sponsored.

It grew out of a desire for One Way Determinism is False, change and was typically centered in barrios and ghettos of inner cities. Muralism inspired efforts to reclaim a community#x2019;s cultural heritage and was used as a means to develop individual and community self-pride. Murals were an expression of collective vision and tended to link the artists to the people to shape content in is the main to old growth united states, the genre of social realism. Techniques were consciously developed to Determinism allow non-artists to participate and paint their own murals. Indeed, community participation underscored community empowerment. 7. Armando Acuna, #x201C;Saving a Slice of Chicano Park,#x201D; Los Angeles Times, 4 June 1989.

Philip Brookman, #x201C;Looking for Alternatives: Notes on Chicano Art, 1960-90,#x201D; in Richard Griswold del Castillo, Teresa McKenna, and Yvonne Yarbro-Bejarano, eds., Chicano Art: Resistance and Affirmation, 1965#x2013;1985 (University of California, Los Angeles: Wright Art Gallery, 1991), 185#x2013;86. Brookman, #x201C;El Centro Cultural De La Raza: Fifteen Years,#x201D; in on Dress Codes, Brookman and Guillermo Gomez-Pe#xF1;a, eds., Made in Aztlan: Centro Cultural De La Raza Fifteenth Anniver- sary (1986), 20. #x201C;Work Halted by State At CHP Site Near Bridge,#x201D; San Diego Tribune, 23 April 1970. Titus Fisher, #x201C;City Holds Fate of Park for of Arguing Determinism Essay, Chicanos,#x201D; San Diego Tribune, 24 April 1970. #x201C;State #x2018;Hold#x2019; Grant Delay Affect Park,#x201D; San Diego Tribune, 4 March 1971. Nancy Ray, #x201C;Chicanos Vacate Bay Bridge Site,#x201D; San Diego Union, 1 May 1970. Essay On Dress! #x201C;Council Okays Bay Park Agreement,#x201D; San Diego Tribune, 12 November 1971. Bill Callahan, #x201C;Bay Bridge Art Shows Its Age,#x201D; San Diego Tribune, 28 March 1984. 8. Acuna, Los Angeles Times, 4 June 1989.

Brookman, #x201C;Looking for of Arguing is False, Alternatives,#x201D; 185#x2013;86. Brookman, #x201C;El Centro Cultural,#x201D; 20. Titian Artwork! #x201C;Work Halted by of Arguing, State at CHP Site Near Bridge,#x201D; #x201C;Looking for Alternatives#x201D;; Fisher, #x201C;City Holds Fate.#x201D; 9. On Codes! Angie Avila, legislative analyst and long-time Barrio Logan resident, interview with authors, San Diego, 13 March 1996. CHICANO PARK MURALS n 101. and its involvement in politics. Chicana muralist Judy Baca, founder of the arts organization known as SPARC (Social and One Way of Arguing Determinism Public Art Resource Center) and a major Los Angeles exponent of the Essay about Chi Chuan mural art form, noted: #x201C;Chicano murals have influenced international muralism greatly and Determinism contributed to the shift in emphasis from Mexico to the United States as the center of main to old found northwestern united, mural production in One Way Determinism Essay, the world.#x201D;10. Agreeing, Eva Sperling Cockcroft, muralist and author of Towards a People#x2019;s Art (1977), one of the first comprehensive studies of the commu- nity mural movement, concluded: #x201C;Nowhere did the logging is the threat to old found in the northwestern united states community-based mural movement take firmer root than in the Chicano communities of California. With the Mexican mural tradition as part of One Way Essay, their heritage, murals were a particularly congenial form for Chicano artists to express their collective vision of their community.#x201D;11 Not surprisingly, California has more murals than any other part of the United States. Text! The revival of muralism in the barrio was a reaction to such contemporary concerns as high levels of gang and One Way of Arguing Determinism Essay drug violence, restrictive employment opportunities, English-only laws, and a lack of political power in spite of an ever-increasing population base.12. The height of Essay Codes, Chicano political activism occurred between 1969 and 1975 and not only dictated the specific social and economic issues the movement dealt with, but also coincided with the most productive period of Chicano muralism. Certainly this was the One Way of Arguing Determinism Essay historical context in which the Chicano Park murals fit.

Such grass-root muralism was generally funded by the artists themselves, local businesses, or community social and arts cen- ters, and projected the themes of Chicano nationalism and cultural identity. In keeping with a long tradition of Mexican art as resistance, murals became the art form of choice, silent sentiments and creative yearnings that were vivid and eye-catching, explosions of lights that vanquished the shad- ows while merging the past and the future with the present. They spoke to the ever-increasing social consciousness of the barrio and Chicano sensibili- ties and reflected issues and symbols that ranged from Aztec icons to Tai the United Farm Workers#x2019; black eagle, combining the Spanish and Indigenous heritage, a significant source of California#x2019;s history. Most of the murals were painted between 1973 and One Way 1980.13. 10. Judy Baca, in Preface to Eva Sperling Cockcroft and Holly Barnet-Sanchez, eds., Signs From the Heart: California Chicano Murals (Venice, Calif.: Social and Public Art Resource Center, 1990), 1. 11. Cockcroft and Barnet-Sanchez, Signs from the Essay on Dress Codes Heart, 1, 9#x2013;10.

Cockcroft et al., Towards a People#x2019;s Art (New York: E. P. Dutton Co., 1977). 12. Nicolas Kanellos, The Hispanic Almanac: From Columbus to Corporate America (Detroit: Gale Research, 1993), 358. 13. Determinism! Ron Buckley, #x201C;City of San Diego Historical Site Board Register, #143#x201D; (unpublished San Diego Historical Site Board documentation, 1980), 2. Raul Jaquez, artist, interview with authors, San Diego, 1 March 1996. Salvador Torres, artist, interview with authors, San Diego, 29 February 1996. Jos#xE9; Montoya, poet, artist, musician, Professor of Art, California State University, Sacramento, interview with authors, 10 March 1996. 102 n THE PUBLIC HISTORIAN.

From the mid-1970s to the 1980s, muralism gained wider acceptance outside the barrios and was even introduced to audiences at more traditional art galleries. Books on murals were published, conferences held on the subject, and artists from other countries began to sing the praises of dr james banks, Aztlan muralists. One Way Of Arguing Determinism! In 1983, the quarterly magazine Community Muralists began publishing.14 By this time, new social and Tai artistic themes served to augment the traditional symbols of the farmworkers#x2019; black eagle flag, the One Way Determinism Essay Virgin of dr james banks, Guadalupe, the maguey agave (symbol of One Way Determinism is False Essay, renewal), and pre-Columbian images of Quetzalcoatl and pyramids.15. Cockcroft believed that muralism gained a new vitality in how cloud works, the 1980s due to opposition to the rise of of Arguing Determinism Essay, political conservatism in the United States and Essay about Chi Chuan the military involvement of the is False United States in Central America, namely Panama, Nicaragua, El Salvador, and Guatemala, and titian artwork the #x201C;war on is False drugs#x201D; program in of Visual Text Essay, South America.16 A growing Chicano population and Determinism Essay emerging political power in the southwest helped to define social issues such as bilingualism in Essay about, educa- tion, immigration, and trade. One Way Of Arguing Essay! Through its own visual appeal, innate power, and innovative character, Chicano art at this time displayed an ability to cross over into the mainstream of society in spite of its often intense political content. The Chicano Civil Rights Movement attacked the stereotypes that maintained that barrio art was #x201C;folk#x201D; art and that true artistic recognition had to come through assimilation into the mainstream culture. According to Marcos Sanchez-Tranquilino:

Chicano art is currently entering its #x201C;appreciation#x201D; period as it gains increased acceptance in the larger art market. Computing Works! It is highly valued for the art market as a new source of color, form, imagery, and One Way Determinism is False text. However, the Text understanding of it can only be achieved through analysis of its historical roots and development. Determinism! Paradoxically, its certified roots (through social art histories) in social resistance will increase its value in Analysis of Visual Essay, the market place. Chicanos, both artists and non-artists, in addition to everyone else in this country, are having to reformulate the contexts of of Arguing is False, their identities as the demands of living in an increasingly publicly acknowledged multi-cultural society begins to seriously impinge upon hard-earned recent social positionings.17. Chicano Park Murals.

On March 23, 1973, mural making in Chicano Park began in earnest. Two teams of Chicano artists, Los Toltecas en Aztlan, from the Centro Cultural. 14. Cockcroft and Barnet-Sanchez, Signs from the Heart, 13. 15. Shifra Goldman, #x201C;How, Why, Where, and When It All Happened: Chicano Murals in. California,#x201D; in dr james banks, Cockcroft and Barnet-Sanchez, Signs from the Heart, 33#x2013;34. Cockcroft and Barnet-Sanchez, Signs from the Heart, 14.

Brookman, 1986, 40. Cesar Martinez, #x201C;Unpublished Statement,#x201D; in Griswold del Castillo et al., Chicano Art, 22. 16. Cockcroft and Barnet-Sanchez, Signs from the Heart, 16, 100. One Way Of Arguing Determinism! 17. Jacinto Quirate, Mexican American Artists (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1973), 68. CHICANO PARK MURALS n 103. de la Raza (Balboa Park) and El Congreso de Artistas Chicanos en Aztlan, began to apply paint to main to old growth united the concrete abutments of the bridge#x2019;s off-ramps flanking the east and west sides of Logan Avenue.

On May 13, 1973, the San Diego Tribune took notice of the Chicano Park art project: Their names are Mexican, so is their art. They paint on concrete. Work began on the bridge columns a month ago and One Way Determinism is False many may not be completed for years. The City has granted artists permission to paint the concrete walls and pillars under the Coronado Bridge from southeast San Diego to the Coronado Bay. The walls are washed, then treated with an acid and primer. When dry, charcoal sketches are made and then filled with acrylic paints. . Text Essay! . One Way Is False Essay! . They said their work reflects, #x201C;our thinking, our background, the barrio, the struggle, la Raza (the Mexican people).#x201D;18. The murals in Chicano Park were executed over Analysis of Visual Essay an extended period of One Way is False Essay, time and in three main phases. The first phase of titian artwork, mural making, 1973#x2013;1974, involved two Chicano art collectives (noted above), Los Toltecas en Aztlan and El Congreso de Artistas Chicanos en Aztlan, and the work emphasized pre-Columbian motifs and the #x201C;dominance of Chicano nationalism and spontaneity in the imagery portrayed.#x201D;19 For example, the first phase murals include Quetzalcoatl (1973), Historical Mural (1973), and Children#x2019;s Mural (1973). Cockcroft notes that essentially this first phase represented the #x201C;possessing [of] the park, marking it with the One Way of Arguing is False Essay placa or logo, of the commu- nity.#x201D;20.

The second phase in 1974#x2013;1975 included invited artists from communities throughout California, most notably Los Angeles and Sacramento. An infusion of new ideas resulted from this period. These second phase murals include Chicano Park Logo (1974) / Rage of La Raza (1974) (see cover of this issue), Cosmic Clowns (1974), Tree of Life (1974), Allende (1974), Birth of La Raza (1974), Chuco/Homeboy (1974), Colossus (1974), Leyes (1975), Mandala (1975), Mujer Cosmica (1975), and Female Inteligencia (1975). The third mural phase, 1977#x2013;1981, celebrated a resurgence in com- munity pride by, for example, questioning the inordinate number of junkyards in the barrio and their visual and dr james banks audio impacts on the quality of is False, life. Marked by a twenty-day Mural Marathon organized by Victor Ochoa in 1978, this third phase utilized the Analysis Essay skills of of Arguing is False, some non-Chicanos and placed emphasis on educational and historical themes. Ron Buckley, of the San Diego Historical Site Board, described this phase of the park murals as #x201C;art forms that represent the is the main to old in the united past history and culture of the Mexican-American community of the Barrio. #x201D;21 Examples of the third phase murals include: Varrio Si, Yonkes No! (1977), Varrio Logan (1977), Founding of Mexico (1978), Coatlicue (1978), Virgin of. 18. Lee Grant, #x201C;Chicano Artists Go to One Way of Arguing Determinism is False the Walls,#x201D; San Diego Union, 13 May 1973. 19.

S. Torres, interview with authors, 29 February 1996. 20. Of Visual! Eva Sperling Cockcroft, #x201C;The Story of Chicano Park,#x201D; Aztlan 15 (Spring 1984), 79#x2013;103. 21. Buckley, #x201C;City of San Diego,#x201D; 1.

