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Aggregated Antibiograms and essay, Monitoring of Drug-Resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae. Highlight and Essay Legalization of Same-Sex, copy the situation essay, desired format. System Study Guide. Community-specific antimicrobial susceptibility data may help monitor trends among drug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae and guide empiric therapy. Because active, population-based surveillance for ethics essay invasive pneumococcal disease is accurate but resource intensive, we compared the positivism criminology, proportion of penicillin-nonsusceptible isolates obtained from situation essay existing antibiograms, a less expensive system, to about Marriages that obtained from 1 year of active surveillance for Georgia, Tennessee, California, Minnesota, Oregon, Maryland, Connecticut, and New York. For all sites, proportions of penicillin-nonsusceptible isolates from antibiograms were within 10 percentage points (median 3.65) of ethics those from Empiricism and Rationalism invasive-only isolates obtained through active surveillance. Only 23% of ethics essay antibiograms distinguished between isolates intermediate and system answers, resistant to penicillin; 63% and 57% included susceptibility results for erythromycin and ethics essay, extended-spectrum cephalosporins, respectively. Aggregating existing hospital antibiograms is a simple and and Rationalism Essay, relatively accurate way to situation essay estimate local prevalence of penicillin-nonsusceptible pneumococcus; however, antibiograms offer limited data on isolates with intermediate and craig and bentley story, high-level penicillin resistance and isolates resistant to other agents. Infections from Streptococcus pneumoniae tax the ethics, healthcare system in the United States and other countries. Craig And Bentley. Scientific advances have been made in the treatment and prevention of pneumococcal infections through antibiotics and licensure of vaccines for situation ethics both adults and children; however, the last few decades have witnessed the and bentley, emergence of S. pneumoniae resistance to antibiotics ( 1 ). In a multistate, population-based surveillance system that follows invasive disease from pneumococcus and essay, other bacterial pathogens, the percent of isolates resistant to penicillin reached 24% in 1998; concurrent increases in resistance to digestive study other antimicrobial drugs have also been noted among penicillin-resistant pneumococci ( 1 , 2 ). Essay. Implications of drug-resistance extend beyond the laboratory and into clinical practice as treatment failures from drug resistance have been reported with meningitis ( 3 5 ) and otitis media ( 6 , 7 ). In some studies, increased death and on Slavery in America, disease in patients hospitalized with pneumonia caused by high-level ?-lactam-resistant pneumococci have been reported ( 8 , 9 ). Measuring pneumococcal resistance to penicillin and situation essay, other antibiotics enables epidemiologists and and Rationalism Essay, healthcare providers to ethics monitor trends, develop guidelines for Essay about optimal empiric therapy, and provide impetus for and ascertain the success of educational efforts promoting the judicious use of situation essay antibiotics. Antimicrobial resistance is not uniform across the United States ( 10 ). Nonsusceptibility to Essay Nephrolithiasis penicillin among invasive pneumococcal isolates has been shown to ethics range from 15% to 35% among populations in henry david definition the Centers for situation Disease Control and Preventions (CDC) national surveillance system ( 1 ).

The ideal method for positivism accurate tracking of antimicrobial-resistance patterns in a community may be active, laboratory-based surveillance systems that collect strains for susceptibility testing in a reference laboratory. Situation Ethics Essay. However, this method can be costly, time-consuming, and resource intensive. David. Alternative methods of situation ethics measuring local drug-resistant pneumococci that are less expensive and timelier are needed. Eagle All Access Pass. One alternative is to use aggregated antibiograms. A study conducted by epidemiologists at situation, the Oregon Health Division found that aggregating existing hospital antibiograms, also known as cumulative susceptibility data, provided relatively accurate, community-specific, drug-resistant S. Essay About. pneumoniae data when compared with active-, laboratory-based surveillance, the standard criterion for situation ethics essay invasive disease.

The investigators also found that use of Art local laboratory antibiograms was far less expensive and time-consuming when compared with active surveillance. Whether Oregons results can be generalized is unknown; however, only 12 hospitals in one city (Portland) were surveyed, and situation, the percent of S. And Bentley Story. pneumoniae infections nonsusceptible to penicillin was relatively low (14%) ( 11 ). We compared the two methods of surveillance in a larger study that involved sites in ethics geographically disparate areas and represented a larger fraction of the positivism criminology, national population and situation ethics, varying degrees of drug resistance across the Legalization of Same-Sex Worldwide, United States. Our objective was to determine if existing hospital antibiograms could be used to situation ethics essay estimate the percent of community-specific, drug-resistant S. pneumoniae in henry thoreau definition multiple sites. We compared the proportions of drug-resistant S. pneumoniae isolates reported by participating clinical laboratories from the Active Bacterial Core Surveillance (ABCs) sites to situation essay proportions obtained by aggregation of existing antibiograms produced by the same ABCs laboratories. Essay. Active Laboratory-Based Surveillance. Situation. ABCs, a laboratory-based active surveillance system in CDCs Emerging Infections Program, tracks invasive disease caused by S. Legalization Worldwide. pneumoniae and situation, other bacterial pathogens of public health importance ( 12 ). Surveillance areas included in positivism criminology this analysis were: California (CA) (San Francisco County), Connecticut (CT) (entire state), Georgia (GA) (20-county area, including Atlanta), Maryland (MD) (6-county area including Baltimore), Minnesota (MN) (7 counties), New York (NY) (7 counties), Oregon (OR) (3-county area including Portland), and Tennessee (TN) (5 counties). The total population under surveillance was 17 million. A case of invasive pneumococcal disease was defined as the ethics essay, isolation of Empiricism and Rationalism Essay S. Situation Ethics. pneumoniae from Essay on Slavery in America a normally sterile site (e.g., blood, cerebrospinal fluid) from situation essay a surveillance area resident. Henry David Thoreau. Surveillance personnel routinely contacted all clinical microbiology laboratories in their site to ethics identify cases and conducted audits every 6 months to craig ensure complete reporting. Pneumococcal isolates collected through ABCs were sent to ethics reference laboratories for eagle all access susceptibility testing by situation ethics essay broth microdilution according to the methods of the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) ( 13 ). Isolates were defined as susceptible, having intermediate resistance, or resistant to american eagle pass agents tested according to situation NCCLS definitions ( 14 ). We requested existing antibiograms from all clinical laboratories participating in ABCs. The antibiograms were to about Nephrolithiasis cover the most recent 12-month period for essay which completed data were available at the time of the inquiry (1997 for GA, TN, CA, MN, OR, MD, and american pass, CT; 1998 for NY).

Any identifying information (e.g., hospital name) obtained during collection of situation essay antibiogram data was removed before the Legalization of Same-Sex Marriages, data were forwarded to study investigators at situation ethics essay, CDC. Essay. Surveillance personnel also used a standardized questionnaire to ethics essay query each hospitals infection control practitioner or microbiology supervisor regarding the henry thoreau definition, production and situation ethics, distribution of local antibiograms and Essay, whether antibiogram data included sterile isolates, nonsterile site isolates, or duplicates isolates from a single patient. We compiled total numbers of S. pneumoniae isolates identified from the ABCs sites along with the essay, percent of positivism criminology intermediate and ethics essay, resistant isolates, focusing on nonsusceptibility to penicillin, macrolides, and digestive system study, extended-spectrum cephalosporins (e.g., cefotaxime, ceftriaxone). We defined nonsusceptible isolates as those that were of intermediate and high-level resistance or that were simply described as not susceptible to ethics essay the antibiotic tested. We aggregated data obtained from the david definition, participating hospitals within each ABCs site to produce summary antimicrobial susceptibility percentages. When generating tables comparing percent of nonsusceptible pneumococcal isolates estimated by situation ethics essay antibiograms and by ABCs, we used only antibiogram data for craig the year in question (1997 for all sites excluding New York [1998]); antibiograms covering other periods were excluded from situation essay this portion of the analysis. Also, we used only in America Art, antibiograms that included both the total number of isolates tested and the percent nonsusceptible for each of the antibiotics evaluated; this system allowed for situation ethics aggregation of the laboratorys data with those from and bentley story other laboratories. If only a subset of isolates were tested against erythromycin and extended-spectrum cephalosporins, we excluded these results from the aggregated total for erythromycin, cephalosporins, or both. We also calculated the percent of laboratories that included S. pneumoniae susceptibility testing to a variety of ethics essay other antimicrobial agents and the percent of laboratories generating antibiograms that included susceptibility testing of gram-negative bacteria. About Of Same-Sex Worldwide. To compare the proportions of essay resistant and craig story, susceptible S. Situation Ethics Essay. pneumoniae isolates detected by Legalization Marriages the two surveillance methods, we examined the ethics, proportion of Essay in America hospitals whose aggregated antibiogram data fell within a range of 5% and situation essay, 10% compared with that detected through active surveillance.

One hundred and forty-five ABCs laboratories completed the surveys; these laboratories conducted antibiotic susceptibility and other testing for a total of 170 (85%) of the 199 hospital laboratories participating in about Worldwide ABCs at the time the ethics, study was undertaken. Of the 145 responding laboratories, 108 (74%) routinely generated antibiograms. Craig. The 108 antibiograms created include pneumococcal susceptibility testing results for ethics 140 (70%) of the 199 ABCs hospital laboratories. In-house microbiologists typically generated the craig story, antibiograms (83%), while infection control practitioners (7%) and pharmacists (10%) created the remaining. Nearly all laboratories included both sterile site (98%) and nonsterile site (92%) isolates in situation essay the antibiograms. Ninety-five percent included inpatient, and guide answers, 79% included outpatient isolates. Forty-six laboratories (43%) included duplicate isolates from situation ethics individual patients in Essay about Nephrolithiasis their antibiograms. When asked how pneumococcal isolates with intermediate susceptibility were categorized, survey responders stated that their laboratory characterized these isolates as intermediate (37%), resistant (32%), susceptible (5%), and nonsusceptible (22%). Ethics Essay. This question did not specify the antibiotic tested. Only 25 (23%) laboratories generated antibiograms that included data distinguishing isolates intermediate and resistant to penicillin; 77% only indicated whether the isolates were susceptible or nonsusceptible.

The average number of isolates included in the summary antibiograms was nearly double the number collected through active surveillance; the definition, mean number of essay pneumococcal isolates (per site) tested for penicillin susceptibility was 417 (range 69850) for henry david thoreau ABCs and 826 (range 3831,291) for situation summary antibiograms. Hospitals (n=40) that excluded duplicate isolates from american eagle pass antibiograms averaged similar numbers of ethics isolates (mean 89 isolates) tested for penicillin susceptibility as did hospitals (n=34) whose antibiograms included multiple isolates from a single patient (mean number of isolates tested 88). Art. Of the 140 hospital laboratories whose pneumococcal antibiotic susceptibility testing results were summarized in situation antibiograms, 96 (70%) created antibiograms with penicillin-susceptibility results in story a format that could be aggregated for ethics essay the year in question. Henry David Thoreau Definition. The proportion of situation laboratories in each site that generated usable penicillin susceptibility data ranged from 70% (MD) to 100% (NY and MN). Criminology. Antibiograms included susceptibility-testing results for macrolides (63%) and situation, third-generation cephalosporins (57%). David Definition. The proportion of laboratories for which this susceptibility information was in situation a format that could be aggregated, however, was smaller for positivism criminology macrolides (44%) and third-generation cephalosporins (39%). For the ethics essay, eight sites, the proportion of penicillin-nonsusceptible isolates from ABCs ranged from 14.5% (NY) to eagle all access pass 38.4% (TN), whereas antibiograms yielded a range of 18.5% (CA) to situation essay 41.7% (TN) (Table 1).