104 n THE PUBLIC HISTORIAN. Guadalupe (1978), Los Grandes y Frida (1978), Rocks to of Arguing Determinism Huelga (1978), Che (1978), Chicano Pinto Union (1978), Sue#xF1;o Serpiente (1978) , and titian artwork Aztec Archer (1981).22. Unlike the creation of the majority of the murals in the 1970s, the Essay few done in the 1980s and early 1990s were accomplished under a set criteria of need, ability, subject matter, and the availability of funding. Examples include Sunburst (1986), Ball Player (1987), UFW Grapes (1988), San Diego People, Thanks from Yokohama (1990), and Tribute to Roger Lucero (1993). By early 1984, a group of artists led by Salvador Torres and how cloud computing works Mario Torero and members of the Determinism is False Essay Chicano Park Arts Committee began the work of touching up the Essay on Codes murals. Due to the fact that mural life is about ten years, maintenance is important. In 1991, the California Department of Transpor- tation trained numerous artists in repair techniques.23. It was the vision of Determinism is False Essay, individual artists and others that initiated the Essay painting of murals on the huge, sterile columns that dominated the One Way is False park site (see. Tree of Life (mural, 1974/1992). Original artists: Felipe Adame, Guillermo Aranda, and works Arturo Roman.

Located on bridge Bent T46 in Chicano Park. (Photograph by One Way of Arguing is False Essay, Martin D. Rosen, November 1999) 22. Ferree, #x201C;Murals of Chicano Park,#x201D; 40. Leonel Sanchez, #x201C;Murals Reflect Barrio#x2019;s Step Into Activism,#x201D; San Diego Union-Tribune, 23 April 1995. S. Torres, interview with author, 29 February 1996. 23. Ann Jarmusch, #x201C;Restoration Begins on Chicano Park Murals,#x201D; San Diego Tribune, 29 August 1991. Salvador Torres and Gloria Torres, artists, interview with authors, San Diego, 29 February 1996. CHICANO PARK MURALS n 105. Appendix A). They envisioned #x201C;a seemingly endless canvas, stretching to the waters of the bay four blocks away,#x201D; an opportunity to found in the united transform and #x201C;personalize#x201D; the dreary concrete landscape.

The artists would crystallize David Siqueiros#x2019; description of Determinism is False, murals, that they must be #x201C;monumental. Mujer Cosmica (mural, 1975). Original artists: Esteban Villa and Ricardo Favela. Located on Bridge Bent S45 in Chicano Park. (Photograph by Martin D. Rosen, November 1999) 106 n THE PUBLIC HISTORIAN. and realistic,#x201D; and dr james banks the Chicano Park murals would be #x201C;bigger than life itself.#x201D;24. By the late 1970s, nearly every major Chicano muralist in California and the Southwest, by invitation and inclination, had participated in the making of Chicano Park murals. For example, Rupert Garcia, internationally known painter from Stockton and San Francisco, designed the tribute mural to Diego Rivera, Clemente Orozco, David Siqueiros, and One Way Essay Frida Kahlo. Analysis Text! The Royal Chicano Air Force from Sacramento, led by One Way of Arguing is False Essay, Jos#xE9; Montoya Esteban Villa and dr james banks Juanishi Orosco, placed its grand contributions on the park#x2019;s columns, as did muralist Charles #x201C;Cat#x201D; Felix, Jr., the driving force behind the acclaimed Estrada Courts murals in Boyle Heights, Los Angeles in 1973. The development of Determinism is False, Chicano Park and its murals remains an ongoing process (#x201C;a work in progress,#x201D; in the words of Salvador Torres).25 Moreover, the murals serve as a reminder to people in the community that they can change their environment.

Victor Ochoa emphasized that the #x201C;community needs the dr james banks murals to speak up on certain issues.#x201D;26 Larry Baza, executive director of Centro Cultural de La Raza in Balboa Park, suggested that #x201C;murals are illustrated sentiments#x201D; designed to overcome the One Way is False Essay limitations of. Sue#xF1;o Serpiente (mural, 1978/1989/1991). Original artists: Soccoro Gamboa, Felipe Adame, and Roger Lucero. Located on Bent R43 in Essay Dress, Chicano Park. Of Arguing Is False Essay! (Photograph by Martin D. Dr James Banks! Rosen, November 1999) 24. David Alfaro Siqueiros, #x201C;Art and Revolution#x201D; (London: Lawrence and One Way Determinism Essay Wishart, 1975), 18.

25. S. Torres, interview with authors, 29 February 1996. 26. Jarmusch, #x201C;Restoration Begins.#x201D; CHICANO PARK MURALS n 107. Tribute to Roger Lucero (mural, 1993). Original artist: Mario Torero. Located on Bridge Bent F42 in Chicano Park. Titian Artwork! (Photograph by Martin D. One Way Of Arguing Is False! Rosen, November 1999) physical conditions and Essay Codes non-literacy.27 Since 1973, the Determinism murals have become the icons they depict.

Their maintenance involves the city, the people of the of Visual Text barrio, and especially the artists, who are continuing their work on the pillars of the bridge. The authors have been intimately involved in the project since its inception in 1995. The senior author first visited Chicano Park that year, even though he had lived in San Diego since 1980. Of Arguing Determinism Is False Essay! All it took was one visit to the park to convince him that the murals were a significant resource worthy of nomination to to old growth united states the National Register of Historic Places. Of Arguing! His enthusiasm was equally shared by the junior author, who at the request of Caltrans District 11, undertook the Essay task of developing the of Arguing Determinism arguments necessary for Analysis of Visual Text Essay, the park and its murals to be found significant, even though they were less than fifty years old. Once the research was committed to paper and presented to the California State Historic Preservation Officer, no one ever asserted that the murals and the park were not eligible for the National Register.

Quite to the contrary, at every step in is False, the process, enthusiasm for the resources was unbounded. Titian Artwork! Caltrans engineers very early realized that the of Arguing is False traditional seismic retrofit approach, wrapping the col- umns in concrete, would not work for how cloud works, Chicano Park. The murals could not be harmed. One Way Essay! That was Caltrans#x2019; rallying cry, from titian artwork, all divisions, right up to the. 27. Larry Baza, Director, Centro Cultural de la Raza, interview with authors, San Diego, 16 February 1996. 108 n THE PUBLIC HISTORIAN. District 11 Director, Gary Gallegos, who stated that #x201C;the murals must be protected at all costs.#x201D; Caltrans went to One Way extraordinary efforts to see to is the growth forests found in the northwestern united it that the murals would be protected.

The project contract contained stipulations that the contractor had to hire art conservators to of Arguing Essay assist in titian artwork, the development of One Way Determinism Essay, mural protection guidelines. Caltrans then hired its own art conservator and photographer to dr james banks review the contractor#x2019;s plans and to photo-document the of Arguing Essay murals prior to construction. It has been almost two years since seismic retrofit work commenced, and there has not been a single instance of reported mural damage due to construction activities. Caltrans routinely deals with archaeological sites, historical bridges, and houses, but never before had it dealt with mural art. Essay Dress Codes! Every step in the process involved treading new ground and an unprecedented level of community participation. Caltrans, to be sure, was trying to make up for past sins, for those days when nothing stood in the way of building new freeways. Barrio Logan was just one of hundreds of communities nation- wide that felt the brunt of the Determinism Essay nation#x2019;s efforts to establish its interstate highway system. The Barrio Logan neighborhood, itself, does not provide a completely safe haven for the murals. Titian Artwork! Pigeon roosting has actually increased as a consequence of the One Way of Arguing retrofit project. Their guano is titian artwork, now causing damage to both murals and new hardscaping placed around bridge columns.

It must be dealt with. Valiant efforts on the part of many will be undone unless this problem is of Arguing Determinism is False, corrected. Graffiti has increased, even as the park has been enhanced. There seems to be a greater disconnection among the dr james banks barrio#x2019;s youth and these magnifi- cent murals. Of Arguing Is False Essay! Tagging threatens the murals, and protective measures must be implemented. New park lighting fixtures are broken, almost as soon as they are put up. The homeless, moved from neighboring downtown envi- ronments as a result of redevelopment have taken up residence in the park.

Garbage from on Codes, adjacent businesses encroaches as both Caltrans (responsible for the freeway rights-of-way) and the City of San Diego (responsible for One Way of Arguing Essay, the park grounds) struggle to Text maintain the park#x2019;s appearance and One Way Determinism is False Essay amenities. Many of the murals are now approaching 30 years of age, without having ever gone through any significant restoration in their lifetime. Many of of Visual Essay, them were not originally applied with longevity and their future historical impor- tance in mind. They desperately need work. To this end, Caltrans is of Arguing Determinism is False Essay, seeking federal, state, and city grant funding for their restoration. The Chicano Park Steering Committee is taking an Essay on Codes active role in helping to of Arguing Determinism Essay prioritize the murals most urgently in need of work. How Cloud Computing! Together, it is hoped that many of the problems that face the One Way of Arguing Essay park and its murals can be solved so that these valuable cultural resources survive into the future. Everyone involved in the seismic retrofit project has considered the logging main threat growth found in the northwestern united murals to be important works of One Way of Arguing Essay, art. On Dress Codes! The park has been viewed as an outdoor. CHICANO PARK MURALS n 109.

museum, and the bridge columns as the canvases upon which that art has been rendered. One Way Of Arguing Determinism! While standing in computing works, Chicano Park surrounded by these monumental works of One Way of Arguing Essay, art, one feels that one is looking at San Diego#x2019;s version of the Sistine Chapel. Despite the freeway noise above, being there is a deeply moving experience. Although the seismic project is almost com- pleted, much more work needs to be done to titian artwork ensure that these beautiful murals are protected and saved for future generations. Appendix A Murals in Chicano Park. Bent Original Title, Date of Completion/ No. Artist(s) Renovation(s)

T47 Mario Torero, Mano Lima, Colossus, 1974/1989 Laurie Manzano. T47 Manuel Parsons Logan Cross T47 Manuel Parsons Four Decades T47 (this mural is not located on bent T47, (painted whale) but immediately to the northeast of it) T46/L Gato Felix Los Ni#xF1;os del Mundo, 1975 T46 Grupo de Santana Birth of La Raza, 1974/1992 T46 Felipe Adame Rocks to Huelga, 1978/1992 T46 Felipe Adame Chuco/Homeboy, 1974/1992 T46 Felipe Adame, Guillermo Aranda, Tree of Life, 1974/1992. Arturo Roman T46 Community collaboration Indian Dancer T45 Arturo Singh Woman with Flag, 1975 T45 RCAF; poem by Joann Little I Am Somebody, 1975 T45 Jose Montoya Royal Chicano Leyes, 1975. Air Force (RCAF): Ricardo Favela, Esteban Villa, Juanishi Orosco, Louie #x201C;The Foot#x201D; Gonzalez. T45 Celia Rodriguez, Irma Lerma Female Inteligencia, 1975 Barbosa, Antonia Mendoza, Rosalina Balaciosos, Barbara Desmangles volunteers; music by of Arguing is False, Javier Pacheco. S47 Team from Los Angeles Allende, 1974 S46 Diego Sons Printers, Carlotta Chicano Park Logo, 1974. Hernandez Mario Torero Rage of La Raza, 1974. S46 CACA (Congreso de Artistos Cosmic Clowns, 1974/1992 Chicanos en Aztlan: Mario Torero, Pablo de la Rosa, Tomas Casta#xF1;eda, Felipe Barboza)

110 n THE PUBLIC HISTORIAN. S45 Juanishi Orosco Mandala, 1975 S45 Esteban Villa, Ricardo Favela Mujer Cosmica, 1975 S45 RCAF La Familia, 1975 S42/L Mi Raza Primera R45 Vidal Aguirre Aztec Archer, 1987 R45 Victor Ochoa team Varrio Logan, 1977 R44 Raul Espinoza, Michael Schnorr Huelga Eagle, 1978/1991 R44 Victor Ochoa Che, 1978 R44 Victor Ochoa students Mexican History, 1978/1991 R43 Soccoro Gamboa, Felipe Adame, Sueno Serpiente, 1978/1989/1991. Roger Lucero R43 Felipe Adame Aztec Warrior, 1978 R42/L/R Hasta La Bahia H46 Michael Schnorr, Victor Ochoa, Voz Libre, P.H. Titian Artwork! Gonzalez, 1984. Guillermo Rosete, Yasue Doudera, Carlos Esparza. H45 Michael Schnorr Undocumented Worker, 1980 G49 Vidal Aguirre, Alvaro Millan UFW Grapes, 1988 G48 Vidal Aguirre Ball Player, 1987 G47 Low Rider Council G46 Michael Schnorr, Susan Yamagata Death of the Farm Worker, 1979 G46 Raul Jose Jacquez, Alvaro Millan, Varrio S#xED;, Yonkes No!, 1977/1989. Victor Ochoa, Armando Rodriguez G45 Susan Yamagata, Michael Schnorr Coatlicue, 1978 G45 Mario Torero Virgen de Guadalupe, 1978 G44 Tony de Vargas Chicano Pinto Union, 1978 G44 Rupert Garcia, Victor Ochoa Los Grandes y Frida, 1978 G43 Felipe Adame La Adelita, 1978 G43 Tomas Casta#xF1;eda, Roger Lucero Chicano Park Takeover, 1978/1991 G29 Laura Rodriguez F44 Octavio Gonzalez O.G. Mural, 1978 F44 Yolanda Lopez Mujeres Chicanas/Escuelas, 1978. Muralistas de San Diego: Julietta A. Garcia-Torres, Cecilia De La Torre, Rosa De La Torre, Eva C. Craig. F43 Dolores Serrano-Velez Nacamiento del Parque Chicano F42 Mario Torero Tribute to of Arguing is False Essay Roger Lucero, 1993 F42 La Tierra Mia F41 Victor Ochoa Revoluc#xED;on Mexicana T Abut.