For all sites the Empiricism and Rationalism Essay, overall proportion of ethics essay isolates nonsusceptible to Empiricism and Rationalism Essay penicillin according to antibiograms was within 10 percentage points of the population- and ethics essay, laboratory-based surveillance (ABCs); for six sites it was within 5 percentage points. Craig And Bentley. The proportion of penicillin-nonsusceptible isolates for each site identified by antibiograms was higher than that generated by ABCs (median difference: 3.65%; range 8.6% to 1.8%). No correlation existed between site-specific levels of penicillin resistance and the magnitude of situation ethics difference between site-specific penicillin resistance identified by in America Art the two methods. The proportions of ethics pneumococcal isolates nonsusceptible to a third-generation cephalosporin and to and Rationalism Essay erythromycin were lower than the proportion of penicillin-nonsusceptible isolates, regardless of the situation ethics essay, method used (Tables 2 and and bentley, 3). Similar to the results for penicillin, the situation, percent of and bentley strains nonsusceptible to ethics third-generation cephalosporins or erythromycin as detected by henry david thoreau definition antibiograms tended to situation ethics be greater than the eagle all access pass, percent nonsusceptible detected by ethics essay ABCs. In contrast, the digestive system answers, range of the differences for ethics essay third-generation cephalosporins and Essay, erythromycin detected by the two surveillance methods was larger than the range of differences for penicillin as measured for situation each ABCs site. The magnitude of the difference in overall susceptibility to third-generation cephalosporins determined by the two surveillance methods was 10% for henry definition seven of situation essay eight sites and eagle all access pass, 5% for five sites. The magnitude of the difference in situation ethics essay susceptibility to erythromycin as determined by the two surveillance methods was 10% for all sites and and bentley, 5% for only four sites. In addition to penicillin, cephalosporins, and macrolides, submitted antibiograms included susceptibility testing results for ethics essay a variety of other antibiotics that included the Empiricism and Rationalism Essay, following: trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (35%), vancomycin (59%), clindamycin (47%), gentamycin (3.9%), and one or more fluoroquinolones (14%). Thirty-eight percent of antibiograms returned for ethics analysis also included antimicrobial susceptibility testing results for Essay about Nephrolithiasis various gram-negative bacteria. The results of situation our study suggest that antibiograms may be an system guide answers, adequate method for situation ethics essay conducting drug-resistant S. Digestive System Study Answers. pneumoniae surveillance for many health departments, illustrating the situation, comparability of aggregated antibiograms that include both sterile and nonsterile site isolates to about Legalization of Same-Sex Marriages Worldwide active, laboratory- and population-based surveillance for ethics essay invasive isolates.

For more than half the comparisons between the positivism criminology, two methods, the difference in essay antibiotic resistance detected was 5 percentage points, and for 23 (96%) of the about Legalization, 24 comparisons the situation ethics essay, difference was 10 percentage points. No significant differences in comparability of the two methods were noted between high- and low-resistance areas. This study indicates that antibiograms may be an henry, alternative tool for situation evaluating penicillin nonsusceptibility in Essay about Nephrolithiasis a region and validates the earlier findings of the Oregon study, conducted in an area of relatively low antibiotic resistance ( 11 ). Although the situation ethics essay, estimates of level of resistance obtained from antibiograms approximated that from ABCs, aggregated antibiogram data tended to show a higher proportion of nonsusceptible isolates within each site and for each antibiotic evaluated. Essay About Nephrolithiasis. This trend is likely due to situation the inclusion of nonsterile (noninvasive) site isolates. In studies from centers that include both sterile and nonsterile isolates, nonsterile site isolates have been found to be equally or more resistant ( 15 17 ). The reason for Empiricism and Rationalism Essay this difference is unclear but may reflect differences in serotype distribution between strains causing invasive and essay, noninvasive disease.

Disparity in results between clinical and reference laboratories could also contribute to this trend; use of the american pass, E test (AB Diodisk, Solna, Sweden) by clinical laboratories might vary from the referent method (broth microdilution) by situation ethics essay one half or one dilution ( 18 ). In this study, we were unable to positivism examine the role of ethics essay laboratory error or differences in about susceptibility-testing methods as a reason for differences in results from antibiograms compared with those from active surveillance. Compared to penicillin, differences between the ethics essay, two surveillance methods were greater for american eagle extended-spectrum cephalosporins and erythromycin. This finding may be because of smaller numbers of ethics isolates included in Essay Legalization the antibiograms, fewer laboratories that included susceptibility testing of S. pneumoniae to these antibiotics, or greater disagreement between clinical and reference laboratory results. Ethics. We could not include antibiogram-susceptibility testing results for positivism criminology some hospital laboratories because only essay, a subset of the on Slavery Art, pneumococcal isolates that were tested for penicillin nonsusceptibility were also tested for susceptibility against third-generation cephalosporins (20 laboratories) and ethics essay, erythromycin (13 laboratories). The potential explanations for henry definition why these laboratories tested only a subset of ethics essay pneumococcal isolates (i.e., only system answers, penicillin-nonsusceptible isolates were tested) against the same antibiotics were not indicated on ethics, the antibiograms. We chose to evaluate the comparability of the two surveillance methods by observing how often the craig and bentley, percent nonsusceptible isolates estimated by situation aggregated antibiograms differed by 5 and Essay on Slavery in America Art, 10 percentage points from that estimated by ABCs active surveillance. As there exists no standardized or absolute level of situation ethics essay antimicrobial drug resistance that would dictate a change in empiric treatment of pneumococcal infections, we chose a priori two conservative thresholds of difference. A healthcare provider may not modify empiric therapy based on Essay, the differences found in our study, and the magnitude of differences reported here are likely not relevant from situation ethics a public health perspective.

Trends of pneumococcal antibiotic resistance over and Rationalism time may be of more clinical and epidemiologic relevance than an absolute level. Knowledge of essay local trends may help communities assess regional antibiotic use and evaluate the effects of criminology local educational measures promoting the ethics, judicious use of antibiotics. As this study did not span multiple years, we could not document the ability of antibiograms to detect trends. However, given that sentinel surveillance conducted in ABCs sites has been shown to detect pneumococcal resistance trends over Nephrolithiasis time ( 19 ) and that in situation our study antibiograms provided site-specific point estimates of antibiotic resistance similar to those measured by active sruveillance, antibiograms may be able to system guide answers follow trends in pneumococcal antimicrobial resistance at the local level. Drawbacks to this surveillance method include the ethics, inability to evaluate resistance to multiple drugs. Relatively few drugs can be evaluated because of laboratory variations in Legalization of Same-Sex Marriages antibiotics selected for ethics susceptibility testing by antibiograms. Health departments that wish to and bentley monitor emerging resistance patterns to antibiotics, such as vancomycin or fluoroquinolones, might consider a method other than aggregated susceptibility tables, or they might encourage hospital laboratories within a defined community to standardize their susceptibility panels to facilitate aggregation of results. Another limitation of antibiograms is the inability to distinguish between intermediate- and ethics, high-level resistance to penicillin; 77% of antibiograms in our study expressed resistance as percent nonsusceptible rather than distinguishing between intermediate and resistant isolates. This distinction has become relevant for american all access pass treatment of some infections. For example, NCCLS guidelines recommend different breakpoints by syndrome (meningitis vs. nonmeningitis) for situation ethics essay some agents ( 20 ). Essay. Aggregating antibiograms is useful for infections that are generally community-acquired, but antimicrobial resistance in hospital-acquired infections should be evaluated based on the knowledge of the particular institutions flora.

Finally, not all hospitals laboratories generate antibiograms or generate them in a manner facilitating aggregation across laboratories. However, we demonstrated the comparability of the two surveillance methods despite the ethics essay, fact that the positivism, penicillin-nonsusceptibility results, as measured by situation essay antibiograms, was known for only 96 (48%) of the 199 ABCs hospital laboratories. This study should help clinicians and public health personnel in Art state or local health departments determine which surveillance tool for obtaining estimates of situation essay antibiotic-resistant S. Essay. pneumoniae is best suited to their specific region or community by providing background information on two alternative systems; the ethics essay, benefits and criminology, limitations of each system may be reviewed to situation ethics essay determine the most useful and practical surveillance tool for a particular region. Antibiograms are relatively inexpensive and easy to use. Eagle All Access. Although not measured in our study, epidemiologists in Oregon found that the ethics, cost of active surveillance was approximately 70 times that of aggregating antibiograms for the three-county study area ( 11 ); the henry david thoreau definition, high cost of situation ethics this type of surveillance, however, is partially due to the fact that ABCs is an positivism, integrated system that accomplishes multiple objectives in addition to susceptibility testing of pneumococcal isolates ( 12 ). Most hospitals and essay, laboratories routinely generate antibiograms; therefore, obtaining this information is relatively easy and david thoreau definition, within the situation ethics, capacity of local health departments. Active surveillance, on the other hand, excludes duplicate isolates for pass a single patient or infection and situation, is able to provide extensive additional information such as risk factors for and Rationalism resistant infections, outcome data, and situation ethics essay, other laboratory testing such as serotype determination. Active surveillance also limits case and isolate collection to persons who are residents of the defined surveillance area, allowing for digestive system study calculation of rates of situation ethics essay disease. Furthermore, active surveillance provides individual patient-level data, allowing assessment of the impact of specific interventions such as pneumococcal conjugate vaccination of infants and all access pass, young children. Attainment of patient-level data through active surveillance also permits detection of possible changes in the incidence of situation ethics resistant pneumococcal infections (e.g., because of a general decrease in cases of pass pneumococcal infection among children receiving pneumococcal conjugate vaccine) that might go unnoticed if only the situation ethics essay, proportion of resistant isolates were tracked (i.e., as done by antibiograms). Increasing antibiotic drug resistance is a problem that is american, global in scale and that has practical implications for ethics the treatment and craig and bentley story, outcome of situation invasive infections from S. pneumoniae and Empiricism, other bacteria of ethics essay public health importance.

Clinicians and researchers are now acknowledging the importance of preventing resistant infections through appropriate use of positivism criminology antibiotics and vaccines. Essay. Surveillance data are needed to monitor the success of these campaigns and to positivism raise awareness of the ethics, problem. Because most local laboratories generate antibiograms routinely, collecting aggregating antibiogram data is an Essay, inexpensive and ethics, readily available method of measuring local antibiotic resistance levels. Although providing less information than active surveillance, aggregated antibiogram data are a generally accurate way for Essay health departments to generate needed community-specific estimates of pneumococcal resistance. Dr. Van Beneden is essay, a medical epidemiologist in american all access the Respiratory Diseases Branch, Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, Centers for situation Disease Control and Prevention. Digestive System Study Guide. Her research interests include public health surveillance systems for community-acquired bacterial infections, antimicrobial resistance among streptococci, study of vaccines against situation, pneumococcal disease, and group A streptococcal disease. We thank the surveillance officers, clinical microbiologists, laboratory directors, and managers working in craig ABCs sites for essay contributing data for and bentley this study and Paul Cieslak, Richard Besser, and Anne Schuchat for situation their helpful and insightful comments on david, the manuscript. Please use the form below to submit correspondence to situation ethics the authors or contact them at and Rationalism Essay, the following address: Chris Van Beneden, Respiratory Diseases Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Rd, Mailstop D65, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA; fax: 404-371-5445.

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MIS Laboratory Resources for Tech Faculty and Students MIS Laboratory Resources for Tech Faculty and Students. Software, curriculum, career, contest, and news resources. Hosted by Randy Guthrie, PhD Microsoft Technical Evangelist. How to Get a Job At Microsoft Part II: Writing an Awesome Resume. by Randy Guthrie Microsoft Academic Developer Evangelist. Over the past few months I visited nine college campuses, attended three conferences and conducted a hand-full of job interviews, and in the process I’ve seen scores of ethics essay, resumes.

One thing I’ve been impressed with is how awful most of them are. I realize that I am probably jaded by Essay about of Same-Sex Marriages Worldwide, my experience as a career coach and service at a community career center, but still I find it amazing that something that is ethics essay so critical for getting a job is david thoreau so poorly understood; particularly by those who need jobs the most ie: students seeking internships and new college graduates. Situation Ethics Essay? The good news is that if you do even a moderately good job of writing your resume you have a pretty good chance of standing out from your competitors. I’ve put off writing this post because it is a daunting task trying to write general guidance that will be useful to most readers, and Essay about Nephrolithiasis I’ve struggled how to do this briefly, but I’ve given up and apologize in advance for situation ethics, the length of this post and hope most will find something useful in system study guide the next few thousand or so words. Let me state that I recognize that there are many ways to write a great resume, and this is just one of those ways, but since this way has always worked so far for the folks I’ve helped, that’s what I’m sticking with. Essay? I also recognize that a resume is very personal, and you need to be comfortable with how it looks, so deviation from this guidance is fine (and necessary) since everyone is different and some situations will need to and bentley story, be handled differently than shown below. Ethics? If you have questions about a specific type of craig and bentley, situation ASK IN A COMMENT TO THIS POST and ethics I promise I will answer in an additional comment or even a follow-up post.

Your questions will make this post even more valuable to everyone that reads it. First, some useful links: Resume Workshop Video : This is an animated PowerPoint presentation with my audio commentary that covers the content of this post and more Interviewing Workshop Video: This is an animated PowerPoint presentation with audio commentary on positivism how to prepare for a behavioral interview MIS Laboratory Student Page: lots of useful career links. Now let’s dig in. GENERAL FORMATTING PAGE LENGTH. One Page Please! Most managers will only look at your resume for 15-20 seconds before deciding whether to keep reading or put your resume in what I call “The Big Pile”. If you haven’t hooked the situation ethics essay, reader by positivism, then, you’ve lost the first round to situation ethics, someone who can tell their story succinctly. Two or three-page resumes do not increase your chances that the Essay about Worldwide, reader will find something interesting, it actually makes it less likely they will find (by scanning) something that they care about. Ethics? So try to keep it to a page.

I’ve never seen someone other than a college professor who needed more than one page to land an interview. White Paper Standard Fonts Unless you are a graphic artist, using colored paper, odd shapes fancy type fonts are not going to make the Essay Nephrolithiasis, kind of impression that gets an interview. Superficial attempts to situation ethics, differentiate yourself can backfire, because the reader may assume you are childish, unprofessional, or don’t have any meaningful content. Worldwide? Use the ethics essay, same type face throughout, but you can use different sizes and italics to digestive guide, make it easier to scan. Situation Essay? Don’t go smaller than 11 pt font or larger than13 pt font for about Nephrolithiasis, the main text. The examples that follow will show when larger and smaller fonts are appropriate. There are two approaches that I like to situation ethics essay, use. Henry Thoreau? The first is useful if you don’t have a lot of relevant experience and you are trying to fill space. Situation Ethics Essay? While one of the examples show the hyperlink in system study guide answers blue, do not use colored ink when printing a paper copy of your resume. Of course if you provide an electronic copy of situation ethics essay, your resume, live hyperlinks can be useful and save the Essay, reader time if not used excessively.

Your name and contact information should be grouped together. I personally don’t like having a person’s name on situation essay the left and the contact information on the right. In the example my name is 28pt and contact info is 11pt. You can go as low as nine point, but if space is an option use the two line format on thoreau definition the right. Two additional pieces of advice: (1) use only situation one phone number, and make sure it is one where you can get a message (change the criminology, recorded greeting if necessary so as to project a professional image) and situation (2) avoid cryptic or childish e-mail addresses, and use only one of those as well. Some career advisors will tell you not to put a career or employment objective statement. Positivism? My advice is to use one. Situation Ethics? My reason is definition simple: I debriefed a recruiter from a major aerospace company after a job fair and situation ethics essay he told me that he put any resume he received without a [clear] objective statement in the trash, because his HR department would not know where to route it. So my advice is to use one and make it count.

Here’s how: Your objective statement should say in under ten words the kind of job you are looking for. For example: “Seeking a senior-level account executive position in the Pharmaceutical industry”. Do not use airy, empty, and vague statements that don’t say anything such as “seeking a challenging position with a leading company where my skills and strengths can be utilized”. And Rationalism? You would be amazed at how many people think that is what you are supposed to write. I saw a resume written just this week that had an ethics essay, objective statement that said “To play a significant role in and bentley story an organization that aspires to be extraordinary”. These kinds of essay, statements don’t help and Empiricism Essay can actually delay the situation ethics, reader from learning anything of value about you. But What If I’m Qualified for More Than One Kind of Job? If you are going to a career fair, then you should probably take several (three or four or even five) versions of your resume. And Rationalism Essay? Most job fairs will list the situation essay, companies and the jobs they are recruiting for in advance so if you are prepared, then you can know how many versions you should take. For example, you can have different resumes that focus on web development, database, or application development, information security, or telecommunications.

If you are applying to a specific company, then you tailor the objective statement (actually the entire resume) for positivism, that specific job. If you are applying for an internship or job right out of college, your education is ethics essay your biggest selling point, so it needs to go before any previous work experience. Since most recruiters will know what school they are recruiting from, and name of the school is less important and the college major / minor and Essay Legalization of Same-Sex Worldwide date of completion. Situation Essay? Once you’ve graduated and are on thoreau definition the street, then where you went to school is situation essay more important than the Essay about, major. Here is how I would handle both situations:

In these examples, I put the essay, degree major first, because that is the first thing a recruiter will care about. Nephrolithiasis? I also put my my recent (and most impressive!) degree first. Essay? Notice I don’t put GPA. There are two reasons: 1) it clutters up the page with less-important information, and 2) unless you graduated with a 4.0, most people won’t think there is much difference between a 3.5 and a 3.8. If your GPA is digestive answers less than a 3.6, it probably doesn’t differentiate you from others, so leave it off unless an employer requires it. If your GPA is ethics essay under 3.0, then I don’t have to explain why you would leave it off.

If you graduated with honors, and Empiricism and Rationalism Essay it says so on situation your transcript, then by all means mention it as in the first example. Empiricism And Rationalism? If you college doesn’t award honors, do not make it up, even if your 3.9 GPA would have gotten you honors at a college that awards them. Essay? If you need to digestive guide answers, put a GPA in, then I would put it just to ethics essay, the right of the university name. What should I put if I have not graduated yet? This is one of my favorite resume techniques. The minute you start attending school you can put that you are working on a degree, and post your anticipated graduation date. The cool part is that you format it just like these examples, but word the graduation date a little differently like the “PhD degree” in the example, and put the craig story, graduation date in situation essay the future! No one is going to henry, be fooled by this, so don’t worry about looking like you are trying to situation essay, get away with something, but what it does do is make your resume subtly look complete. Plus it does answer the question about what you might be good at. What about other school accomplishments? Where should they go?

Great question! If you were the valedictorian, ASB president, or president of a club, then I would list up to three (but probably not more) bullet points underneath the senior project or thesis (if you mentioned one) or university name (if you didn’t). These should be quantified accomplishments in the form I describe in the next section. If you have more than two or three years of work experience in the field you are applying for, then your experience is more important to a potential employer than your education, so once you' are no longer a new college grad, your education goes at the bottom of your resume and henry david thoreau this section goes right under the objective. Why? Because it will be of ethics essay, most interest to system study guide answers, the reader and you want it read during those first precious 20 seconds. Now there are lots of different ideas floating around about how you should format this section; the most common is to situation ethics, put the date on the left. The fact is henry david that the date is the least important piece of information relating you your employment history. Ethics Essay? Far more important is david thoreau what you did, and then for whom you did it.

When you did it is last. The order that I recommend you present the situation ethics essay, facts about each job is: Job Title Company Name Employment duration One sentence job description Two - Four Quantified Accomplishments. Most of the resumes I have seen (and written early in digestive study guide my career) were based on essay an old formula of describing the job in terms of the formal job description. The problem with this approach that it doesn’t differentiate the writer from everyone else applying for the job. Can you imagine how hard it would be to pick someone to interview for digestive system answers, a bookkeeping job if every experienced bookkeeper that applied only situation ethics listed their job duties? Every resume would say almost the exact same thing ! To avoid this problem, and to really make you shine, we write the work experience section so that we focus on quantified accomplishments . This example shows my recommended format, and includes three quantified accomplishment statements. An accomplishment is “quantified” when you describe it in terms of some quantity.

I like to try to digestive, get two numbers in each accomplishment if possible. Numbers make your claims more credible, and if you have some kind of big numbers, it can really make a good impression. Situation? Don’t over Essay Marriages Worldwide sell; let the numbers speak for you. If you can describe an situation, accomplishment in a single line, that is positivism fantastic. In fact, leaving some information out simply begs the reader to want to know more. If you get invited for situation ethics essay, an interview, you can bet you’ll be asked about Empiricism these accomplishments, and how can you go wrong talking about something you did that was great? Don’t forget to situation ethics essay, mention awards and recognitions like Employee of the month three times” or “Top Producer in 2008”. Notice also that I have my job title in bold and in a larger font. Study Guide? I do that so that it is easier for the reader to visually scan. Notice also that the company name is in italics.

That helps set the different facts apart. I have each fact separated by more than a couple of essay, spaces so that each stands out. Now a bit more about Empiricism and Rationalism job titles. Situation Ethics Essay? Sometime you might have an “official” job title that is so vague, or even wrong based on what you do. For example, I had three lateral job changes at digestive system guide, an aerospace company that did not change my payroll classification, so my managers never bothered to ethics essay, updated my “requisition” to reflect the story, changes in my job title. So if you were to ethics, call the digestive guide answers, HR department and ask what my job title was, they would use the ethics, title I was hired at, not the one from the Empiricism and Rationalism, last job I held! So on situation essay my resume, you can bet I use the title from the last job I was assigned to, not my “official” job title. The moral of the story is that if your “real” job title is too vague, or even deceptive, do not be afraid to put a more accurate, clear job title on Essay about Nephrolithiasis the resume . Example: if you had an internship in a finance department, and your “official” title was “Intern”, do not be afraid to ethics essay, use “Intern-Finance Department”. I try to avoid this section if possible. It’s much better to Essay Legalization of Same-Sex Marriages, talk about the tools and skills you know in your accomplishments statements.

But if you learned how to do something in class, but haven’t used it on the job, and the job you are applying for wants candidates who have this skill, you need to situation ethics essay, use this section. But be careful. Here are some recommendations: Do not list skills and knowledge that almost everyone has. The most common offender here is positivism that you know Microsoft Office. As a recent college graduate, we assume you learned the basic programs. Stating it here does not differentiate you.

Avoid huge long lists using every acronym you can think of ie:, C#, C++, PHP, etc. Remember you are targeting each resume for situation essay, a particular job, so only list the things a potential employer cares about. Essay About Nephrolithiasis? Huge list casts doubt on which of those you really know. Situation? When I see a big list I seriously doubt that the author really has working knowledge of criminology, all those technologies and his/her credibility really starts to slip. Be accurate in describing your knowledge. At Microsoft, if someone says he/she knows something, 9 times out of 10 we’ll make them prove it in an interview. If you say you know C++, you can bet you’ll be ask to ethics, write a bubble sort or something like that in C++ on a white board during an interview. If its been 5 years since that Java class and you’ve not written a single line of code since then, don’t say you know Java. Remember, your resume is just supposed to get you invited for an interview, not get you a job offer.

That is what the interview is for. Craig And Bentley Story? Keep your resume simple and focused on a single job. Keep it to a single page. Situation Ethics Essay? Catch-all, general-purpose resumes DO NOT WORK. You can send out Empiricism Essay hundreds of these and you will never get a single response (I know – I tried it when I was young and inexperienced). On the essay, other hand, you can send out criminology ten, customized, targeted resumes using the approach outlined here and may get three, five, or even eight responses. This technique works if you have actually have sometime to offer an situation, employer.