TEA, Guilberto #x201C;Magu#x201D; Lujan Historical Mural, 1973/1988. M.E.Ch.A. group from U.C. Irvine T Abut. Victor Ochoa Lowell Elementary Children#x2019;s Mural, 1973/1986. School children T Abut. Tony De Vargas Chicano Park Takeover, 1986.

Bent Original Title, Date of Completion/ No. Artist(s) Renovation(s) CHICANO PARK MURALS n 111. Bent Original Title, Date of Completion/ No. Artist(s) Renovation(s) S Abut. Toltecas En Aztlan (TEA) CACA: Quetzalc#xF3;atl, 1973/1987 Guillermo Aranda, Arturo Roman, Salvador Barrajas, Sammy Llamas, Bebe Llamas, Ernesto Paul, Guillermo Rosete, Victor Ochoa, Jose Cervantes, Mario Torero, Salvador Torres. S Abut.

Tomas Casta#xF1;eda, Salvador Torres Corazon de Aztlan, 1975/1988-89 S Abut. Salvador Torres, Gloria Torres, San Diego People, Thanks from. Ruben Seva, Roberto Salas Yokohama, 1990 S Abut. Dr James Banks! Tony De Vargas Sunburst, 1986 F Abut. (bird and sun) Kiosko Tony De Vargas, Vidal Aguirre, Founding of Mexico, 1978.

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Picturing the Personal Essay: A Visual Guide. A design professor from Denmark once drew for me a picture of the creative process, which had been the subject of One Way Essay, his doctoral dissertation. “Here,” he said. “This is on Codes, what it looks like”: Aha, I thought, as we discussed parallels in the writing process. Although I may start an essay with a notion of where I am headed, inevitably I veer away as I get new ideas or encounter dead ends. Sometimes I even seem to go backward, losing all direction. Nothing is wasted though, said the design professor, because every bend in the process is of Arguing is False, helping you to arrive at your necessary structure. By trying a different angle or creating a composite of dr james banks, past approaches, you get closer and closer to what you intend. You begin to delineate the Determinism Essay, organic form that will match your content. The remarkable thing about personal essays, which openly mimic this exploratory process, is that they can be so quirky in their “shape.” No diagram matches the exact form that evolves, and that is titian artwork, because the best essayists resist predictable approaches.

They refuse to limit themselves to generic forms, which, like mannequins, can be tricked out in personal clothing. Determinism Essay! Nevertheless, recognizing a few basic underlying structures may help an how cloud works, essay writer invent a more personal, more unique form. Here, then, are several main options. Narrative is the natural starting place since narrative is is False, a natural structure for Essay on Dress telling others about personal events. We instinctively turn to chronology as a way to recreate the past, putting our lives into a neat moment-by-moment order. One Way Of Arguing! Beware, though. The march of time can be methodical—first this, then this, then this. If unrelieved, it becomes the titian artwork, ticking clock in the jail or, worse, the flat line of death. Savvy essayists, as a result, twist their chronology, beginning at the end or breaking to a moment in the past, even weaving together several timelines. More crucial, though, is their use of tension, which changes the One Way of Arguing is False Essay, flat line of dr james banks, chronology into a rising line—a plot.

Such tension forces the reader into a climb, muscles contracting. It raises anticipation. Will we reach the top? And what will we see from Determinism Essay, there? Take, for example, Jo Ann Beard’s essay “The Fourth State of Analysis of Visual Text Essay, Matter.” The narrator, abandoned by her husband, is caring for a dying dog and Essay, going to work at a university office to which an Codes, angry graduate student has brought a gun. The sequence of scenes matches roughly the unfolding of of Arguing Essay, real events, but there is is the main forests found in the northwestern united states, suspense to pull us along, represented by questions we want answered. In fact, within Beard’s narrative, two sets of questions, correlating to parallel subplots, create a kind of double tension. When the Essay, setting is Beard’s house, we wonder, “Will she find a way to let go of the Text, dying dog, not to mention her failing marriage?” And when she’s at work, we find ourselves asking, “What about the of Arguing Determinism is False, guy with the Tai, gun? How will he impact her one ‘safe place’?” Narrative essays keep us engaged because we want answers to such questions.

The tension begs for resolution. We keep on reading unless the writer stops stair-stepping upward toward the critical moment when change becomes necessary. If she flatlines on an emotional plateau, not raising the tension, then we are likely to lose interest and walk away. “Readers do not want to put their foot on the same step twice” is the way veteran essayist Bill Kittredge put it while swapping ideas at a writing conference. He had learned this principle from is False Essay, screenwriters in Hollywood and insisted, “Think what you want, those guys know how plots work.” One interesting side note: trauma, which is a common source for personal essays, can easily cause an author to get stuck on the sort of plateau Kittredge described. Jo Ann Beard, while clearly wrestling with the immobilizing impact of dr james banks, her own trauma, found a way to keep the reader moving both forward and upward, until the One Way of Arguing Determinism is False, rising tension reached its inevitable climax: the graduate student firing his gun. I have seen less-experienced writers who, by dr james banks contrast, seem almost to jog in place emotionally, clutching at a kind of post-traumatic scar tissue. Let’s set aside narrative, though, since it is not the only mode for Determinism is False Essay a personal essay. In fact, most essays are more topical or reflective, which means they don’t move through time in a linear fashion as short stories do.

Phillip Lopate describes how reflective essayists tend to circle a subject, “wheeling and diving like a hawk.” Unlike academic scholars, they don’t begin with a thesis and aim, arrow-like, at a pre-determined bull’s-eye. Instead, they meander around their subject until arriving, often to the side of what was expected. One of the benefits of such a circling approach is how cloud computing, that it seems more organic, just like the mind’s creative process. It also allows for a wider variety of of Arguing is False, perspectives—illuminating the subject from multiple angles. A classic example would be “Under the Influence,” Scott Russell Sanders’s essay about his alcoholic father. Instead of luring us up the chronological slope of plot, Sanders spirals around his father’s drinking, leading us to a wide range of realizations about alcoholism: how it gets portrayed in films, how it compares to demon-possession in the Bible, how it results in works, violence in is False, other families, how it raises the author’s need for control, and even how it influences the next generation through his workaholic over-compensation. We don’t read an essay like this out of plot-driven suspense so much as for the pleasure of being surprised, again and again, by new perspective and Essay about Tai, new insight. The formal limits of focus. My own theory is that most personal essayists, because of a natural ability to is False Essay extrapolate, do not struggle to find subjects to write about. Dr James Banks! Writer’s block is not their problem since their minds overflow with remembered experiences and related ideas.

While a fiction writer may need to invent from scratch, adding and adding, the essayist usually needs to do the opposite, deleting and is False Essay, deleting. As a result, nonfiction creativity is Essay Codes, best demonstrated by what has been left out. Determinism Essay! The essay is Analysis Text Essay, a figure locked in a too-large-lump of personal experience, and One Way of Arguing Determinism Essay, the good essayist chisels away all unnecessary material. One helpful way to understand this principle of deletion is to think of the essayist looking through a viewfinder to limit the reader’s focus. Analysis! The act of framing a selected portion of raw experience from the of Arguing is False, chronological mess we call “life” fundamentally limits the reader’s attention to a manageable time and place, excluding all events that are not integrally related. What appears in the written “picture,” like any good painting, has wholeness because the essayist was disciplined enough to remove everything else. Virginia Woolf’s “Street Haunting” is an odd but useful model. She limits that essay to a single evening walk in London, ostensibly taken to buy a pencil. I suspect Woolf gave herself permission to combine incidents from several walks in London, but no matter. The essay feels “brought together” by the imposed limits of time and place.

As it happens, “Street Haunting” is also an interesting prototype for a kind of essay quite popular today: the segmented essay. Essay Tai! Although the work is unified by the frame of a single evening stroll, it can also be seen as a combination of Essay, many individual framed moments. If we remove the purpose of the journey—to find a pencil—the essay falls neatly into a set of discrete scenes with related reveries: a daydreaming lady witnessed through a window, a dwarfish woman trying on shoes, an imagined gathering of royalty on the other side of dr james banks, a palace wall, and eventually the arguing of a married couple in the shop where Woolf finally gets her pencil. Today, many essayists are comfortable simply letting go of the overarching story line (such as Woolf’s journey to buy a pencil) so they can organize disparate scenes in a more segmented fashion, separated by bits of is False, white space. All that remains to unify the logging is the forests found in the northwestern states, parts is an almost imperceptible thread of theme, not narrative. Will Baker, for instance, relies on nothing but a title—“My Children Explain the Big Issues”—and four section headings: “Feminism,” “Fate,” “Existentialism,” and “East and West.” Each of his framed vignettes is about a remembered moment with one of One Way Determinism is False Essay, his kids.

These moments have a broad similarity as a result; however, without their attached labels, we would not be able to titian artwork connect the parts in a fully satisfying manner. The titles allow us to string together a kind of One Way Determinism Essay, thematic necklace. Our attention to thematic unity brings up one more important dynamic in most personal essays. Not only how cloud computing do we have a horizontal movement through time, but there is One Way is False, also a vertical descent into meaning. As a result, essayists will often pause the forward motion to dip into titian artwork a thematic well. Sometimes these vertical descents seem quite expository, which is not necessarily bad.

Contrary to the high school teacher’s oft-repeated maxim—“Show, don’t tell!”—the essayist is free both to show and One Way Determinism Essay, tell. In fact, I once heard the Essay about, nonfiction writer Adam Hochschild scold a group of MFA students for being so subtle in their writing that they left out critical signposts that readers needed. “Don’t be so afraid to say what you mean,” he counseled. Wendell Berry’s essay “An Entrance to the Woods” demonstrates the potential for such expository descents. In the middle of a quiet description of an overnight camping trip, Berry notices the One Way of Arguing Determinism, distant roar of cars on a highway, and the “out-of-place” sound leads him on a long tangent. He describes how the “great ocean of silence” has been replaced by an ocean of engine noise, in which silence occurs only sporadically and at wide intervals. He imagines the “machine of human history—a huge flywheel building speed until finally the force of its whirling will break it in pieces, and the world with it.” And the reader realizes that what appeared to be an odd tangent is actually an essential descent into the well of meaning. The essay is not about camping at all, but about the fragile nature of nature. In fact, Berry uses several of these loops of reflective commentary, and though they seem to be digressions, temporarily pulling the reader away from the on Codes, forward flow of the plot, they develop an essential second layer to the essay.

Braided and layered structures. So far we have looked at narrative, reflective, and segmented essays, but we have not exhausted our structural possibilities. Far from it. Determinism Essay! Many essays, for dr james banks instance, are braided, weaving together two or more strands of of Arguing Determinism Essay, story line in an interactive fashion. Judith Ortiz Cofer, in her personal meditation “Silent Dancing,” creates a particularly revelatory braid from two strands: a home movie juxtaposed against her own memories of titian artwork, childhood as a Puerto Rican in is False Essay, New Jersey. To help the is the main growth forests found in the northwestern united states, reader with transitions, she brackets the home movie with white space, putting the text into italics. We look at the italicized home movie for a while, then her memories, then the movie, and so on, letting one strand surface while the other is momentarily submerged.

Today, an even more fashionable form is the “lyric essay,” which is Essay, not easily categorized since it may depend on braiding or segmenting to accomplish its overall effect. However, like the lyric poem, the lyric essay is devoted more to image than idea, more to mood than concept. It is there to be experienced, not simply thought about. And like many poems, it accomplishes this effect by layering images without regard to narrative order. A lyric essay is a series of on, waves on the shore, cresting one after the other. One Way Of Arguing Determinism Essay! It is one impression after another, unified by tone. How Cloud Works! And it seems to One Way move in its own peculiar direction, neither vertical nor horizontal. More slant. Want an example? Look at titian artwork Judith Kitchen’s three-page essay “Culloden,” which manages to leap back and One Way of Arguing Essay, forth quite rapidly, from a rain-pelted moor in 18th-century Scotland to 19th-century farms in America to logging to old growth found in the northwestern united states the blasted ruins of Hiroshima on August 6, 1945, the author’s birthday. The sentences themselves suggest the impressionistic effect that Kitchen is after, being compressed to fragments, rid of the excess verbiage we expect in formal discourse: “Late afternoon.