Your resume is a personal statement of who you are from a particular point of david, view. You’ll get all kinds of advice about situation how to system, do your resume, but you don’t have to do exactly as everyone tells you. If you feel like you know better, then go with your gut feeling. Lastly, check out the additional (and more detailed) examples and guidance at the links at the top. There really is some good information there that I’ve gleaned from years of coaching students and others to get high-tech jobs in a competitive job market. And finally, PROOF READ everything many, many times, and situation essay have others look at your resume as well. (career center people are invaluable for Essay about Legalization Marriages, this). Good luck and good job hunting! [Note: an earlier version of situation ethics, this post mysterious lost most of its content, hence this repost]

I dont think the one page resume works in the IT industry if you are experience. I tried that once after reading an article like this and was summarily eviscerated by a recruiter for ruining my resume. The few times Ive been on the market, my three page resume (4 with references) easily landed me interviews. Of course, I put the vital information on the front page in a summary section. Working with a recruiter is a different situation. The recruiter wanted every fact he could get his hands on. He was then going to be the hiring companys filter.

He would look at a job, and then market those parts of your resume that was a good fit. Craig And Bentley Story? Had you attempted to get an interview with those companies yourself with your long resume, there is a chance they would have quit reading it before they got to the parts they cared about. Essay? It is certain that the parts they cared about could have fit on a single page, and that is the goal. The trick of course is trying to guess from the job listing what a company will consider to be your relevant experience. My son-in-law recently completed a job search, and I helped with his resume. His recruiter commented that my son-in-laws [one page] resume was the first he had ever seen that he didnt feel like it needed fixing.

So while I think there are situation where the Essay Nephrolithiasis, use of a longer resume is justified (like college professor jobs), I still believe that an individual applying for jobs is well served by a customized, targeted single-page resume. I am a graduate in the Manufacture Engineering field from two colleges and situation ethics essay the same degree. One is a 2yr and positivism criminology the other is a 4yr. The problem I am having is that there is never an opening for Entry Level Positions. All the jobs that are available and situation have gotten in the past are ones that are looking for a candidate with 5-10 years of positivism, experience. Since I really only have 2 years, my resume is about 3-4 pages long in hopes that I can sell myself for the 8 years I do not have. Plus about situation ethics essay 95% of the time I get calls for possible jobs through recruiters. (Since this is how Industrial jobs are filled) Other jobs that I have on my resume are car mechanic places that show I am mechanical incline and can be more than an office employee.

Every person that has read my resume does not believe that I should eliminate any mechanical experiences that I have. What should I do in this case, and should both colleges remain on henry thoreau definition the resume?? Do you have any full resume examples? I was also wondering if you had any resume templates available for entry-level jobs. I am trying to situation, get either an internship of entry-level part-time job in henry thoreau the marketing field. One of the things you havent addressed with experienced workers is ethics how to handle contract work (which Microsoft apparently believes in for project work.) I know you dont handle experienced workers so I am probably barking up the wrong tree. In any event, the digestive study guide answers, way I see it, as a contractor I work for myself and subcontract my services. Ethics Essay? Initially I would list every project I worked on (that sometimes last a week), but realized that this isnt the way you do it if you work as a full-time consultant. So, now I just list the highlights of these projects under my consulting job.

Of course recruiters get mad since they want to see every one listed out. I now looked at your video and its all clear. I still plan to keep to henry thoreau definition, 1 page. Hi Randy. this blog is pretty impressive, liked it! I have a question to you. I'm willing to apply for essay, a microsoft full time position in their software development and i'm confused whether to submit a one page resume or a multi page one after reading your blog. Can you give me your suggestions? If applying for criminology, a Microsoft marketing internship would it be better to use their CV or would it be more appealing to upload a multimedia resume such as a power point presentation or create a website marketing myself? To be honest, our recruiters only have so much time to give to any one resume (like 20 seconds), and one of the tests of ethics essay, fitness is if a candidate can highlight their strengths concisely on a single page.

I have seen some great resumes that struggled to fill half a page because every word was gold. In my opinion, a PowerPoint presentation or web page misses the point. One of my favorite examples is that you don't catch a fish by and Rationalism, throwing your entire tackle box in the river, you catch a fish by knowing what one fly or lure to use out of all the stuff in your tackle box. Highlight the ethics, stuff you have done demonstrates your passion for software development by positivism, what you did outside of ethics essay, class or work assignments. Highlight your leadership (active or passive). Highlight the differentiators that relate to craig, the job you area applying for. Put the situation ethics, things that Microsoft will care the most about henry thoreau definition early in your resume rather than later. Use as few a words as possible. Don't make long lists of computer programs you have used a few times hoping that the key word search will select you. We're smarter than that. Highlight awards and essay recognition you have received.

One of the hottest differentiators right now are apps. We'll talk to anyone that has published apps in Empiricism and Rationalism Essay the Windows Store or Windows Phone Marketplace, or iOS or Android stores, particularly if you've had a bunch of downloads or made some real money from them. That kind of third-party evidence is very compelling to Microsoft recruiters. I would like to know what you feel the best way to ethics, put open source contributions on your resume is. I can't decide whether I should write it in detail similar to a job, or as a bullet point in a personal projects section. @Karan, Great question. You are definitely thinking about this in the right way. My feeling is that you can go either way, depending on the scope of the henry david, contribution. Job History for essay, a big contribution, personal project for a smaller contribution. Using the job history approach, I would use the title Contributer or something similar, and henry thoreau definition the company as the open source application and essay the date from the system study guide answers, first contribution to the most recent.

Then the bullets would be either feature names and situation number of lines of code, or if it is a major feature, then the bullets would detail your contribution ie: lines of Essay about Nephrolithiasis, code, rating or other quality measure, number of users of the feature, etc. Hello mam. I went through your article. I am presently pursuing my B.Tech in Computer Science And Engineering . What do I need to do to get a Job at Microsoft?It will be a pleasure to have a live chat with you mam/ @Subham Soni: Start at essay, and then select the and Rationalism, Student or Recent Grad link. Situation? Then read about the various jobs and how to apply for them. Good luck!

I like the one page idea and want to convert to it. The problem is, I want to Essay, change industries (out of mortgages into tech, data, SAS sales) but I have had 9 different positions in the last 13 years, due to company closures, career advancement into management, and banking legislative changes. I know it is situation ethics essay critical that I list how my skill-set and accomplishments will translate to the new industry/position, but how do I handle not having the room to list all of my positions without leaving gaps and raising suspicion that I am leaving something out? I'm not sure how to check back on this post, so if you could be so kind to forward your response to me at, I would greatly appreciate it. This article was very well written and you are clearly an expert so I look forward to any suggestions or advice you can offer. @Joe Saylor This is a case where a cover letter may be necessary to assure the Nephrolithiasis, hiring organization that you are not a job-hopper by explaining the situation essay, reasons. The goal for you is to show thoughtful career trajectory where each step reflects personal growth.

What I would experiment is to think of Nephrolithiasis, yourself (for purposes of approaching your resume design) as a consultant with multiple clients over situation ethics essay certain period of time. So you cluster by system study guide, role since I would expect you did more or less the essay, same thing for Marriages Worldwide, a couple of different companies. I might even omit the situation ethics essay, company name in the first line, and mention multiple companies in the description section. About Nephrolithiasis? Again, I've never done a resume in exactly this way, but hopefully my sort of thinking out loud will show you how to approach this. Situation Ethics Essay? It might be simpler to just go with two pages and to Empiricism and Rationalism Essay, limit your earlier jobs to one or two lines.

A two-page resume isn't all that bad. It is situation ethics essay definitely better than doing something overly weird or awkward. When we are applying for interships of companies like microsoft or google,being a second year student of IT what should our resume should contain? Hello, Thank you for taking the time to write this article, it has been a great help to me as I'm restructuring my resume. When where should I add references?

Randy, I have a bunch of about, personal projects which I work on situation ethics and off, all close to my heart, and I work on them because I really really love programming. That of study guide, course means some of them are not finished, but they are there. Should I then include the github links to them? Randy, should I include personal projects not academic on resume too? Impressive and useful post! Should resume include a scanned picture of the writer? and Should the writer include the situation ethics essay, projects for which he's not having a certificate and and bentley are self made (made only in situation essay a hobby practice)? Thank you for your reply.

@Umar: My advice about personal projects is to start a business, even if not formally or officially, but list your personal projects as an employee of your own company. Essay About Legalization Of Same-Sex Worldwide? Avoid a pretentious title like CEO or President and use something like Founder and Lead Developer. @ChristNolan: I wouldn't include a picture unless you are applying for a position as a model or acting talent; in that case your agency can advise. As I advised @Umar above, assume you work for your own company, and list a non-pretentious title and showcase projects (not all of them) as appropriate for the position you are applying for. Make sure though that you quantify your accomplishments ie: lines of code, special features, downloads and ratings (if an app), etc. @Sean: don't add references unless you are specifically asked, and most companies are moving away from situation, them due to henry david definition, privacy laws and the fact that you aren't going to provide references unless they are good anyway. I just re-read this post now six year later, and I agree with almost all of it except that now I think a longer resume is situation ethics essay more acceptable ie: if you need two pages go ahead and and Rationalism spill over onto essay another page but do try to keep it as short as possible and don't use the extra page as an excuse to craig and bentley story, put every fact about yourself that you can possibly think of. Only go onto a second page if you have gold to put on it. And get an outside opinion to situation ethics, confirm what you think is gold really is. How do I get a Microsoft Word 2013 Resume Builder or Template.

Hi Randy, Thank you for your advices, A friend recommended a video you had, but it is no available. Essay Nephrolithiasis? Do you know where can I find the video? I really appreciate your thought process and having it explained properly, thank you! The best and most eye catching resumes let you stand out from the crowd. Likewise, I'd love to see those videos that aren't presently working! I'm presently in the process of situation ethics, applying for Essay about of Same-Sex Marriages, a job for Microsoft and I'm quite fresh from school. This article more than any other so far has been useful, and I'm quite eager to situation essay, see those links. Thanks for your time! I really found the detail with which you have explained resume making very useful.

I am currently a junior without any work experience and looking to apply for thoreau definition, a good summer internship where I get a good learning scope in the fields of Programming and algorithms. As a person with no prior industry experience what do you think my resume should mostly focus on? @Joe Saylor: I think when you have a complicated situation, you either group your experience and list companies and time frames, or list the companies and just go with a longer resume. The secret here is to handle the explanation in a cover letter. Situation Essay? If you are submitting online, and they don't have a place for a cover letter, then just make the first page of your resume your cover letter and then follow with your resume below. BTW, the resume workshop video links are fixed. David Thoreau Definition? The video hoster I used went out of business so I had to migrate. Cheers, and good luck! Randy. @Ismael, @Ryno, @Sneha: Thanks for the heads up! I moved the ethics essay, videos to david, another hosting site and updated the ethics essay, links. You should be good to go! Randy.

I also have a new blog post on how to add student projects to david thoreau definition, your resume: Cheers! Randy. Randy, should we include any academic publications (conference papers for ethics essay, example) in the resume? Yes, if the publications directly relate to craig and bentley, the job you are applying to. Publications should absolutely be included in a curriculum vitae (a special kind of resume for professors and researchers), or for any job where publication will be part of the job.

If you are applying for a job in industry where your skills are what they are looking for, I would leave out the publications. Randy.

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The Walt Disney Company-a case study. (1) Disney's industry in relation to Porter's Five-Forces Model, (2) the strengths and the weaknesses and the opportunities and situation ethics essay the threats that the Essay Legalization Worldwide, company is facing (a SWOT analysis), (3) the corporate-level strategy and situation ethics finally, financial trend for the years 1989 through 1991. In addition, I would like to deliberate on the strategic changes and criminology tactical changes that are needed to be made at the Walt Disney Company. Porter's-Five-Forces Model focuses on ethics, the external environment that the thoreau, company has to be able to cope with. The first force to be discussed is the ethics, threat of new entrants.

Since the Empiricism, Disney company has been able to find a very distinctive niche in the industry, the ethics essay, entrance barriers are relatively high. The company has been able to grow over a long period of time, and Essay has developed from within the departments of Research and development, marketing, and finance. By relying on past experience, company officials know to situation essay, a large extent what the target customer wants. Essay About? As Disney pretty much dominates the family entertainment market, it will be very difficult for such a new organization to develop brand recognition/identification, and product differentiation. Disney has focused of market diversification for years and essay the company covers a wide array of products and services. Being a market leader has made it possible for the company to practice effective economies of scale in production. For example, over 500,000 copies of the Videocassette Pinocchio was sold in only two months, and has 20-30 million visitors to its theme parks every year. In addition, extremely large amounts of capital investment is required for new entrants into the industry. The capital requirements are extremely high.

For instance, Disney spent USD3.6 billion in its European theme park (Euro Disneyland). Only very large companies can meet such large capital requirement. Lastly, the government policy towards the industry appears to be very favorable. The French government invested USD 1.2 billion (40%) in Euro Disneyland, provided public transportation facilities, provided a large tax relief (from 18.6% to 7%) on the cost of goods sold. The bargaining power of customers is high in thoreau, the service and in the entertainment industry. Situation Ethics Essay? Since a large number of customers are needed to make Disney's operations run smoothly, the customers have certain powers. And Rationalism Essay? For instance, if the price on a particular home video is too high, customers may be reluctant to spending the money needed to situation, purchase the product. Another example is the Essay Marriages Worldwide, entrance fee charged at Disney's theme parks.

It is stated in the case that the maximum amount of money that customers are willing to pay is USD 33. Furthermore, the entertainment industry does not save the buyer money. Situation? Instead it is positivism designed in a way that it will make the buyer spend more. A majority of Disney's product mix focuses on intangible returns on the buyer's money. The case that some customers may not realize that they are getting such a return may increase the bargaining power of the customers. The bargaining power of suppliers is moderate. Situation? As the Disney company is operating in a highly differentiated and unique industry with high switching costs associated with operations, the suppliers are dominated by a few companies and is most probably very concentrated. However, Disney is a unique and important customer of many of the suppliers. Positivism Criminology? Furthermore, the size of the company may certainly be a great advantage. By being able to situation ethics, order large volumes of unique products from unique suppliers, will create a dependency relationship in the industry.

The threat of substitute products or services is moderate to Empiricism, low. Obviously, other cartoon figures, theme parks, and movies can penetrate the market in which Disney is operating in, but I do not believe that this is representing a significant threat. The Disney company has already placed price ceilings on many of its product lines, and should be able to situation essay, compete with new competitors. Positivism? However, the threat alone of new entrants into the market requires Disney to hedge against such risk by concurrently upgrading products and services. Jockeying among current contestants does not play a very important role in Disney's external operational environment. It is true that the company's exit barriers are extremely high (who would buy a huge theme/amusement park?). Furthermore, capacity is augmented in extremely large investments. Essay? However, there are no close direct competitors to Disney's operations. Competitors such as Lonely Tunes retail stores do not appear to commit themselves to expensive advertising campaigns to obtain market shares. Moreover, Disney's products are highly differentiated. The switching costs are therefore quite significant.

A multinational corporation such as the Disney Company faces internal weaknesses and strengths, which can to a certain extent be controlled. The external forces such as opportunity and threats are more difficult to control, and Disney has to adopt and take advantage to craig story, those forces. I would like to start-up focusing on the internal capabilities of the company. Disney's main strength is in its resources, experience in situation ethics, the business, its low-cost strategy. Furthermore, the company clearly has developed a very strong and well known brand-name over many years. Positivism? The company has also been able to situation ethics essay, diversify its operations and products to hedge against Essay about Legalization Marriages, decreasing sales in product lines.

In recent years it has diverted into Home Video, Film, merchandise, Radio broadcasting, Net-work television and in theme parks. It has also effectively globally diversified its operations from situation ethics essay USA to Japan and Europe. The main strengths in internal resources refer to human resources and financial stability. Criminology? Employees in situation ethics, the Disney studies appears to be extremely innovative and in recent years they have produced several box-office productions. A company without new ideas is doomed in today's competitive business environment. The low-cost-corporate-strategy is a benefit for the company. The company can control costs, and still produce quality goods and services. Financial risks have been minimized by sharing initial investment costs with a maximum number of outside participants. Corporations always have internal weaknesses. Empiricism Essay? Disney's main weaknesses are the following; A very large work force, frequent change in ethics, top-management, and high overhead expenses. In 1991, the company has 58,000 employees.

This fact represent possible communications problems, and a high bureaucracy level within the Essay about Marriages, corporation. By diversifying into more businesses and niches, the company's work force will grow even larger, and the organizational structure has to be able to support an expansion of the work-force. Essay? The fact that the company very frequently changes its corporate officers makes the corporate structure even more complicated. There are many positive things that accompany changes, but change is also associated with resistance, and david definition large expenses. Large overhead costs are usually direct effects of a large work-force and a large number of fixed assets. For instance, ticket prices should not be able to exceed USD 33 for entrance to Walt Disneyworld.

Customers are not prepared to spend more money than that. Therefore, we can conclude that overhead costs should be closely monitored to match the price that customers are willing to ethics essay, pay for the goods and services offered. External opportunities should be recognized, analyzed, and responded to in a very early stage. The Disney company is facing several external opportunities, however, presently I believe that the external threats facing the company are out-numbering the opportunities. Opportunities includes the following; Positive government attitudes towards its operations, Barriers of entry are significant, and the entertainment industry itself. Legal and and bentley story legislative forces are usually identified as being negative external factors to a company. Ethics Essay? Ironically, in about, Disney's case, the French government contributed greatly in the Euro Disneyworld project. The French government invested over USD 1.2 billion in the project, built communication facilities, and gave Disney tax relief's on cost of goods sold accounts. In addition, since the barriers of entry into the highly specialized industry in which Disney is operating, competition will find it difficult to penetrate the company's highly diversified product/service mix. Furthermore, large initial capital investments are required to enter the ethics essay, industry.

Major threats to the Disney company include the following; Over saturated markets, politics and economic aspects from a global perspective, and foreign competition. As the supply of digestive system study guide services and products in the entertainment industry is starting to saturate the markets, competition will be more intense, and only the most powerful companies will be able to survive. I believe that Disney has leveraged this risk to a certain extent as it has diversified and globalized its operations, but still, the situation ethics essay, company is in the service/entertainment business. Some of its operations, such as the Network-television division may not be able to handle the pressure from the Cable-giants such as Turner Broadcasting Systems (TBS). World politics and the state of the global economies are related to the market capacity. In 1991, the sales revenue of Disney decreased due to a decrease in travel caused by the Persian Gulf War. Essay About Legalization Worldwide? Furthermore, economic depression could make it too expensive for people to utilize the services and the products offered. Once again, I have to situation ethics essay, point out that the company has hedged itself to the macroeconomics forces, as it has diversified its business worldwide.

If there is a depression in Europe, Euro Disneyland may operate on a loss, meanwhile, the operations in Japan would be able to cover-up the losses by boosting operating revenues. It is known that economic depressions very seldom strikes the whole world economy at once. Competition is always a threat to a company. Definition? Even though that the entrance barriers are relatively high in the niche in which the situation ethics essay, company is digestive study answers operating in, the threat of new competition cannot be excluded. The movie business and the Network-television departments are extremely risky. In those two areas of operation, Disney is the intruder, and there are several very powerful rivals. A less significant threat comes from new cartoon characters. New cartoon figures appears every-day in situation essay, television shows, and in craig and bentley story, movie theaters overseas. Will Mickey and the Gang be able to situation essay, beat the war of the limited market shares internationally and domestically? Only the future generation cartoon lovers can answer that question, but tendencies in Nephrolithiasis, the market should be very carefully monitored. Disney's corporate level strategy is based on a horizontal and situation ethics essay decentralized and informal management approach.

Ideas are born from within the departments and are worked-up throughout the craig and bentley story, relatively low hierarchy, where the final decisions are made. The management focuses on group creativity and in team-work. For instance, the most creative employees usually met every Sunday in the purpose of ethics essay coming-up with new ideas and new business concepts/strategies. The Sunday meetings are referred to as Gong Shows, where all participants have to come-up with a unique idea. As seen in this example, a large emphasis is placed on employee participation, especially on the most talented employees. Furthermore, the Essay, company is frequently refreshing its top management with new executives. Top-flight managers from the entertainment and the financial business bring with them new ideas and concepts which can be applied in the Disney Company.

There is however a significant increase in expense attached to situation, luring the very best to join the company. This increase in and Rationalism Essay, expense is directly related to special perk-packages, higher bonuses and escalated salaries that are offered to the top-executives. Another interesting approach is the emphasis that is placed on expansion of the business. Again the corporate policy is to grow slowly and not to impress anyone. It is important for ethics essay, the company to meet demand with an adequate supply of goods and/or services. This can be accomplished by effective distribution channels and effective marketing.

This leads us to another corporate policy, efficiency and restraint. Recent trend towards rapid increase in costs in the movie industry have a direct effect on the profitability of the company. By cutting back on the costs involved in positivism, making and marketing Disney films, less expensive and more profitable movies can be produced. Efficiency, enforced by tight budgets and expected high returns, have surely made it possible for Disney to produce less expensive movies than its competitors. In addition, the corporate strategy is clearly focusing on diversifying its products and services. Rapid expansion overseas, and an increase in the product and service mix has created an situation ethics essay, umbrella effect.

Thus, risks have been minimized. If one product line fails, other product lines will cover-up for its losses. While examining a corporation it is important to analyze the digestive system guide, internal financial capabilities and policies of an organization. By the use of a trend analysis, the economic health of the company can be determined and educated forecasts can be made concerning the ethics, financial future of the company. This trend analysis of the study, Disney Company is for the years 1989 through 1991. The following financial ratios will be used; profitability, liquidity, leverage and finally activity ratios. . Profitability ratios indicates how effectively the total firm is being managed.

As indicated in ethics essay, graph #1, the return on sales has decreased over the years. However, the return is still acceptable, as the criminology, American industry average is ethics essay approximately 5 percent (0.05). In 1991, the return on about, sales ratio was 0.07, or 7 percent. This can be compared to the 10 percent ratio which was achieved one year earlier (1990). Obviously, sales are not keeping-up with the net earnings of the situation ethics essay, corporation, and there is a significant decrease, but I do not think that a one-year fluctuation is anything to worry about. This decrease could be explained by temporary business problems, and and Rationalism external sources such as economic depression.

Furthermore, the return on investment decreased from 0.10 in 1990 to situation essay, 0.07 in 1991. That show us that the and Rationalism, company should try to work on its efficiency and try to optimize the usage of assets. Another interesting ratio that can be used to determine the financial position of essay a company is liquidity. Liquidity ratios are used as indicators of a firm's ability to meet its short-term obligations. It is recommended that the current ratio should be a ratio of two to three. Disney may have a problem here as its current ratio was 1.12 in 1991, and 1.08 in about Nephrolithiasis, 1990. I believe that ratio is too low, and essay perhaps a bit too risks. However, the company is making efficient use of its assets (the ratio is almost equal to one). It is a good sign that the ratio increased from 1990.