The sky hunkers down, presses, like a lover, against the land. Small sounds. A far sheep, faint barking. . . .” And as the images accumulate, layer upon layer, we begin to is False feel the author’s fundamental mood, a painful awareness of her own inescapable mortality. We begin to encounter the piece on a visceral level that is more intuitive than rational. Like a poem, in prose. Regardless of form, all essays must end, which raises a final worthwhile question: how to on bring closure? First of all, endings are related to beginnings. That’s why many essays seem to circle back to where they began.

Annie Dillard, in Essay, her widely anthologized piece “Living Like Weasels,” opens with a dried-out weasel skull that is attached, like a pendant, to the throat of logging is the forests united states, a living eagle—macabre proof that the One Way of Arguing is False, weasel was carried aloft to on die and be torn apart. Then, at the end of the essay, Dillard alludes to the skull again, stating, “I think it would be well, and proper, and obedient, and of Arguing Determinism Essay, pure, to grasp your one necessity and not let it go, to dangle from it limp wherever it takes you.” Of course, the effect of titian artwork, returning to her initial image, transforming it into a symbol, is a sense of completion. For Dillard’s weasel-skull conclusion to of Arguing Determinism Essay feel truly satisfying, however, it must mimic life, which is never completely complete. In real life, there is always an “and then,” even if it comes after we have died. So the best conclusions open up a bit at the end, suggesting the presence of the future. See how deftly Dillard accomplishes this effect simply by positing one last imagined or theoretical possibility—a way of life she hopes to master, that we ourselves might master: “Seize it and titian artwork, let it seize you up aloft even, till your eyes burn out and drop; let your musky flesh fall off in Essay, shreds, and let your very bones unhinge and Analysis Essay, scatter, loosened over fields, over fields and woods, lightly, thoughtless, from any height at all, from One Way of Arguing Determinism is False, as high as eagles.” Yes, the essay has come full circle, echoing the opening image of the weasel’s skull, but it also points away, beyond itself, to dr james banks something yet to be realized. The ending both closes and opens at the same time.

All diagrams rendered by Claire Bascom. An earlier version of this essay appeared in Volume I, issue 1 of The Essay Review. Don't miss a word of the best true stories, well told. Tim Bascom’s memoir Running to the Fire (University of Iowa Press, 2015) is about his missionary family leaving the One Way of Arguing Determinism Essay, town of Troy. read more. Our neuro tangles were in great synchrony. While struggling to rewrite two complicated essays, I just had to STOP and scribble. The scribbles became a map of my attempts to organize my pieces, and as a visual artist as well, I embellished with some stamps and tears and posted it on Facebook looking for sympathy. One thing led to another and about Tai, Dinty Moore got a hold of it and asked me to guest blog on of Arguing Determinism is False Essay Brevity.

I think you will like this! Mapping the Lyrical Essay 12/23/13 on Thank you Tim for such an insightful article. I found myself thinking about my approach to essay, the many forms of structure it can take and how I can use the knowledge you've provided in a memoir I'm working on. This essay did exactly what great writing should do, entertain and educate, making the reader more aware and thoughtful in her own writing. I am working on a series of titian artwork, stories/essays/artwork that moves forward in leaps and backwards in absentmindedness. It twists and entangles itself and One Way of Arguing Essay, then suddenly moves upwards on a different plane. I absolutely love this article for enlightening me on the process. I would like to read this with the essays linked to dr james banks it! This essay is fabulously useful! I'll be showing it to One Way Determinism my creative writing students semester after semester, I'm sure.

I appreciate the piece's clarity and logging to old found, use of perfect examples. “Is the theme for this issue ‘woe’ or ‘death’? It is damn dark. But the Determinism is False Essay, pieces are all very good, and I think. read more. The plan was to is the main threat to old growth found united states break open the of Arguing, tiny tabernacle, split the relic, swallow it and see what transpired. To carry out this borderline. read more. I have been online, in one way or another, since the early 1990s.

In the early days, I was on a desktop computer, a Macintosh LC II, with a. read more. If you think about it, almost all good stories in how cloud, any genre are survival stories of one sort or another. Or, to put it another way, there. read more.

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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and One Way is False Tips. Just as with most essays, the major secret to Analysis Text Essay excelling on the SAT essay is to pre-plan the examples and evidence you want to use. One Way Determinism Is False. But wait! I hear you cry. Can you do that on the new SAT essay? Isn’t the point of the essay that you’re supposed to be using information from the dr james banks, passage in your answer, which you don’t know about ahead of time? The answer: Yes and no. While the specifics of each example will obviously change, depending on One Way of Arguing Determinism Essay the passage, the how cloud works, types of examples you choose to discuss (and the One Way of Arguing is False Essay, way you explain each example builds the how cloud computing, author’s argument) can be defined, and thus prepared for, ahead of time.

In this article, we give you 6 good SAT essay examples you’ll be able to find in nearly every prompt the SAT throws at you. By assembling a collection of Essay these reliable examples that can answer most prompts, you'll cut down on planning time and significantly increase the amount you can write, making you able to walk into every SAT essay confident in your abilities. If you haven’t already read our introduction to the SAT essay prompt, read it now. This will give you a good idea of what the of Visual, SAT essay assignment looks like. Determinism Essay. Then come back to this article. The SAT essay prompts have several important things in common: They’re all passages that try to convince the reader of the veracity of the author’s claim They’re all around the same length (650-750 words) They’re all meant to be analyzed and written about in a relatively short period of time (50 minutes) This means that you can have a pretty good idea ahead of Analysis time of One Way of Arguing Determinism what types of argument-building techniques you might see when you open the booklet on test day.

The main techniques the author uses aren't going to Essay on Dress Codes be overly complex (like the first letter of every word spelling out a secret code), because you just don’t have the is False, time to dr james banks analyze and write about complex techniques. And because of that, you can prepare yourself with SAT essay examples that’ll be likely to found across persuasive passages about many different issues —we've provided some ideas below. One Way Of Arguing Essay. We've chosen two examples of evidence, two examples of reasoning, and two examples of stylistic/persuasive elements you can use as stellar evidence to support your thesis . Play to the features of the passage – if there are a lot of facts/statistics, make sure to discuss that; if it dwells more on personal anecdotes/appeals to logging is the main growth in the northwestern united emotion, discuss those. For each example below, we also show you how you can use the Determinism is False, type of evidence to support your thesis across a range of prompts. This should prove to you how effective pre-planned examples are. So, without further ado, onto is the main to old in the northwestern states our list of One Way of Arguing is False Essay multipurpose support for any SAT Essay prompt. The most basic way author builds an argument is by supporting claims with evidence . There are many different kinds of titian artwork evidence author might use to support her/his point, but I'm just going to discuss the two big ones I've seen in the various official SAT Essay prompts that have been released.

These two types of evidence are Facts and Statistics and Anecdotes . Example Type #1: Facts and Statistics. Determinism. Employing statistics and facts to bolster one's argument is one of the most unassailable methods authors can use to build an argument. This argument-building technique is particularly common in essays written about scientific or social studies-related topics, where specific data and Analysis of Visual facts are readily available. Statistics usually show up in One Way of Arguing Determinism is False Essay the form of specific numbers related to the topic at hand - maybe as percents, or maybe as a way to communicate other data. Here're a couple of examples of statistics from an logging is the main to old forests found in the, official SAT essay prompt, Let There Be Dark by Paul Bogard: Example : 8 of 10 children born in Determinism the United States will never know a sky dark enough for the Milky Way. Logging Main Growth In The States. Example : In the United States and Western Europe, the amount of light in the sky increases an average of about 6% every year. Factual evidence can also be in the form of non-numerical information. Often, you'll see facts presented with references to the research study, survey, expert, or other source from which they're drawn.

Here's another example from Let There Be Dark: Example : Already the World Health Organization classifies working the night shift as a probable human carcinogen. Another form of evidence that is often used as an alternative to actual facts or statistics is the anecdote. This type of evidence is One Way of Arguing Essay most often found in speeches or other sorts of Codes essay prompts that are written as a personal address to the reader. An anecdote is a short story about One Way is False Essay, a real person or event . Computing Works. When an author discusses own personal experience or personal experience of someone they know or have heard of, that's anecdotal evidence. Here's an example of (part of) an anecdote from an official SAT essay prompt that was adapted from of Arguing Essay a foreword by former U.S. President Jimmy Carter: One of the logging main to old growth forests northwestern states, most unforgettable and humbling experiences of our lives occurred on the coastal plain. We had hoped to see caribou during our trip, but to our amazement, we witnessed the migration of tens of thousands of caribou with their newborn calves.

In a matter of a few minutes, the sweep of tundra before us became flooded with life, with the One Way Essay, sounds of grunting animals and clicking hooves filling the air. The dramatic procession of the Porcupine caribou herd was a once-in-a-lifetime wildlife spectacle. We understand firsthand why some have described this special birthplace as “America’s Serengeti.” Even though anecdotes aren't statistics or facts, they can be powerful because it’s more relatable/interesting to Dress Codes the reader to read an One Way of Arguing is False, anecdote than to be presented with dry, boring facts. People tend to put more faith in logging is the threat to old growth forests found in the northwestern experiences if they can personally connect with the experiences (even though that doesn't actually affect how likely or not a statement is to be true). In the example above, rather than discussing the statistics that support the creation of wildlife refuges, Jimmy Carter instead uses an anecdote about experiencing the wonder of nature to illustrate the same point - probably more effectively. By inviting the reader to experience vicariously the majesty of witnessing the migration of the Porcupine caribou, Carter activates the reader's empathy towards wildlife preservation and so makes it more likely that the Essay, reader will agree with him that wildlife refuges are important. All authors use reasoning to some extent, but it’s not always a major part of how the author builds her/his argument. Titian Artwork. It's not always enough just to throw out support for a claim – an author may choose to use reasoning to explain how the evidence presented actually builds the argument. Example Type #3: Counterarguments and Counterclaims.

One way in which an author might use reasoning to persuade the of Arguing is False, reader to accept the claim being put forward is to discuss a counterargument, or counterclaim, to the author's main point. The discussion (and subsequent neutralization) of counterarguments is found in prompts across all subject areas. A counterargument or counterclaim is simply another point of view that contradicts (either fully or partially) the author's own argument. When some might claim, however, or other contrast words and phrases show up in an essay prompt, the author is likely presenting a counterclaim. How Cloud. Here's an example of an effective presentation (and negation) of a counter claim from an official SAT essay prompt, The Digital Parent Trap by Eliana Dockterman: “You could say some computer games develop creativity,” says Lucy Wurtz, an administrator at the Waldorf School in Los Altos, Calif., minutes from Silicon Valley. “But I don’t see any benefit. Waldorf kids knit and Determinism build things and paint—a lot of dr james banks really practical and creative endeavors.” But it’s not that simple. While there are dangers inherent in One Way of Arguing Essay access to Facebook, new research suggests that social-networking sites also offer unprecedented learning opportunities. So how does bringing up an opposing point of view help an author build her argument? It may seem counterintuitive that discussing a counterargument actually strengthens the main argument. However, as you can see in the brief example above, giving some space to another point of view serves to Essay about Tai make it seem as if the discussion’s going to be more “fair.” This is One Way still true whether the author delves into the counterargument or if the author only briefly mentions an opposing point of view before moving on. But a true discussion of the counterargument , as is present in Dockterman's article, also shows a deeper understanding of the topic than if the article only presented a one-sided argument . And because it demonstrates that the computing, author knows the topic well enough to be able to of Arguing is False see the issue from multiple sides, it means that the reader is more likely to trust that the author's claims are well-thought out and worth believing.

In the case of the Dress Codes, Dockterman article, the author not only mentions the opposite point of view but also takes the time to get a quote from someone who supports the opposing viewpoint. This even-handedness makes her following claim that it's not that simple more believable, since she doesn't appear to be presenting a one-sided argument. Example Type #4: Explanation of Evidence. In some cases, the clarity with which the author links her evidence and Determinism is False her claims is Text Essay integral to the author's argument. As the College Board Official SAT Study Guide says, Reasoning is the connective tissue that holds an argument together.

It’s the “thinking” — the logic, the analysis — that develops the argument and ties the claim and evidence together. This is one of the trickier argument-building techniques to discuss (at least in my opinion), because while it is present in many essay prompts, it isn't always a major persuasive feature. You can pretty easily identify an author's explanation of evidence if the author connects claims to support and One Way Essay explains it , rather than just throwing out evidence without much ceremony or linking to the claim; however, whether or not the explanation of the evidence is a major contributing factor to the author's argument is computing somewhat subjective. Here's a pretty clear instance of a case where an author uses explanations of each piece of evidence she discusses to logically advance her argument (again from the Dockterman passage): And at MIT’s Education Arcade, playing the empire-building game Civilization piqued students’ interest in history and was directly linked to an improvement in the quality of their history-class reports. Unfortunately, the explanation the Official SAT Study Guide gives for how to discuss an author's reasoning is a little vague: You may decide to discuss how the author uses (or fails to use) clear, logical reasoning to is False draw a connection between a claim and the evidence supporting that claim.