Moreover, the quick ratio for 1991 was 1.01, which is very close to the typical level of 1.0 for American companies. This ratio was 0.98 in 1990. The company leverage ratio of total debt to total assets has increase from and Rationalism Essay 0.57 in 1990 to 0.59 in 1991. This ratio show us that 59 percent of Disney's funds is provided by situation, debt. A total debt-total assets ratio higher than 50 percent is usually considered to about Legalization of Same-Sex Marriages, be safe only for firms in stable industries. Ethics Essay? Since the entertainment industry is moderately stable, we can conclude that Disney's total debt to total assets is slightly too high and because of financial risk, the ratio should be lowered to 50 percent or below. Activity ratios indicate how effectively a firm is using its resources.

The company is Legalization of Same-Sex Worldwide facing a decrease in efficiency to 0.65 in 1991 from 0.73 in 1990. That is not very good, as one of the corporate strategies is to improve efficiency. Therefore, it may be interesting to determine what departments that are decreasing the over-all efficiency of Disney. The theme parks and resort division has the situation ethics, lowest efficiency of all the henry david, divisions. In 1991 the ratio was only 0.55, that can be compared to the ratios of the film entertainment division (1.38) and the consumer products division (2.06). Please refer to situation, graph #1.

All of the departments except from the craig and bentley story, film division have faced decreases in efficiency of total assets. However, as the ethics, theme parks and resort division should be improved, as a result of its devastating low efficiency levels. By improving that particular division, Disney should be able to improve company activity ratios. Strategic changes and tactical changes that are needed in the Disney company have been mentioned throughout the paper. However, in this section, I would like to summarize some of the changes which I believe are necessary for and bentley story, keeping-up the profitability of the company. First, I would like to focus on organizational changes. Situation Ethics Essay? The frequent changes of corporate officers should be stopped. It is true that a new leader not requited from within the organization will bring with him/her new ideas and concepts. But, such a person also bring a foreign corporate culture to Disney's organization. That fact may lead to communication, efficiency, and moral problems within the organization.

By promoting from within, employees will know the new corporate officers, and understand the new rules of the game. Second, Disney's market diversification is excellent, but what is the point of licensing product ideas? I believe that it would be more profitable for the company to produce, sell and market consumer products itself rather than to a large extent relying on licensing, and percentages of revenues. For instance, the david, company did sacrifice too many profits while negotiating the situation ethics essay, Tokyo deal. Furthermore, there is positivism a possibility that the company is loosing its original purpose of being if it continues to get into various market segments. Disney should always place a very specially emphasis on its theme park division and its film entertainment division.

The company's original mission was to nurture the situation, imaginations of children around the world as well as to celebrate American values. I certainly believe that the company is drifting away from its original purpose of existence. Moreover, it could be very dangerous by entering into markets which are totally unrelated to the products/services that the customers directly associates with the craig story, Disney company. Finally, efficiency has to increase in the theme parks and resort division. Situation? The asset turnover ratios are far too low in david thoreau definition, this division in comparison to the other divisions.

Furthermore, as the liquidity ratio appears to situation essay, be a bit too low for the corporation, I would suggest the company to increase current asset requirements and keep current liabilities under strict control. Under no circumstances should the current liabilities be allowed to increase in a greater rate than the current assets.

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35 Indian Social Media Marketing Case Studies. Situation Ethics Essay? Case study is a #8220;real life report relating to a particular event, over a period of time.#8221; They play a vital role in story the deep understanding of an event and situation ethics essay facilitate the information pertaining to process of about Nephrolithiasis such event. Similarly, case studies on situation ethics social media and marketing brands brings out the creativity and criminology innovation. Essay? Brands from all sectors have been actively creating strategies to promote their campaigns through social media. Criminology? The last 5 years has been fantastic in essay the Indian Social Media landscape. Positivism? The growth was not just seen in the usage of Social Networking sites, there was a massive interest shown by situation ethics essay a lot of Indian brands on this platform. About? In no particular order here is the list of few brands whose case studies have been described in their blogs / website / nominated for award / written by blogger / analyzed by social media enthusiast. The launch of Gionee E7 was one of the most unique launches in India.

The product was launched at Buddha International Circuit, a recently built premium F1 Racing track. With hashtags #GioneeE7, #MadeForShooting and #RaceWithGionee, it was able to ethics essay create a buzz on social media. With an study guide incredible opportunity for participants to win a chance to witness the launch event, the Campaign received overwhelming response and was a great success. [Read More] With the campaign Look Up and a logo projecting the same, the brand underwent change with new logo and an optimistic brand identity. The brand generated responses with #lookupmoments where people shared their pictures and kept up the momentum. [Read More] Vogue, a leading magazine brand teamed up with Bollywoods popular face Deepika Padukone for essay a social media awareness campaign. Vogues #MyChoice and #VogueEmpower speaks about and bentley Womens choice for equality. A two minute short film featuring Deepika and Homi Adajania created massive following and received words of situation essay appreciation from Amitabh Bachchan. Henry David Thoreau? [Read More] For the Star Sports ICC Event promotions, the Sports Channel brand known for its quirky take in its ad campaigns brought on board the Mauka Guy who dons oppositions jersey (against India) with every match. The back to back witty ads built buzz for the campaign on social networks. [Read More] Tata Motors hatchback Bolt was launched in a very unique influencer based campaign. Four social media influencers with huge following competed in a reality based event. The influencers needed to get a digital bolt key to their locked glass cubicles by creating maximum digital buzz.

The winner took home the new bolt and his followers won prizes too. Ethics Essay? [Read More] A smart advertisement campaign launched by Fevikwik when the sentiments of Indians were all time high during an david India-Pakistan fixture. The #TodoNahiJodo campaign though not done on a larger scale, still managed to be talked about campaign during the period. [Read More] Cashvenger, digital mascot of ICICIs #LiveWithoutCash campaign, and the protagonist who teaches youth about the benefits of Debit and Credit Cards. The campaign for situation ethics focused on six plans for system study guide youth to situation essay go online and study guide cashless with the help of credit and debit cards. It also included a series of digital creative images posted on ethics social media. [Read More] Online Digital Wallet and Marketplace Paytm have launched many successful campaigns. Henry? Seal of Trust and #PaytmKaro were successful. The concept of cash backs, partnering with all the operators, brands and dedicated 24?7 Customer Support gave it a great push ahead of other rivals. [Read More] The launch of Chumbaks Delhi Store was done with a quirky campaign. The #bobbymissingcampaign was staged in a series of edited pictures where bobby was seen at essay, different places and finally reached Delhi. Bobby being a popular character from their bobble heads was able to create a good following and yet another successful campaign for Chumbak. [Read More] Ariel, detergent brand from PG in a smart campaign raised question about gender equality. The campaign kicked off with the question Is laundry only a womans job? and sensitised men to #ShareTheLoad. Later in the second phase it launched a mens selfie campaign #WashBucketChallenge where men submitted their picture doing washing chores. Positivism? [Read More] 11. Why this Kolaveri Di Youtube Case Study How it became a Overnight sensation. (Read Case Study)

12. How Facebook Applications are used by brands Technology based Social Media engagement campaign. (Review of 4 Apps) 13. Ethics Essay? Adidas on Facebook Cricket based Social Media marketing case study (Read Case Study) 14. And Bentley Story? Axe Facebook Marketing Case Study (Read Case Study) 15. Asian Paints Tag a Holi Friend Campaign on Facebook (Read Case Study) 16. HDFC Bank on Social Media How they listen customers on situation essay Twitter (Read Case Study) 17.

Kingfisher Beerup How Kingfisher Beer organizes Tweetups and helps promote brand value (Read Case Study) 18. Essay About Marriages? The Tweeting Newspaper Volkswagen Fair integration of Traditional and Social Media (Read Case Study) | How volkswagen uses Social Media using Twitter, Facebook, LinkedIn and YouTube (Read Case Study) 19. Situation Ethics? Listening on Social Media Snapdeal.Com | How poor advertising leads to about bad online reputation (Read Case Study) 20. Evalueserve Using LinkedIn for lead generation and brand building (Read Case Study) 21. Volkswagen India Campaign Inspires 2,700 Recommendations in 4 Weeks on LinkedIn (Read Case Study) 22. Dance India Dance-2- How engagements were created on Social Media for situation ethics the popular TV show- Social Media Case Study (Read Case Study) 23. How Anna Hazare Used Social Media for Anti Corruption Campaign in Essay India (Read Case Study) 24. MTV roadies- complete Social Media integration The most explosive youth brand in the country (Read Case Study) 25. How unbranded community on Facebook works out- Shari Academy of essay Photography Case Study (Read Case Study) 26. Henry David Definition? How Nandos Peri-Peri Discount Offer worked out On Facebook (Read Case Study) 27. Channel V Using Twitter to create buzz around the relaunch of channel[V] (Read Case Study) 28.

IPL multiplied with the power of ethics social media with spectators worldwide- YouTube case study (Read Case Study) 29 Maggi Noodles India : Social Media Marketing Efforts ( 30. How JustBooks Clc uses Facebook to connect with their target audience by creating memory games. Digestive Guide? (Read Case Study) 31. 7UP Lemon Pattalam Facebook Marketing Case Study (Read Case Study) 32. Hard Rock Cafe Battle Of The Bands Facebook Voting (Read Case Study) 33. How Indian Magazines are using social media |Mentioned: Vogue India | Forbes India (Read Case Study) 34. How health care sector in India Use Social Media Case Study of Narayana Netralaya (Read Case Study) 35. Ching#8217;s Secret The most popular Indian Social Media brand (Read Case Study) The social media scene in situation ethics India has begun to gain interest of digestive study guide youth where they choose to express themselves, communicate and situation essay respond to their favourite brands. The interaction has caught the attention of brands and such campaigns are slowly becoming the future of Digital Marketing. Do share your favourite campaigns in the comments below. Henry Thoreau? Presuming that you didn#8217;t know, Facebook#8217;s organic reach is dying!

You need to market your content and situation marketing is not just about Essay post boosting. It#8217;s about building the right profile of audience, targeting and re-targeting. You would have to situation equip yourself with the right skills to know how Facebook#8217;s Advertising works. About? And for situation essay that you need to learn from someone who practices Facebook Marketing! I am going to share my decade#8217;s worth of knowledge on the best practices with you in the Facebook Marketing Masterclass and make sure that you turn into a renowned Facebook marketer yourself. So, what are you waiting for? Register Now! Please check link for system guide point no. 19 Sorav.

It is re-directing to the home-page of your site. you should add LIC (LIC Indiaforever) case study. Good one. around 4lac fans and best engagement. in a difficult category. Krishnan. Thanks for the suggestion Krishnan. Jack in the Box Worldwide is the content-for-brands. arm of Bang Bang Films. We are a thinking doing company that combines. Ethics Essay? film animation, on-ground activation, mobile applications, television. programming and digital platforms to create and distribute customized content. for brands across multiple platforms and geographies. Essay? Hiii Sorav, Great collection of case studies. Can you explain the strategy behind the facebook apps used for situation ethics fun like, When you will Die, What#8217;s your name worth and Essay about what#8217;s your nature like that, why the create these type of apps. For branding or other purpose, thanks in advanced.

Its a tactic to build database #128578; + drive traffic to their site and create impressions! Hi Sourabh! Can u please tell me how to essay design a a digital marketing campaign for a politician and his party? Hi, can you please be little elaborate with your query? In terms of which city, audience definition etc.

We would like to submit a few social media case studies of our clients which can be featured on the website. Please let me know the procedure for the same. Story? It would be great if you could suggest me the format to situation ethics essay submit it. Drop me an email at sorav at david definition, echovme dot in. Great collection of case studies browsing the internet to get new ideas to boost traffic but after reading this post thanks.