But how exactly you should go about doing this? And wh y is Essay about Tai Chi Chuan it persuasive to clearly explain the link between evidence and is False claim? In general, when an author explains the logic behind her argument or point, the reader can follow along and understand the author’s argument better (which in some cases makes it more likely the of Visual Text Essay, reader will agree with the author). In the Dockterman example above, the author clearly lays out data ( Civilization leads to of Arguing Determinism is False Essay improvements in dr james banks history class), a claim (this is because of engagement with the Determinism, game and thus the subject material), provides data that back up that claim (retention rate skyrockets when students do things for themselves), and links that smaller claim to a larger concept (actively browsing pages on a computer or tablet is on Dress Codes way more brain-stimulating than vegging out in One Way Determinism front of the TV). This clear pattern of data-explanation-more data-more explanation enables the reader to follow along with Dockterman's points. It's more persuasive because, rather than just being told Civilization leads to improvements in history and having to take it on faith, the reader is forced to reenact the thinking processes that led to how cloud computing works the argument, engaging with the One Way of Arguing is False, topic on a deeper level. Examples of Stylistic/Persuasive Elements. This final category of examples is the top layer of argument building. The foundation of a good argument is evidence, which is often explained and elucidated by reasoning, but it is computing works often the addition of stylistic or persuasive elements like an ironic tone or a rhetorical flourish that seals the deal.

Vivid language is truly the One Way of Arguing is False Essay, icing on the persuasive cake. As with explanations of evidence, vivid language can be found across all topics of essay prompts (although they usually play a larger role when the passage is light on facts or logic). Vivid language is Chi Chuan pretty easy to spot - it shows itself in similes, metaphors, adjectives, or any words that jump out at One Way of Arguing Essay, you that don’t seem to have purely functional purposes . Here are a couple of examples - the dr james banks, first is Paul Bogard again: …show that what was a very dark country as recently as the 1950s is is False Essay now nearly covered with a blanket of light. This example is relatively restrained, using the metaphor of a blanket of light to add emphasis to Bogard's discussion of light pollution. Computing Works. A more striking example can be found in another official SAT essay prompt, adapted from Martin Luther King, Jr.'s speech Beyond Vietnam - A Time To Break Silence: Vietnam continued to draw men and skills and money like some demonic destructive suction tube. Vivid language is an effective argument building device because it puts the reader in of Arguing is False the author’s shoes and draws them into the passage . If used in moderation, vivid language will also make the topic more interesting for the reader to read, thus engaging them further. In the about Chi Chuan, excerpt taken from Martin Luther King Jr.'s speech above, the phrase demonic destructive suction tube is startling and provocative, meant to rouse the audience's indignation at One Way of Arguing Determinism is False, the injustice and waste of the Vietnam war. If King had left out the second part of the sentence and only said, Vietnam continued to draw men and skills and money, his point would not have had as big of an impact. Example Type #6: Direct Addresses and Appeals to the Reader. The last category I'll be discussing in this article are direct addresses and appeals to the reader. These stylistic elements are found across all sorts of different passage topics, although as with the previous category, these elements usually play a larger role when the passage is light on facts or logic.

Direct addresses and appeals to the reader are wordings or other stylistic devices specifically designed to provoke a response (often emotional) in how cloud computing works the reader . This category covers many different elements, from One Way Determinism is False appeals to emotion to rhetorical questions. Essay Chi Chuan. Here's an example of an appeal to emotion, taken again from Martin Luther King, Jr.'s speech: Perhaps a more tragic recognition of reality took place when it became clear to me that the war was doing far more than devastating the hopes of the One Way Determinism, poor at Essay Tai Chi Chuan, home. It was sending their sons and their brothers and their husbands to fight and to die in extraordinarily high proportions relative to the rest of the population. Of Arguing Is False. And here's an dr james banks, example of a rhetorical question (from the One Way of Arguing, Paul Bogard article): Who knows what this vision of the is the main to old growth forests found in the united, night sky might inspire in each of us, in our children or grandchildren? Appealing to is False the emotions , as Martin Luther King, Jr. does in his speech, is an alternate route to persuasion, as it causes readers to emotionally (rather than logically) agree with the author . By describing how the war was causing their sons and their brothers and their husbands to fight and die, King reminds the dr james banks, reader of the terrible costs of war, playing upon their emotions to One Way Determinism is False Essay get them to agree that the titian artwork, Vietnam War is a mistake, particularly for the poor. One Way Determinism Is False. Rhetorical questions , on the other hand, get the readers to step into the author's world. By reading and thinking about the threat growth forests found united states, author's question, the Essay, reader engages with the topic on a deeper level than if the reader were just given a statement of what the author thinks . In the case of the Bogard example above, the rhetorical question draws the reader into thinking about his/her descendants, a group of people for whom the reader (presumably) only wishes the best, which then puts the reader into a positive mood (assuming the reader likes his/her descendants).

As you can see, these examples of different argumentative techniques can be extracted from Essay on Dress Codes a lot of different article types for a wide range of topics . This is of Arguing Determinism is False Essay because the examples themselves are so meaningful and complex that they can be used to discuss a lot of issues. The main point is, you don't have to wait until you see the dr james banks, prompt to develop an One Way of Arguing Essay, arsenal of Essay on Dress types of argument-building techniques you can use to support your points. Instead, preparing beforehand how you’ll discuss these techniques will save you a lot of time and of Arguing is False anxiety when the Dress Codes, test rolls around . If you're reading this article, you probably want to excel on the SAT essay. We've written a bunch of detailed guides to make sure you do. Took the old SAT and not sure how the new essay compares to the old? Start with our article about what’s changed with the new SAT essay, then investigate the SAT essay rubric for further edification. Want to score a perfect SAT score? Check out One Way Determinism Essay, our guide on computing how to score a perfect SAT score, written by our resident perfect scorer. How happy would you be with adding an One Way Determinism, extra 160 SAT points to your score ? If it's a lot, check out logging is the main threat to old forests in the united states, our guide to how you should study to improve your SAT score by 160 points: Have friends who also need help with test prep? Share this article!

Laura graduated magna cum laude from Wellesley College with a BA in Music and Psychology, and earned a Master's degree in Composition from the Determinism, Longy School of Music of Bard College. She scored 99 percentile scores on the SAT and GRE and is the main threat to old growth forests found in the loves advising students on how to excel in high school. You should definitely follow us on social media. You'll get updates on our latest articles right on your feed. Follow us on all 3 of our social networks: Have any questions about this article or other topics? Ask below and we'll reply! Series: How to Get 800 on Each SAT Section: Series: How to of Arguing is False Get to 600 on Each SAT Section: Series: How to Get 36 on Each ACT Section: Our hand-selected experts help you in a variety of other topics! Looking for Graduate School Test Prep? Check out our top-rated graduate blogs here:

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Essay on Religion: Meaning, Nature , Role and other details (5931 Words) Here is your essay on religion, it’s meaning, nature, role and other details! Religion is an almost universal institution in human society. Of Arguing Is False Essay! It is is the main growth found in the northwestern states found in all societies, past and present. All the preliterate societies known to us have religion. Religion goes back to the beginning of the culture itself. It is a very ancient institution. Determinism! There is no primitive society without religion.

Image Courtesy : Like other social institutions, religion also arose from the intellectual power of man in response to certain felt needs of men. While most people consider religion as universal and therefore, a significant institution of societies. It is the foundation on which the normative structure of society stands. It is the social institution that deals with sacred things, that lie beyond our knowledge and control. It has influenced other institutions. It has been exerting tremendous influence upon political and economic aspects of life. It is said that man from the earliest times has been incurably religious. Judaism, Christianity, Islam (Semitic religions), Hinduism and Buddhism; Confucianism, Taoism and Shinto (Chinese-Japanese religions) etc. Dr James Banks! are examples of the great religions of the world.

Religion is One Way of Arguing Determinism is False concerned with the shared beliefs and practices of human beings. It is the human response to those elements in the life and environment of mankind which are beyond their ordinary comprehension. Religion is pre-eminently social and is found in nearly all societies. Majumdar and Essay Chi Chuan, Madan explain that the of Arguing Determinism is False, word religion has its origin in the Latin word Rel (I) igio. This is derived from two root words. The first root is Leg, meaning “together, count or observe”.

The second root is Lig, meaning ‘to bind’. The first root refers to belief in and practice of “signs of Divine Communication”. Essay Codes! The second root refers to the carrying out those activities which link human beings with the of Arguing, supernatural powers. Thus, we find that the word religion basically represents beliefs and practices which are generally the main characteristics of all religions. Central to how cloud works, all religions is the concept of faith. One Way Determinism Is False Essay! Religion in this sense is the organisation of faith which binds human beings to their temporal and titian artwork, transcendental foundation. By faith man is distinguished from other beings. It is essentially a subjective and private matter. Faith is something which binds us together and is therefore, more important than reason.

Pfleiderer defined religion as “that reference men’s life to a word governing power which seeks to grow into a living union with it.” According to James G. Frazer considered religion as a belief in of Arguing, “Powers superior to man which are believed to direct and control the course of nature and of human life”. As Christopher Dauson writes, “Whenever and wherever man has a sense of dependence on external powers which are conceived as mysterious and higher than man’s own, there is religion, and the feelings of awe and self-abasement with which man is filled in the presence of such powers is essentially a religious emotion, the root of worship and prayer.” Arnold W. Green defines religion as “a system of beliefs and titian artwork, symbolic practices and objects, governed by faith rather than by knowledge, which relates man to an unseen supernatural realm beyond the known and beyond the controllable.” According to One Way Essay, Maclver and Page, “Religion, as we understand the term, implies a relationship not merely between man and man but also between man and some higher power.” As Gillin and titian artwork, Gillin says, “The social field of religion may be regarded as including those emotionalized beliefs prevalent in a social group concurring the supernatural plus crest and behaviour, material objects and symbols associated with such beliefs.” Thus, there are numerous definitions of religion given thinkers according to their own conceptions. As a matter of fact the One Way Determinism is False Essay, forms in which religion expresses itself vary so much that it is difficult to agree upon a definition.

Some maintain that religion includes a belief in supernatural or mysterious powers and that it expresses itself in overt activities designed to deal with those powers. Others regard religion as something very earthly and materialistic, designed to achieve practical ends. Sumner and Keller asserted that, “Religion in history, from the earliest to very recent days, has not been a matter of morality at all but of rites, rituals, observance and ceremony”. Religion, in fact, is not a mere process of titian artwork, mediations about man’s life; it is also a means of preserving the values of life. While it is possible to of Arguing Determinism is False Essay, define religion as belief in God or some super-natural powers, it is well to remember that there can also be a Godless religion as Buddhism. In sociology, the word religion is used in a wider sense than that used in religious books. A common characteristic found among all religions is that they represent a complex of emotional feelings and attitudes towards mysterious and perplexities of life.

According to Radin it consists of two parts: (a) Physiological and (b) psychological. The physiological part expresses itself in such acts as kneeling, closing the eyes, touching the feet. The psychological part consists of computing, supernormal sensitivity to One Way is False, certain traditions and beliefs. While belief in supernatural powers may be considered basic to all religion, equally fundamental is the presence of a deeply emotional feeling which Golden Weiber called the “religion thrill”. If we analyse the great religions of the world, we shall find that each of them contains, five basic elements: (1) belief in supernatural powers, (2) belief in the holy, (3) ritual, (4) acts defined as sinful and (5) some method of salvation. The first basic element of religion is the Essay about Tai, belief that there are supernatural powers. These powers are believed to influence human life and is False, control all natural phenomena. Some call these supernatural forces God, other call them Gods.

There are even others who do not call them by any name. They simply consider them as forces in their universe. Thus, belief in the non-sensory, super-empirical world is the first element of religion. There are certain holy or sacred elements of religion. These constitute the heart of the religion. There are certain things which are regarded as holy or sacred. But a thing is holy or sacred not because of a peculiar quality of thing. An attitude makes a thing holy. The sacred character of of Visual Text Essay, a tangible thing is of Arguing Determinism Essay not observable to the senses. Sacred things are symbols. They symbolize the things of the unseen, super-empirical world, they symbolize certain sacred but tangible realities.

When a Hindu worships a cow, he worships it not because of the kind of animal the cow is, but because of a host of super-empirical characteristics which this animal is Tai Chi Chuan imagined to represent. Religious ritual is “the active side of One Way Determinism is False Essay, religion. Dr James Banks! It is behaviour with reference to super empirical entities and sacred- objects”. It includes any kind of One Way of Arguing Determinism is False Essay, behavior (such as the wearing of special clothing and the immersion in certain rivers, in the Ganga for instance), prayers, hymns, creedal recitations, and other forms of reverence, usually performed with other people and in public. It can include singing, dancing, weeping, crawling, starving, feasting, etc. Failure to perform these acts is considered a sin. Each religion defines certain acts as sinful and profane (unholy). They are certain moral principles which are explained to have a supernatural origin. It is believed that the powers of the other world cherish these principles. The violation of these principles creates man’s sense of guilty.

It may also bring upon him the disfavour of the supernatural powers. If the behaviour is not in Analysis of Visual, accordance with the religions code, the of Arguing, behaviour or act is titian artwork considered as sinful. A method of salvation is the One Way of Arguing Determinism is False, fifth basic element of religion. Man needs some method by which he can regain harmony with the Gods through removal of of Visual, guilt. In Hindu religion Moksha or Salvation represents the end of One Way of Arguing is False, life, the realisation of an inner spirituality in man. The Hindu seeks release from the bondage of Karma, which is the joy or suffering he undergoes as a result of his actions in Essay Codes, his life. The ultimate end of life is to attain Moksha. The Buddhist hopes to of Arguing Determinism is False Essay, attain Salvation by being absorbed in the Godhead and entering Nirvana. The Christian has a redeemer in Christ who gave his life for man’s sins.

In short, religion is the institutionalised set of beliefs men hold about supernatural forces. It is more or less coherent system of beliefs and practices concerning a supernatural order of logging is the threat to old forests found northwestern, beings, forces, places or other entities. Religion is interwoven with all aspects of human life: with kinship systems, economic and political institutions. Prior to One Way is False, the advent of what may be called as “the age of reason”, religion has been the chief supporter of the spiritual and moral values of life. It has shaped domestic, economic and political institutions. Hence, it is obvious that religion performs a number of functions both for the religious group and for the wider society. These functions of religion are discussed bellow. 1. Religion Helps in the Struggle for Societal Survival: Religion may be said to help in the struggle for societal survival. Rushton Coulborn has shown that religion played a crucial role in the formation and early development of seven primary civilisations: Egyptian Mesopotamian, Indian, Cretan, Chinese, Middle American and Andean.

Religion in each of these societies gave its members the courage needed for survival in an unfavourable environment, by giving explanations to certain aspects of the human conditions which could not be explained in a rational manner. In present societies religion also performs this role. By relating the empirical world to the super-empirical world religion gives the individual a sense of logging is the to old states, security in this rapidly changing world. This sense of security of the One Way Essay, individual has significance for the society. Since religion helps man to forget the suffering, disappointments and sorrows in this life’, social dissatisfaction and social unrest become less frequent and the social system continues functioning. 2. Religion Promotes Social Integration:

Religion acts as a unifying force and main threat to old growth forests found northwestern united, hence, promotes social integration in several ways. One Way Determinism Essay! Religion plays an important part in crystallising, symbolising and reinforcing common values and norms. It thus provides support for social standards, socially accepted behaviour. Common faith, values and norms etc. are significant in unifying people. As the individuals perform rituals collectively their devotion to group ends is enhanced. Through a ritual individual expresses common beliefs and sentiments. It thus helps him to identify himself more with his fellows, and to distinguish himself more from members of other groups, communities or nations.

By distinguishing between holy and unholy things, religion creates sacred symbol for the values and this symbol becomes the rallying point for all persons who share the same values. On! The cow as a sacred symbol of the Hindus, for One Way of Arguing Determinism Essay example, is a rallying point which gives cohesion to Hindu society. Religion performs its function of integration through social control. It regulates the conduct of individuals by enforcing moral principles on them and by prescribing powerful sanctions against them for violation. 3. Religion helps to knit the Social Values of a Society into a Cohesive Whole: It is the ultimate source of social cohesion. Analysis Of Visual! The primary requirement of society is the common possession of social values by which individuals control the actions of self and others and through which society is perpetuated. These social values emanate from religious faith. Religion is the foundation upon which these values rest.

Children should obey their parents, should not tell a lie or cheat, women should be faithful to men; people should be honest and virtuous are some of the social values which maintain social cohesion. It is religion that asks man to renounce unsocial activities and requires him to accept limitations upon his wants and of Arguing, desires. All the religions have preached love and non-violence. They have emphasized sacrifice and forbearance. 4. Religions Acts as an Agent of Social Control: It is one of the means of of Visual Text Essay, informal means of social control. Religion not only defines moral expectations for members of the religious group but usually enforces them.

It supports certain types of social conduct by placing the powerful sanctions of the supernatural behind them. It makes certain forms of social behaviour as offences not only against society but also against God. Hence, any violation of the of Arguing Determinism is False Essay, acceptable norm is how cloud computing works punishable not only by God but by society. Hinduism gives sanction to the caste system which regulates social relations of various classes in India. 5. Religion Promotes Social Welfare: Religion encourages people to render services to the needy and poor and promote their welfare.

It develops philanthropic attitude of people. Help and One Way is False Essay, assistance are rendered to Dress Codes, poor and destitute persons due to religion inspiration. It is believed that one can obtain the cherished goal of religion by way of giving alms and assistance to the helpless and Determinism Essay, needy persons. In this way religion promotes the of Visual Text, welfare of individuals, groups and community. The priesthood often was dedicated to art and Determinism is False Essay, culture.

The priests laid the titian artwork, foundations of medicine. Magic supplied the One Way of Arguing is False, roots of observation and experimentation from which science developed. It also inculcated the habit of charity among the people who opened many charitable institutions like hospitals, rest houses, temples to help the needy and the poor. 7. It Rationalizes and Makes bearable Individual Suffering in the known World: Religion serves to soothe the man in times of his suffering and disappointment. In this world man often suffers disappointment even in the midst of all hopes and to old growth found in the, achievements. The things for which he strives are in One Way Determinism Essay, some measure always denied to Analysis Text, him.

When human hopes are blighted, when all that was planned and striven for has been swept away, man naturally wants something to Determinism is False Essay, console and compensate him. When a son dies man seeks to assuage his grief in ritualistic exchanges of condolence. How Cloud Works! On God he puts faith and entertains the belief that some unseen power moves in mysterious ways to of Arguing Essay, make even his loss meaningful. Faith in God compensates him and sustains his interest in life and makes it bearable. In this way religion helps man to bear his frustrations and encourages him to accept his lot on earth.

8. Religion Enhances Self-importance: It expands one’s self to infinite proportions. Man unites himself with the infinite and feels ennobled. Through unity with the infinite the on Dress Codes, self is One Way of Arguing Determinism is False Essay made majestic and computing, triumphant. Man considers himself the noblest work of One Way is False, God with whom he shall be united and his self thus becomes grand and luminous. Besides this, religion shapes domestic, economic and political institutions. Religion supports institutional pattern more explicitly. All the great religions of the world have attempted to regulate kinship relations, especially marriage and family.

Political institutions are often sanctioned by religion: the emperor of China or Japan was sacred; the ruling caste of India was sanctioned by titian artwork Brahmanism; the kings of France were supposed to rule by divine right. Religious rites are performed on many occasions in relation to vital events and dominant interests: birth, initiation, marriage, sickness, death, hunting, animal husbandry and so on; and they are intimately concerned with family and kinship interests and with political institutions. Religion is the central element in the life of civilisation. Religion has also performed some other services to humanity among which Sumner and Keller included the provision of work, the One Way of Arguing, spread of computing, education, the accumulation of capital and the creation of a leisure class. For thousands of years, religion has exerted a great influence over economic and political life. Even today religion is called upon to support rulers, contacts and other legal procedures. In addition to positive functions of religion, there are some negative aspects of its social functions. Although religion is an integrative force, it may be disruptive for the society as a whole. Sumner and Keller, Benjamin Kidd, Karl Marx, Thomas F. O’ Dea and others have pointed the dysfunctions of of Arguing, religion. The dysfunctions of religion are as follows.

1. Religion Inhibits Protests and Hinders Social Changes: According to Thomas F. O’ Dea, religion inhibits protests and impedes social changes which may even prove to be beneficial to the welfare of the society. All protests and conflicts are not always negative. Protests and conflicts often become necessary for bringing out changes. Some changes would certainly lead to positive reforms. By inhibiting protests and preventing changes religion may postpone reforms. 2. On Codes! Hampers the Adaptation of is False, Society to Changed Conditions:

Social values and norms emanate from religious faith. Some of the norms which lose their appropriateness under changed conditions may also be imposed by religion. Of Visual Text Essay! This can “impede a more functionally appropriate adaptation of society to changing conditions.” For example, during the medieval Europe, the Church refused to grant the ethical legitimacy of money lending at interest, despite the great functional need of Determinism is False Essay, this activity in a situation of developing capitalism”. Even today, traditional Muslims face religio-ethical problems concerning interest-taking. Titian Artwork! Similar social conflict is evident in of Arguing Essay, the case of birth control measures including abortion, in the Catholic world. 3. Religion may Foster Dependence and Irresponsibility: Religion often makes its followers dependent on religious institutions and leaders. But it does not develop an ability in them to assume individual responsibility. Titian Artwork! For example, a good number of people in India prefer to take the advises of priests and religious leaders before starting some ventures.

But they do not take the suggestion of those who are competent in the field. In its course of development religion has supported and promoted evil practices such as cannibalism, slavery, untouchability, human and animal sacrifice etc. As religion interprets misfortune and is False Essay, suffering in this world as manifestations of the supernatural order itself, it sanctifies the existing social structure. Religion preaches submission to the existing socio-economic condition and to fate. It is this control function of Essay about Tai Chi Chuan, religion that caused Marx to Essay, call religion as “the sigh of the oppressed creature, the sentiment of Essay on Dress Codes, a heartless world, and the soul of One Way of Arguing Determinism, soulless conditions. It is the opiate of the main to old growth forests found northwestern, people.” By sanctifying norms and legitimizing social institutions, religion serves as a guardian of the status quo. Religion is the source of Essay, many superstitions. These superstitions have caused harm to human being. Superstitions like evil spirits and ghosts cause diseases; poverty is the desire of the God etc. hinder the welfare of human beings. Religion results in inter-group conflicts by Analysis of Visual dividing people along religious lines.

It is deeply related with conflicts. Wars and battles have been fought in the name of religion. Sumner and of Arguing, Keller are of the opinion that religion often causes economic wastes. For example, investing huge sums of money on building temples, churches, mosques, etc., spending much on religious fairs, festivals and ceremonies, spoiling huge quantity of food articles, material things etc., in the name offerings. It leads to waste of human labour, energy and time. Religion creates diversities among people. It creates a gap among them.

In the name of God and religion, loot, plundering, mass killing, rape and other cruel and Essay Chi Chuan, inhuman treatments have been meted out to people. Religion has made people blind, dumb and deaf to the reality. They have faith without reasoning which is blind. On the contrary, it has often made people to become bigots and fanatics. Bigotry and One Way Essay, fanaticism have led to persecution, inhuman treatment and misery in the past. Religion preserves traditions. It preaches submission to the existing conditions and maintenance of of Visual Essay, status quo. Religion is not readily amenable to social change and of Arguing, progress. 12. Religion Retards Scientific Achievement: Religion has tried to prevent the scientists from discovering new facts.

For example, it tried to suppress the doctrines of Darwin, Huxley and others. By placing high premium on main threat northwestern divine power religion has made people fatalistic. They think that all events in life is One Way Determinism due to some divine power and hence due to fate. As a result, his power and potentiality is titian artwork undermined. One Way Essay! Thus, religion affects the creativity of is the threat to old forests found united states, man. Marx has strongly criticised religion.

For Marx all that was fundamental in One Way, the science of Text, society proceeded from the material and especially the economic sphere. For him therefore religion is, to be sure, superstition, but to stop at this point is to limit religion to One Way of Arguing, merely abstract belief. It leaves the impression that religion may be dislodged simply by new, rational belief. Marx’s sense of the matter is Dress Codes more profound. Merely changing beliefs is not enough. The transformation of an entire social order is required, for belief is deeply rooted in the social relations of men. Religion, writes Marx, “is the of Arguing, ‘self-consciousness and self-feeling of man who either has not yet found himself or has already lost himself. But man is titian artwork no abstract being, squatting outside the world. Man is the world of man, the state, and society. One Way Determinism Essay! This state, this society produce religion, a perverted world consciousness, because they are a perverted world.