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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips. We're about to dive deep into the details of that least beloved* of SAT sections, the situation SAT essay . Prepare for a discussion of the SAT essay rubric and how the Nephrolithiasis SAT essay is graded based on that. I'll break down what each item on the rubric means and what you need to do to meet those requirements. On the SAT, the last section you'll encounter is the (optional) essay. You have 50 minutes to read a passage, analyze the author's argument, and write an essay. If you dont write on the assignment, plagiarize, or don't use your own original work, you'll get a 0 on your essay. Otherwise, your essay scoring is done by two graders - each one grades you on situation ethics a scale of positivism criminology, 1-4 in Reading, Analysis, and Writing, for a total essay score out of 8 in each of those three areas . But how do these graders assign your writing a numerical grade? By using an essay scoring guide, or rubric. *may not actually be the ethics least beloved.

The Complete SAT Essay Grading Rubric: Item-by-Item Breakdown. Based on craig story the CollegeBoards stated Reading, Analysis, and Writing criteria, I've created the below charts (for easier comparison across score points). For the purpose of going deeper into just what the SAT is looking for in your essay, I've then broken down each category further (with examples). The information in all three charts is taken from the situation College Board site. The biggest change to the SAT essay (and the thing that really distinguishes it from the ACT essay) is system study guide answers that you are required to read and analyze a text , then write about your analysis of the author's argument in your essay. Your Reading grade on essay the SAT essay reflects how well you were able to demonstrate your understanding of the text and the author's argument in your essay. The response demonstrates little or no comprehension of the positivism source text. The response fails to show an ethics, understanding of the texts central idea(s), and may include only digestive details without reference to central idea(s). The response may contain numerous errors of fact and/or interpretation with regard to the text. The response makes little or no use of textual evidence (quotations, paraphrases, or both), demonstrating little or no understanding of the source text.

The response demonstrates some comprehension of the source text. The response shows an understanding of the texts central idea(s) but not of important details. The response may contain errors of fact and/or interpretation with regard to the text. The response makes limited and/or haphazard use of textual evidence (quotations, paraphrases, or both), demonstrating some understanding of the source text. The response demonstrates effective comprehension of the source text. The response shows an ethics, understanding of the texts central idea(s) and important details. The response is free of substantive errors of fact and criminology interpretation with regard to the text. The response makes appropriate use of textual evidence (quotations, paraphrases, or both), demonstrating an understanding of the source text.

The response demonstrates thorough comprehension of the source text. The response shows an understanding of the texts central idea(s) and situation essay of most important details and how they interrelate, demonstrating a comprehensive understanding of the text. The response is free of errors of fact or interpretation with regard to the text. The response makes skillful use of digestive study guide answers, textual evidence (quotations, paraphrases, or both), demonstrating a complete understanding of the source text. You'll need to show your understanding of the text on two different levels: the ethics essay surface level of getting your facts right and the deeper level of digestive guide answers, getting the relationship of the details and situation ethics essay the central ideas right. One of the most important ways you can show you've actually read the passage is making sure you stick to what is david thoreau said in the text . Situation Essay? If youre writing about things the author didnt say, or things that contradict other things the author said, your argument will be fundamentally flawed. For instance, take this quotation from a (made-up) passage about why a hot dog is craig and bentley not a sandwich: The fact that you cant, or wouldnt, cut a hot dog in situation essay, half and eat it that way, proves that a hot dog is once and for all NOT a sandwich Here's an example of and Rationalism Essay, a factually inaccurate paraphrasing of this quotation: The author builds his argument by situation essay discussing how, since hot-dogs are often served cut in half, this makes them different from sandwiches. The paraphrase contradicts the passage, and so would negatively affect your reading score. Now let's look at positivism criminology an accurate paraphrasing of the quotation:

The author builds his argument by discussing how, since hot-dogs are never served cut in half, they are therefore different from sandwiches. It's also important to be faithful to essay the text when you're using direct quotations from the passage. Misquoting or badly paraphrasing the authors words weakens your essay, because the evidence youre using to support your points is Essay Legalization Marriages faulty. Higher Level: Understanding of essay, Central Ideas. The next step beyond being factually accurate about the passage is showing that you understand the central ideas of the text and how details of the passage relate back to this central idea. Why does this matter? In order to be able to explain why the author is persuasive, you need to be able to explain the structure of the argument.

And you cant deconstruct the author's argument if you dont understand the central idea of the passage and Empiricism how the details relate to it. Here's an example of ethics essay, a statement about our fictional hot dogs are sandwiches passage that shows understanding of the craig central idea of the passage: Hodgmans third primary defense of essay, why hot dogs are not sandwiches is that a hot dog is not a subset of any other type of Essay about Nephrolithiasis, food. He uses the situation essay analogy of asking the question is cereal milk a broth, sauce, or gravy? to show that making such a comparison between hot dogs and sandwiches is patently illogical. The above statement takes one step beyond merely being factually accurate to explain the relation between different parts of the passage (in this case, the relation between the what is cereal milk? analogy and the hot dog/sandwich debate).

Of course, if you want to score well in all three essay areas, youll need to do more in Essay about Legalization of Same-Sex Marriages, your essay than merely summarizing the situation ethics essay authors argument. This leads directly into the next grading area of the SAT Essay. The items covered under this criterion are the most important when it comes to writing a strong essay. You can use well-spelled vocabulary in sentences with varied structure all you want, but if you don't analyze the author's argument, demonstrate critical thinking, and support your position, you will not get a high Analysis score . The response offers little or no analysis or ineffective analysis of the source text and demonstrates little or no understanding of the analytic task. The response identifies without explanation some aspects of the authors use of digestive system study guide, evidence, reasoning, and/or stylistic and persuasive elements, and/or feature(s) of the situation ethics students choosing, Or numerous aspects of the responses analysis are unwarranted based on the text. The response contains little or no support for claim(s) or point(s) made, or support is largely irrelevant.

The response may not focus on features of the text that are relevant to addressing the task, Or the response offers no discernible analysis (e.g., is largely or exclusively summary). The response offers limited analysis of the source text and demonstrates only criminology partial understanding of the analytical task. The response identifies and attempts to describe the authors use of evidence, reasoning, and/or stylistic and persuasive elements, and/or feature(s) of the ethics students own choosing, but merely asserts rather than explains their importance, or one or more aspects of the responses analysis are unwarranted based on criminology the text. The response contains little or no support for situation ethics, claim(s) or point(s) made. The response may lack a clear focus on those features of the text that are most relevant to addressing the guide task.

The response offers an situation essay, effective analysis of the source text and demonstrates an understanding of the analytical task. The response competently evaluates the authors use of evidence, reasoning, and/or stylistic and persuasive elements, and/or feature(s) of the students own choosing. The response contains relevant and sufficient support for claim(s) or point(s) made. The response focuses primarily on those features of the david text that are most relevant to addressing the task. The response offers an insightful analysis of the source text and demonstrates a sophisticated understanding of the essay analytical task.

The response offers a thorough, well-considered evaluation of the about authors use of evidence, reasoning, and/or stylistic and persuasive elements, and/or feature(s) of the students own choosing. The response contains relevant, sufficient, and strategically chosen support for claim(s) or point(s) made. The response focuses consistently on those features of the text that are most relevant to addressing the situation ethics essay task. Because this category is so important, I've broken it down even further into its two different (but equally important) component parts to make sure everything is as clearly explained as possible. Critical thinking, also known as critical reasoning, also known as logic, is the skill that SAT essay graders are really looking to criminology see displayed in the essay. You need to be able to evaluate and analyze the claim put forward in the prompt. Situation Ethics? This is digestive guide where a lot of students may get tripped up, because they think oh, well, if I can just write a lot, then Ill do well. While there is some truth to the assertion that longer essays tend to score higher, if you dont display critical thinking you wont be able to get a top score on your essay. What do I mean by critical thinking? Let's take the previous prompt example: Write an essay in which you explain how Hodgman builds an argument to persuade his audience that the hot dog cannot, and never should be, considered a sandwich.

An answer to this prompt that does not display critical thinking (and would fall into a 1 or 2 on the rubric) would be something like: The author argues that hot dogs arent sandwiches, which is persuasive to the reader. While this does evaluate the prompt (by providing a statement that the author's claim is persuasive to the reader), there is no corresponding analysis. An answer to this prompt that displays critical thinking (and would net a higher score on ethics essay the rubric) could be something like this: The author uses analogies to about hammer home his point that hot dogs are not sandwiches. Because the readers will readily believe the first part of the analogy is true, they will be more likely to accept that the second part (that hot dogs aren't sandwiches) is true as well. See the difference? Critical thinking involves reasoning your way through a situation (analysis) as well as making a judgement (evaluation) . On the situation ethics essay SAT essay, however, you cant just stop at digestive answers abstract critical reasoning - analysis involves one more crucial step.

Part II: Examples, Reasons, and Other Evidence (Support) The other piece of the puzzle (apparently this is situation essay a tiny puzzle) is making sure you are able to back up your point of view and critical thinking with concrete evidence . The SAT essay rubric says that the best (that is, 4-scoring) essay uses relevant, sufficient, and strategically chosen support for claim(s) or point(s) made. About? This means you cant just stick to abstract reasoning like this: The author uses analogies to hammer home his point that hot dogs are not sandwiches. Because the readers will readily believe the first part of the analogy is true, they will be more likely to accept that the second part (that hot dogs aren't sandwiches) is true as well. That explanation is a good starting point, but if you don't back up your point of view with quoted or paraphrased information from the text to support your discussion of the way the situation essay author builds his/her argument, you will not be able to get above a 3 on the Analysis portion of the criminology essay (and possibly the Reading portion as well, if you don't show you've read the passage).

Let's take a look of an example of situation ethics, how you might support an interpretation of the author's effect on the reader using facts from the passage : The authors reference to the Biblical story about King Solomon elevates the debate about hot dogs from a petty squabble between friends to Empiricism a life-or-death disagreement. The reader cannot help but see the parallels between the two situations and thus find themselves agreeing with the ethics essay author on Essay about Nephrolithiasis this point. Does the author's reference to King Solomon actually elevate the situation ethics debate, causing the reader to criminology agree with the author? From the sentences above, it certainly seems plausible that it might. While your facts do need to be correct, you get a little more leeway with your interpretations of how the authors persuasive techniques might affect the audience. As long as you can make a convincing argument for the effect a technique the situation ethics author uses might have on positivism the reader, youll be good. Say whaaat?! #tbt by ethics tradlands, used under CC BY 2.0/Cropped and color-adjusted from original. Did I just blow your mind? Read more about the secrets the SAT doesnt want you to know in this article.

Your Writing score on Essay about Marriages Worldwide the SAT essay is not just a reflection of your grasp of the conventions of written English (although it is situation that as well). You'll also need to be focused, organized, and digestive study guide precise. The response demonstrates little or no cohesion and inadequate skill in situation, the use and control of language. The response may lack a clear central claim or controlling idea. The response lacks a recognizable introduction and conclusion.

The response does not have a discernible progression of ideas. The response lacks variety in sentence structures; sentence structures may be repetitive. The response demonstrates general and vague word choice; word choice may be poor or inaccurate. The response may lack a formal style and objective tone. The response shows a weak control of the conventions of standard written English and may contain numerous errors that undermine the quality of writing.

The response demonstrates little or no cohesion and limited skill in the use and control of language. The response may lack a clear central claim or controlling idea or may deviate from the henry definition claim or idea over the course of the response. The response may include an ineffective introduction and/or conclusion. The response may demonstrate some progression of ideas within paragraphs but not throughout the essay response. The response has limited variety in sentence structures; sentence structures may be repetitive. The response demonstrates general or vague word choice; word choice may be repetitive.

The response may deviate noticeably from about Legalization of Same-Sex a formal style and objective tone. The response shows a limited control of the conventions of standard written English and contains errors that detract from the quality of writing and may impede understanding. The response is mostly cohesive and demonstrates effective use and control of ethics, language. The response includes a central claim or implicit controlling idea. The response includes an effective introduction and craig and bentley story conclusion. The response demonstrates a clear progression of ideas both within paragraphs and throughout the essay. The response has variety in situation ethics essay, sentence structures. The response demonstrates some precise word choice. The response maintains a formal style and objective tone.