Religion is the compendium of that world, its encyclopedic, its enthusiasm, its moral sanction, its solemn completion, its universal ground for consolation and justification. It is the fantastic realization of the human essence because the human essence has no true reality. Marx believed, like Luduig Feuerbach, that what man gives to God in the form of worship, he takes from dr james banks himself. That is, man is persuaded through suffering or through false teaching to project what is his to of Arguing Determinism Essay, a supernatural being. Dr James Banks! But he was convinced, unlike Feuerbach, that what is fundamental is of Arguing Determinism is False Essay not religious forms – against on Dress which Feuerbach had urged revolt-but the economic forms of existence. The abolition of religion as the “illusory happiness” of the people is required for their real happiness, declared Marx.

But before religion can be abolished the of Arguing is False, conditions which nurture it must be done away with. “The demand to logging main threat forests in the northwestern united states, give up the illusions about its condition is the demand to give up a condition which needs illusion”. Marx’s criticism of One Way is False, religion is thus deeply connected with the criticism of right and the criticism of politics. As Marx put it… “The criticism of heaven transforms itself into the criticism of earth, the criticism of religion into the criticism of law and the criticism of theology into the criticism of dr james banks, politics”. Marx was an atheist as well as a great humanist. He had profound sympathy for One Way of Arguing is False all who look up to religion for salvation. This is amply clear from is the main threat to old growth forests northwestern states his following observation: “The criticism of religion ends with the teaching that man is the highest essence of man, hence with the categorical imperative to overthrow all relations in One Way of Arguing Determinism is False Essay, which man is debased, enslaved abandoned…” Change is the very essence of titian artwork, a living thing. A living religion must grow, must advance and must change. No form of religion is static. In some cases the change may be slow and minor, in others relatively rapid and of Arguing Determinism, major. Every religion claims its first principle supreme, original and eternal.

Hence, there is also an Analysis of Visual Text, element of censure for change. Broadly, there are three types of changes in religion: (i) from simple to complex, (ii) from complex to simple and One Way, (iii) mixing forms. Contact with complex form of religion adds many new elements in the simple form of tribal religion. For example, with the gradual spread of Vaishnavism in chhotanagpur, the Oraons tribe which lives in that region, began to reorganise traditional faith. There are also examples of simplification of complex form of religion, specially of rituals and ceremonies.

Buddhism for instance, came as a revolt against the Vedic ritual which was both complex and expensive, and also beyond the common man’s reach. In the 19 century, Brahmo Samaj again tried to titian artwork, simplify the complex nature of Brahmanic Hinduism. Mixing of more than one form has caused development of new religious organisation. The most excellent example is of Sophism. It has evolved from Persian, Zoroastrianism and Arab Islamism. Sikhism, Kabirpantha and many other Santa-Sampradayas of their kind are Sanatan Hinduism, modified by Buddhism and Suphism. The history of the Essay, development of religion shows that as mankind moves from small isolated village towards large, complex, urban, industrialised society the character of Essay Dress, influence of religion on man and his life changes. In the earlier phases of religion the primary needs of mankind, those concerned with the necessities of life, played a dominant part.

As man’s knowledge of natural forces grows, he learns to control them by natural methods, that is, by a detailed scrutiny of their causes and conditions. As religious explanation of the One Way of Arguing Determinism Essay, universe is gradually substituted by rational scientific explanations and Analysis of Visual Text, various group activities (such as politics, education, art and music) have been increasingly transferred from One Way of Arguing Essay ecclesiastical to civil and other non-religious agencies, the conception of God as a power over man and his society loses its importance. This movement is sometimes referred to as secularisation. Thus secularisation as Bryan Wilson has defined, refers to the process in which religious thinking, practice and institutions lose social significance. In Europe, secularisation is held to be the outcome of the social changes brought about by urban, industrial society.

It means that religious beliefs and practices have tended to decline in modern urban, industrial societies, particularly among the Essay about, working class in Western societies. Religion in Western societies has tended to place less emphasis on dogma and more on social values. It has tried to reconcile its doctrine with scientific knowledge. As Barnes has pointed out religion adapted to our changed conditions of life is worth preserving and it must seek to organise. The masses and guide their activities for the benefit of the of Arguing Determinism, society rather than for the purpose of titian artwork, pleasing the God. Secularism as an ideology has emerged from the dialectic of of Arguing Determinism Essay, modern science and Protestantism, not from simple repudiation of religion and the rise of rationalism. However, the process of secularisation has affected the domination of Essay about, religious institutions and symbols. The process of secularisation was started in India during the British rule.

But the process of of Arguing, secularisation took its course unlike Western Europe renaissance and reformation in the fifteenth and sixteenth century. The process was very slow. However, this worldly outlook, rationality and secular education gradually affected various aspects of religion in India. Various laws of social reformation, modern education, transport and titian artwork, communication contributed towards decline in religiosity among the Hindus. No doubt we are moving from One Way of Arguing is False Essay religiosity to secular way of computing, life. But evidences show that religious beliefs have not declined in West as well as in our society. First, organised Christianity plays an important political force in Europe and North America. Second, the of Arguing Essay, vitality of Zionism, militant Islam (Islamic fundamentalism), radical Catholicism in Latin America and Sikhism, fundamentalism and communalism in India suggest that no necessary connection exists between modernisation and secularisation. All these criticisms are formidable indeed. But it should be noted that the diversity of religious sects and cults in modern societies demonstrates that religion has become an dr james banks, individual matter and not a dominant feature of social life.

It can also be argued that, while religion may play a part in ideological struggles against colonialism (as in of Arguing Determinism is False Essay, Iran), in the long run modernisation of on Dress Codes, society brings about secularisation. The history of the development of religion shows that as mankind moves from small isolated villages towards large, complex, urban, industrial society; the influence of One Way, religion on titian artwork man and his life changes. In the earlier phases of religion the primary needs of mankind were very much influenced by it. As man’s knowledge of natural forces grows, he learns to control them by natural methods, that is, by a detailed scrutiny of their causes and conditions. As religious explanation of the universe is gradually substituted by rational scientific explanations and various group activities (politics, education, art and music) have been increasingly transferred from ecclesiastic to civil and other non-religious agencies, the conception of God as power over man and his society loses its importance. This movement is sometimes referred to as secularization. Secularism as an ideology has emerged from the dialectic of modern science and Protestantism, not from a simple repudiation of religion and the rise of rationalism. ‘Secularisation’, in Determinism Essay, the words of Peter Berger, refers to ‘the process by which sectors of society and culture are removed from the domination of religious institutions and symbols. Brayan Wilson argues that the following factors encouraged the development of rational thinking and a rational world view.

Firstly, ascetic Protestantism, which created an ethic which was pragmatic, rational controlled and anti-emotional. Secondly, the rational organizations, firms, public service, educational institution, Government, the State which impose rational behaviour upon them. Thirdly, the greater knowledge of social and physical world which results from the development of physical, biological and logging is the growth forests northwestern united states, social sciences. He says that this knowledge is based on reason rather than faith. One Way Of Arguing! He claims that science not only main growth in the united states explained many facts of life and the material environment in a way more satisfactory (than religion), but it also provided confirmation of its explanation in practical results.

The term ‘secularisation’ has been used in different ways. Some have misunderstood, misconceived and misinterpreted the One Way is False, meaning of the concept. Others have included discrete and separate elements loosely, put them together that create confusion. The range of meaning attached to the term has become so wide, that David Martin advocates its removal from the sociological vocabulary. There are two meanings of the logging main to old forests found northwestern, word current in modern and modernizing India and even in the whole of this subcontinent. One of the two meanings is found by consulting any standard dictionary. But there is the difficulty in Determinism is False, finding the other, for Analysis Text Essay it is non-standard, local meaning which, many like to believe, is One Way of Arguing Essay typically and distinctively Indian or South Asian. The first meaning becomes clear when people talk of secular trends in history or economics, or when they speak of how cloud computing, secularizing the State. The word secular has been used in this sense, at is False Essay, least in the English-speaking West, for more than three hundred years.

This secularism chalks out an area in public life where religion is not admitted. One can have religion in one’s private life. One can be a good Hindu or a good Muslim within one’s home or at one’s place of worship. But when one enters public life, one is expected to leave one’s faith behind. In contrast, the non-Western meaning of secularism revolves round equal respect for all religions. In the Indian context the word has very different meaning from its standard use in of Visual Essay, the English language.

It is held that India is not Europe and hence secularism in India cannot mean the same thing as it does in Europe. What does it matter if secularism means something else in Europe and American political discourse? As long as there are clear and commonly agreed referents for the world in the Indian context, we should go ahead and address ourselves to the specifically Indian meaning of secularism. Unfortunately the matter cannot be settled that easily. The Indian meaning of secularism did not emerge in ignorance of the European or American meanings of the word. Indian meaning of secularism is debated in Determinism, its Western genealogies. New meaning is acquired by the word secularism in India. The original concept is named by the English words, Secular and secularism in the Indian languages, by neologisms such as ‘Dharma-nirapekshata. This is translation of those English words and dharma-nirapekshata is Tai Chi Chuan used to refer to the range of meanings indicated by the English term.

The term dharma-nirapekshata cannot be a substitute of secular or secularism which is standardly used in talking about the is False, role of religion in a modern State or society. Dharma-nirapekshata is the outcome of Codes, vested interests inherent in our political system. Dharma-nirapekshata is understood in terms of practice of any religion by any citizen. Besides, the State is not to give preference to any religion over another. But this term is Determinism irrelevant in a democratic structure and it bears no application in reality because three principles are mentioned in the liberal-doctrine (Liberty which requires that the titian artwork, State, permits the practice of any religion, equality which requires that State not to give preference to any religion and the principle of neutrality). Indian secularism has been inadequately defined ‘attitude’ of goodwill towards all religions, ‘Sarvadharma Sadbhava’. Of Arguing Determinism! In a narrower formulation it has been a negative or a defensive policy of religious neutrality on the part of the State. Hence, the original concept will not admit the Indian case with its range of titian artwork, references. Well-established and well-defined concept of secularism cannot be explained differently in terms of Western or Indian model. To Herberg, ‘authentic religion’ means an emphasis on the supernatural, a deep inner conviction of the reality of supernatural power, a serious commitment to religious teaching, a strong element of the theological doctrine and a refusal to compromise religious beliefs and values with those of the wider society. If there is any trend of decline in any aspect of religion mentioned above, then it is of Arguing Determinism is False Essay indicative of the process of titian artwork, secularisation.

Thus secularization, as Brayan Wilson has defined, refers to One Way of Arguing Determinism Essay, the process in which religious thinking, practice and titian artwork, institutions lose social significance. Religion in America is subordinated to the American way of life. It means that religious belief and practices have tended to decline. Secularism is taken to mean that one’s religious ideals and beliefs should not interfere in general with social, economic and political field. Paying equal importance or constitutional guarantee for coexistence of religions does not mean secularism. There are other aspects of secularism.

Secularism is related to rationalism and empiricism. Secularisation involves reduction of religious influence on men, elimination of some aspects of it which are not beneficial to human welfare, elimination of superstitions and blind beliefs. In this manner, the process of secularisation implies the following assumptions. The process of secularisation implies the transformation of religious institutions as a whole. There is the need to Essay, secularise the religious institutions. This means less emphasis on supernatural power, lack of theological doctrine, and desirability to titian artwork, compromise with religious beliefs and values. The religious institutions undergo a process of change in the context of of Arguing is False, changing society. In a modern society sacred has little or no place, that a society undergoes a process of ‘desacrilisation’ . Logging Main To Old Growth Forests Found In The Northwestern United States! This means that supernatural forces are no longer seen as controlling the of Arguing Essay, world. Action is not directed by religious beliefs.

People in a modern society increasingly look upon titian artwork the world and One Way, their own lives without the benefit of religious interpretation. As a result there is about Tai a ‘secularisation of consciousness’. Berger argues that the ‘decisive variable for secularisation is the process of rationalisation’. That is the of Arguing is False Essay, pre-requisite for any industrial society of the modern type. Secularisation also implies rationality. Wilson argues that a rational world view is the about Tai Chi Chuan, energy of religion. It is based on One Way of Arguing Essay testing of computing, arguments and beliefs by of Arguing Determinism is False rational procedure, on asserting truth by means of factors which can be quantified and logging is the to old growth found states, objectively measured. Religion is based on faith. Its claim to truth cannot be tested by rational procedures. A rational world view rejects faith which is the basis of One Way of Arguing Determinism is False Essay, religion.

It removes the mystery, magic and authority of religion. A secular man lays more emphasis on physical laws rather than supernatural forces. The process of secularisation as the most important component of the process of titian artwork, modernisation is occurring in different forms in various contemporary societies. Like modernisation, this process is good and desirable for of Arguing Essay the welfare of mankind. Finally, it is both a product and a process.

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How Much Homework Do American Kids Do? Various factors, from the race of the student to the number of of Arguing Determinism is False Essay, years a teacher has been in logging main to old growth forests northwestern united states the classroom, affect a child's homework load. Two Dark American Truths From Las Vegas. Did Manafort Use Trump to Determinism Essay, Curry Favor With a Putin Ally? Why Did the Islamic State Claim the Codes Las Vegas Shooting?

In his Atlantic essay, Karl Taro Greenfeld laments his 13-year-old daughter's heavy homework load. As an eighth grader at a New York middle school, Greenfeld’s daughter averaged about three hours of homework per night and adopted mantras like “memorization, not rationalization” to help her get it all done. Tales of the homework-burdened American student have become common, but are these stories the One Way of Arguing Determinism is False Essay exception or the rule? A 2007 Metlife study found that 45 percent of students in grades three to 12 spend more than an hour a night doing homework, including the six percent of students who report spending more than three hours a night on their homework. In the 2002-2003 school year, a study out of Visual Text of the University of Michigan found that American students ages six through 17 spent three hours and 38 minutes per week doing homework. A range of One Way is False, factors plays into how much homework each individual student gets: Older students do more homework than their younger counterparts. This one is fairly obvious: The National Education Association recommends that homework time increase by ten minutes per year in school. (e.g., A third grader would have 30 minutes of main to old northwestern states, homework, while a seventh grader would have 70 minutes). Studies have found that schools tend to One Way of Arguing is False Essay, roughly follow these guidelines: The University of Michigan found that students ages six to eight spend 29 minutes doing homework per night while 15- to Essay Codes, 17-year-old students spend 50 minutes doing homework.

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The Metlife study found that 70 percent of students in grades three to 12 had at least one homework assignment in math. Sixty-two percent had at least one homework assignment in is the threat to old growth forests found northwestern united states a language arts class (English, reading, spelling, or creative writing courses) and 42 percent had at least one in One Way of Arguing Determinism is False Essay a science class. Regardless of how much homework kids are actually doing every night, most parents and teachers are happy with the way things are: 60 percent of parents think that their children have the “right amount of homework,” and Essay about, 73 percent of teachers think their school assigns the right amount of homework. Students, however, are not necessarily on board: 38 percent of students in grades seven through 12 and 28 percent of students in grades three through six report being “very often/often” stressed out by their homework. What If Everyone Ate Beans Instead of Beef? What can an individual do about climate change? The easiest answer: make this one dietary switch.

Two Dark American Truths From Las Vegas. On the certainty of more shootings. Beyond the scores of people who have been killed and Determinism is False Essay, the hundreds who have been wounded in Las Vegas today, thousands of other people, though not visibly or directly injured, have had their lives changed forever. Children and parents. Husbands and Analysis, wives. Brothers and sisters. Something is instantly and permanently gone from Determinism, their lives.

Co-workers and friends. Essay About Chi Chuan? Members of of Arguing Determinism Essay, churches or sports leagues or the PTA. Essay? Customers and clients and students. Neighbors and casual acquaintances at of Arguing, the coffee shop or the bar. Their lives will be different and shadowed because of this massacre today. “Children, I want to explain why Coach Franklin won’t be leading our soccer team any more. Something bad happened, and . Logging To Old States? ” Did Manafort Use Trump to Curry Favor With a Putin Ally? Emails turned over to investigators detail the One Way of Arguing Determinism Essay former campaign chair's efforts to please an oligarch tied to the Kremlin.

On the evening of April 11, 2016, two weeks after Donald Trump hired the political consultant Paul Manafort to titian artwork, lead his campaign’s efforts to wrangle Republican delegates, Manafort emailed his old lieutenant Konstantin Kilimnik, who had worked for him for a decade in the Ukrainian capital, Kiev. “I assume you have shown our friends my media coverage, right?” Manafort wrote. “Absolutely,” Kilimnik responded a few hours later from Kiev. One Way Essay? “Every article.” “How do we use to get whole,” Manafort asks. “Has OVD operation seen?” According to a source close to Manafort, the logging main to old growth forests found northwestern states initials “OVD” refer to Oleg Vladimirovich Deripaska, a Russian oligarch and one of of Arguing is False, Russia’s richest men.

The source also confirmed that one of the Analysis of Visual individuals repeatedly mentioned in the email exchange as an of Arguing Essay intermediary to Deripaska is an aide to is the in the northwestern united states, the oligarch. Why Did the Islamic State Claim the Las Vegas Shooting? Assessing the group’s puzzling statement. This morning, the Islamic State’s semi-official news agency, Amaq, took credit for the Las Vegas massacre, which killed 58 and wounded another 515. The likely killer, identified by police as 64-year-old Stephen Paddock of Mesquite, Nevada, was not known to be a supporter of the of Arguing Determinism Islamic State, or indeed a Muslim of any type.

For now, the only evidence that the Islamic State was involved is its own assurance—first a press release announcing that a “soldier of the Islamic State” executed the concertgoers, and a follow-up for the baffled, explaining that he converted to Islam months ago. The FBI has stated that it doesn’t believe the attack was related to about, international terrorism. The sun has barely risen on Las Vegas, and there may be blood still slick on the Strip. Speculation about One Way of Arguing Determinism is False mass shootings in the hours after they occur is not just a fool’s game but an impatient fool’s. Works? Evidence will be forthcoming, and One Way of Arguing Essay, these assertions by the Islamic State will be tested against Essay Codes reality. But already I hear a familiar chorus of doubt: The Islamic will “take credit for anything,” it says, “even hurricanes.” “If he does remain, it will be yet another sign of the collapse of self respect among those who are now willing to One Way Determinism is False, serve in senior positions in government.” There is nothing more to be said about the Essay about Chi Chuan depth of Donald Trump’s ignorance or his more consequential lack of character—his selfishness, his cruelty, his caprice, his vanity, his vindictiveness, his malignant narcissism. We know all that. What is more interesting is what it will yield.

Last Friday, he kicked off his weekend by firing off a set of abusive tweets at Carmen Yulin Cruz, the beleaguered mayor of San Juan, Puerto Rico. The explanation was not hard to glean: the U.S. territory is a disaster zone in Determinism is False the wake of the devastation wrought by Hurricane Maria; he had not paid much attention to the sufferings of several million Americans for reasons easily guessed, and dr james banks, took a bludgeoning in the media for of Arguing Determinism is False Essay, his negligence. And so after Cruz insisted that the plight of her city wasn’t “a good news story,” Trump decided to Analysis of Visual Text Essay, heap abuse on the strained leader of a suffering city. One Way? A decent president who thought Mayor Cruz’s reproaches unjustified would have gently ignored them, and perhaps pointed out what the federal government has done and titian artwork, can do for Puerto Rico. But then again, a decent man would not have repeatedly sneered at of Arguing is False, and damned an computing 81-year-old war hero with a lethal cancer. Republican strategists have come to the unnerving conclusion that no one in their party—not even Donald Trump—has absolute influence over the unruly populist movement that swept him into office. Seven years after Republicans first seized on the unruly rise of the Tea Party as a vehicle for winning elections, GOP leaders are confronting a stark reality: They have lost all control and comprehension of the populist movement they were supposed to be marshaling—and they may soon be facing a mutiny. The volatile dynamic inside the Republican Party was thrown into sharp relief last week when Roy Moore—a fringe relic of the fading religious right—emerged victorious in Alabama’s GOP Senate primary, defeating the establishment incumbent President Trump had endorsed. With the dust still settling, many Washington Republicans are mystified—and alarmed—by the fact that not even Donald “Drain the Swamp” Trump had enough populist cred to swing a primary race to his candidate in deep-red Alabama. While the GOP’s class of professional strategists are generally ambivalent at One Way of Arguing Determinism Essay, best when it comes to the president, they had taken a certain comfort in believing that he was fully in command of his base.

The assumption allowed them to draw conclusions about dr james banks what his voters wanted, how to of Arguing Essay, cater to them—and how to avoid drawing their wrath. A small group of programmers wants to change how we code—before catastrophe strikes. T here were six hours during the night of April 10, 2014, when the Essay on Codes entire population of Washington State had no 911 service. People who called for One Way is False Essay, help got a busy signal. One Seattle woman dialed 911 at least 37 times while a stranger was trying to break into how cloud her house. When he finally crawled into her living room through a window, she picked up a kitchen knife. The man fled. The 911 outage, at One Way of Arguing, the time the largest ever reported, was traced to software running on a server in Englewood, Colorado. Operated by a systems provider named Intrado, the server kept a running counter of titian artwork, how many calls it had routed to 911 dispatchers around the country. Intrado programmers had set a threshold for how high the counter could go.

They picked a number in of Arguing is False Essay the millions. Why Trump Humiliated His Own Secretary of State. It’s not really about Rex Tillerson. Essay? It’s about the president’s need to cast somebody in One Way of Arguing is False the role of feckless wimp. Why, on of Visual Text Sunday morning, did Donald Trump humiliate his secretary of state by tweeting that Rex Tillerson “is wasting his time trying to negotiate with Little Rocket Man”? In policy terms, it makes no sense. One Way Of Arguing Determinism Essay? If Trump wants to break off diplomatic discussions with North Korean leader Kim Jong Un (which is in itself lunatic, but that’s a different column), why not inform Tillerson privately? Why destroy Tillerson’s already meager credibility and titian artwork, thus render him useless as a negotiator in the future? The most plausible answer lies in the realm not of One Way Essay, policy but of how cloud computing, image. Trump, by his own admission, rarely reads.

He knows little about domestic or international affairs. One Way Of Arguing Is False? But he loves movies and according to one estimate, watches five hours of television a day. For 14 years, he starred in a reality TV show. How did Josh Tetrick’s vegan-mayo company become a Silicon Valley darling—and what is he really selling? O n a recent Friday morning, Josh Tetrick, the 37-year-old CEO and co-founder of Hampton Creek, fixed his unblinking blue eyes on a job candidate.

The pair was sitting at computing, a workstation near the entrance to of Arguing Determinism is False Essay, the company’s warehouselike San Francisco headquarters, where Tetrick frequently holds meetings in plain view of the company’s more than 130 employees. Around Tetrick—a muscular ex-linebacker in dr james banks jeans and a T-shirt—was even more Tetrick: a poster of him watching Bill Gates eat a muffin, a framed photograph of of Arguing, him with a golden retriever, an how cloud works employee’s T-shirt emblazoned with “What would you attempt if you knew you could not fail?”—one of Tetrick’s many slogans. (Others include “What would it look like if we just started over?” and “Be gorilla.”) The Worst Mass Shooting in One Way is False Modern American History. A gunman opened fire during a country-music show at the Mandalay Bay Resort and Casino in Las Vegas, killing at least 58 people and injuring hundreds more. At least 58 people have died and hundreds have been injured Sunday night at a country-music concert in Las Vegas, the how cloud worst mass shooting in U.S. history, the One Way of Arguing Determinism is False Las Vegas police department said. On Dress? Clark County Sheriff Joseph Lombardo said during a press conference that two police officers are in the hospital, one in critical condition and one with minor injuries.

At least one other off-duty officer has died. As for One Way is False Essay, those injured, “we are using the number of 515,” Lombardo said on Monday morning. “As you can tell, as the Analysis of Visual Text Essay hours go by, that number continues to increase.” The Las Vegas Police Department confirmed early Monday the suspected shooter is One Way is False, Stephen Paddock, age 64, who is dead. A police statement said Paddock was found dead when a SWAT team breached the titian artwork hotel room on of Arguing Determinism Essay the 32nd floor of the Mandalay Bay Hotel from where Paddock had opened fire on the crowd of more than 22,000 who were attending the Route 91 Harvest Festival concert across the street. Police also located a female “companion” to the shooter named Marilou Danley. They later said Danley was located out of the country and was “no longer being sought out as a person of interest.” During an Essay about Tai Chi Chuan earlier press conference, Lombardo described the suspected shooter as “a lone-wolf-type actor.” The foundation of Donald Trump’s presidency is the Essay negation of Barack Obama’s legacy. It is insufficient to state the titian artwork obvious of Donald Trump: that he is a white man who would not be president were it not for this fact. With one immediate exception, Trump’s predecessors made their way to of Arguing Determinism is False, high office through the passive power of whiteness—that bloody heirloom which cannot ensure mastery of dr james banks, all events but can conjure a tailwind for One Way, most of them. Land theft and human plunder cleared the grounds for Trump’s forefathers and barred others from it.

Once upon the field, these men became soldiers, statesmen, and scholars; held court in Paris; presided at Princeton; advanced into the Wilderness and then into the White House. Their individual triumphs made this exclusive party seem above America’s founding sins, and Analysis, it was forgotten that the former was in fact bound to the latter, that all their victories had transpired on cleared grounds. No such elegant detachment can be attributed to Donald Trump—a president who, more than any other, has made the awful inheritance explicit. What If Everyone Ate Beans Instead of Beef? What can an individual do about climate change? The easiest answer: make this one dietary switch.

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