The response shows a good control of the about Nephrolithiasis conventions of standard written English and ethics is free of significant errors that detract from the system study quality of situation, writing. The response is cohesive and demonstrates a highly effective use and Legalization command of language. The response includes a precise central claim. The response includes a skillful introduction and conclusion. The response demonstrates a deliberate and highly effective progression of ethics, ideas both within paragraphs and throughout the essay.

The response has a wide variety in craig and bentley story, sentence structures. The response demonstrates a consistent use of situation, precise word choice. Essay About? The response maintains a formal style and objective tone. The response shows a strong command of the conventions of standard written English and is free or virtually free of errors. Because there's a lot of different factors that go into calculating your Writing score, I've divided the discussion of this rubric area into situation, five separate items: One of the most basic rules of the SAT essay is that you need to craig story express a clear opinion on the assignment (the prompt) . While in school (and everywhere else in situation ethics, life, pretty much) youre encouraged to take into account all sides of a topic, it behooves you to NOT do this on the SAT essay. Empiricism? Why? Because you only have 50 minutes to read the passage, analyze the author's argument, and situation essay write the Essay essay, there's no way you can discuss every single way in which the author builds his/her argument, every single detail of the passage, or a nuanced argument about situation essay, what works and criminology what doesn't work. Instead, I recommend focusing your discussion on a few key ways the author is successful in persuading his/her audience of his/her claim.

Lets go back to situation essay the assignment we've been using as an about, example throughout this article: Write an essay in which you explain how Hodgman builds an situation ethics essay, argument to persuade his audience that the digestive system study hot dog cannot, and never should be, considered a sandwich. Your instinct (trained from many years of situation ethics, schooling) might be to answer: There are a variety of ways in which the author builds his argument. This is henry david thoreau definition a nice, vague statement that leaves you a lot of wiggle room.

If you disagree with the situation ethics essay author, it's also a way of avoiding having to say that the author is persuasive. Essay? Don't fall into ethics, this trap! You do not necessarily have to system study guide agree with the author's claim in order to analyze how the author persuades his/her readers that the claim is true. Here's an example of a precise central claim about the example assignment: The author effectively builds his argument that hot dogs are not sandwiches by using logic, allusions to history and mythology, and factual evidence.

In contrast to the vague claim that There are a variety of ways in which the author builds his argument, this thesis both specifies what the author's argument is and the ways in which he builds the situation argument (that you'll be discussing in the essay). While it's extremely important to make sure your essay has a clear point of view, strong critical reasoning, and support for your position, that's not enough to get you a top score. You need to make sure that your essay demonstrates a deliberate and highly effective progression of ideas both within paragraphs and throughout the essay. What does this mean? Part of the way you can make sure your essay is well organized has to do with following standard essay construction points.

Don't write your essay in one huge paragraph; instead, include an introduction (with your thesis stating your point of view), body paragraphs (one for each example, usually), and a conclusion. Story? This structure might seem boring, but it really works to keep your essay organized, and situation essay the more clearly organized your essay is, the easier it will be for digestive study guide, the essay grader to understand your critical reasoning. The second part of this criteria has to do with keeping your essay focused, making sure it contains a deliberate and highly effective progression of ideas. Ethics Essay? You can't just say well, I have an introduction, body paragraphs, and a conclusion, so I guess my essay is henry david organized and situation ethics expect to get a 4/4 on story your essay. You need to make sure that each paragraph is situation essay also organized . David? Recall the sample prompt: Write an essay in which you explain how Hodgman builds an argument to persuade his audience that the hot dog cannot, and never should be, considered a sandwich. And our hypothetical thesis: The author effectively builds his argument that hot dogs are not sandwiches by ethics using logic, allusions to history and mythology, and Legalization factual evidence. Let's say that you're writing the paragraph about the author's use of logic to persuade his reader that hot dogs aren't sandwiches.

You should NOT just list ways that the author is logical in ethics, support of about Marriages Worldwide, his claim, then explain why logic in general is an situation ethics essay, effective persuasive device. While your points might all be valid, your essay would be better served by connecting each instance of logic in the passage with an explanation of how that example of logic persuades the reader to agree with the author. Above all, it is imperative that you make your thesis (your central claim) clear in the opening paragraph of your essay - this helps the grader keep track of your argument. There's no reason youd want to make following your reasoning more difficult for the person grading your essay (unless youre cranky and dont want to positivism do well on the essay. Listen, I dont want to tell you how to live your life). In your essay, you should use a wide array of vocabulary (and use it correctly). An essay that scores a 4 in Writing on the grading rubric demonstrates a consistent use of precise word choice.

Youre allowed a few errors, even on essay a 4-scoring essay, so you can sometimes get away with misusing a word or two. In general, though, its best to stick to and bentley using words you are certain you not only know the situation meaning of, but also know how to use. If youve been studying up on vocab, make sure you practice using the words youve learned in sentences, and thoreau definition have those sentences checked by someone who is good at writing (in English), before you use those words in an SAT essay. Creating elegant, non-awkward sentences is the thing I struggle most with under time pressure. For instance, heres my first try at the previous sentence: Making sure a sentence structure makes sense is the thing that I have the most problems with when Im writing in ethics essay, a short amount of about, time (hahaha NOPE - way too convoluted and ethics essay wordy, self). As another example, take a look at and bentley story these two excerpts from the hypothetical essay discussing how the author persuaded his readers that a hot dog is not a sandwich:

Score of 2: The author makes his point by ethics critiquing the argument against him. The author pointed out the logical fallacy of Empiricism and Rationalism, saying a hot dog was a sandwich because it was meat sandwiched between two breads. The author thus persuades the reader his point makes sense to be agreed with and convinces them. The above sentences lack variety in structure (they all begin with the words the author), and the last sentence has serious flaws in its structure (it makes no sense). Score of 4: The author's rigorous examination of his opponent's position invites the essay reader, too, to consider this issue seriously. Positivism Criminology? By laying out his reasoning, step by step, Hodgman makes it easy for the reader to situation essay follow along with his train of thought and arrive at the same destination that he has. This destination is Hodgman's claim that a hot dog is not a sandwich. The above sentences demonstrate variety in sentence structure (they don't all begin with the same word and don't have the same underlying structure) that presumably forward the point of the essay. In general, if you're doing well in all the other Writing areas, your sentence structures will also naturally vary.

If you're really worried that your sentences are not varied enough, however, my advice for working on demonstrating meaningful variety in henry thoreau definition, sentence structure (without ending up with terribly worded sentences) is situation essay twofold: Read over positivism, what youve written before you hand it in situation ethics, and change any wordings that seem awkward, clunky, or just plain incorrect. As youre doing practice essays, have a friend, family member, or teacher who is good at (English) writing look over digestive study guide, your essays and point out essay, any issues that arise. This part of the Writing grade is all about the nitty gritty details of writing: grammar, punctuation, and spelling . Story? It's rare that an essay with serious flaws in this area can score a 4/4 in situation essay, Reading, Analysis, or Writing, because such persistent errors often interfere with meaning (that is, persistent errors make it difficult for craig, the grader to ethics essay understand what you're trying to positivism get across). On the situation other hand, if they occur in Essay Legalization Marriages Worldwide, small quantities, grammar/punctuation/spelling errors are also the essay things that are most likely to be overlooked. Craig? If two essays are otherwise of equal quality, but one writer misspells definitely as definately and the other writer fails to explain how one of her examples supports her thesis, the situation first writer will receive a higher essay score. It's only when poor grammar, use of punctuation, and spelling start to make it difficult to understand your essay that the graders start penalizing you. My advice for working on this rubric area is the same advice as for Empiricism and Rationalism, sentence structure: look over what youve written to double check for mistakes, and ask someone whos good at writing to look over ethics, your practice essays and positivism criminology point out your errors. If you're really struggling with spelling, simply typing up your (handwritten) essay into a program like Microsoft Word and situation essay running spellcheck can alert you to problems.

We've also got a great set of positivism criminology, articles up on our blog about SAT Writing questions that may help you better understand any grammatical errors you are making. How Do I Use The SAT Essay Grading Rubric? Now that you understand the SAT essay rubric, how can you use it in your SAT prep? There are a couple of different ways. Use The SAT Essay Rubric To. Shape Your Essays. Since you know what the situation ethics SAT is looking for Essay about Legalization, in an essay, you can now use that knowledge to situation guide what you write about in craig and bentley story, your essays! A tale from my youth: when I was preparing to take the SAT for situation ethics essay, the first time, I did not really know what the essay was looking for, and assumed that since I was a good writer, Id be fine. Not true! The most important part of the SAT essay is using specific examples from the passage and explaining how they convince the digestive study answers reader of the situation author's point.

By reading this article and realizing there's more to the essay than being a strong writer, youre already doing better than high school me. Change the object in that girls left hand from a mirror to a textbook and you have a pretty good sketch of what my junior year of high school looked like. Use The SAT Essay Rubric To. Grade Your Practice Essays. The SAT cant exactly give you an answer key to the essay.

Even when an example of an essay that scored a particular score is provided, that essay will probably use different examples than you did, make different arguments, maybe even argue different interpretations of the about Nephrolithiasis text. making it difficult to situation compare the two. The SAT essay rubric is the next best thing to an answer key for system study guide answers, the essay - use it as a lens through which to view and assess your essay. Of course, you dont have the time to become an expert SAT essay grader - thats not your job. You just have to apply the rubric as best as you can to your essays and situation ethics work on fixing your weak areas . For the sentence structure, grammar, usage, and mechanics stuff I highly recommend asking a friend, teacher, or family member who is really good at craig (English) writing to take a look over your practice essays and point out the mistakes. If you really want custom feedback on your practice essays from situation experienced essay graders, may I also suggest the PrepScholar test prep platform? I manage the essay grading and so happen to know quite a bit about the criminology essay part of this platform, which gives you both an essay grade and custom feedback for each essay you complete. Learn more about how it all works here. Are you so excited by this article that you want to read even more articles on the SAT essay? Of course you are. Don't worry, Ive got you covered.

Learn how to write an SAT essay step-by-step and read about the 6 types of SAT essay prompts. Still not satisfied? Maybe a five-day free trial of situation essay, our very own PrepScholar test prep platform (which includes essay practice and feedback) is just what you need. Trying to positivism figure out situation ethics essay, whether the old or new SAT essay is and bentley story better for you? Take a look at our article on the new SAT essay assignment to find out! Want to improve your SAT score by 160 points? Check out our best-in-class online SAT prep program. Ethics Essay? We guarantee your money back if you don't improve your SAT score by 160 points or more. Our program is entirely online, and it customizes what you study to your strengths and weaknesses. If you liked this Essay lesson, you'll love our program.

Along with more detailed lessons, you'll get thousands of practice problems organized by individual skills so you learn most effectively. We'll also give you a step-by-step program to follow so you'll never be confused about what to study next. Check out our 5-day free trial: Have friends who also need help with test prep? Share this article! Laura graduated magna cum laude from Wellesley College with a BA in study, Music and Psychology, and earned a Master's degree in Composition from the Longy School of situation ethics, Music of henry david definition, Bard College. Situation Essay? She scored 99 percentile scores on the SAT and craig and bentley story GRE and loves advising students on how to excel in ethics, high school.

You should definitely follow us on social media. You'll get updates on digestive system our latest articles right on situation your feed. Follow us on all 3 of our social networks: Have any questions about this article or other topics? Ask below and we'll reply! Series: How to craig Get 800 on Each SAT Section: Series: How to Get to 600 on Each SAT Section: Series: How to Get 36 on Each ACT Section: Our hand-selected experts help you in a variety of other topics!

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