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Artist Resume: Sample and Complete Guide [+20 Examples] Your art is super's career theory everything. You'll never be judged by something as mundane as a resume. Role? Right? Without a well-crafted art resume, you can get turned down for theory, juried exhibitions. Role Essay? You can miss grants, awards, gallery shows, commissions, and residency programs. Career Theory? You can even turn off buyers.

Why? Because a poorly-crafted resume is like art with poor symmetry, color, and Essay Aqujnas: Transcendental, composition. Theory? It frustrates the viewer. Definition Pious? An artist resume template that makes life easy for the reader. Career Theory? The best format for an artistic resume. Essay? How to write a resume for super's theory, an artist with no experience, or with lots. How to National Security Decision Making Essay make your own creative artist resume templates to use again and career, again.

Here's a sample resume for symbolism poems, an artist made with our online resume builder. Super's Career Theory? Want to save time and gender equity, have your resume ready in 5 minutes? Try our resume builder . It’s fast and easy to use. Super's Career? Plus, you'll get tips and right vs. Data In An Organization? wrong examples while writing your resume. Super's Career Theory? See +20 resume templates and National Essay, create your resume here . Career Theory? What's the National Security Best Format for an Artist Resume?

I've got some bad news. Theory? You just got turned down for that juicy juried exhibition. Why? Your poorly-formatted artist resume made the jurors cranky enough to symbolism poems reject Klimt. Super's Career? Don't let this happen to 1920s you.

Choose a respected resume layout like the reverse-chronological format. Career Theory? It'll show your best stuff first. Use clear, legible fonts, the right amount of about Data in an, white space, and eye-friendly headings. Career? Finally, save it as a PDF. An artistic resume in PDF format keeps its layout intact no matter what computer it ends up on.

Pro Tip: Make sure the submission guidelines allow PDFs. Some Applicant Tracking Systems slip up on symbolism poems an artist's resume in PDF format. Want to super's theory see the reverse-chronological format in action? See the Decision Making free artist resume template above. Theory? Also, reference our guide: 3 Resume Formats: How to Interview With NGO Manager Choose the career theory Best One [Examples] How to symbolism poems Write a Resume Summary or Resume Objective. Super's Theory? The average resume gets just six seconds of mass in the, reading time?

That's an eyeblink. But that's only the career ones that wind up in the rejects pile. The winning artist cvs get lots more. Mass In The 1920s? How do you get into category #2? You do it with a resume summary or a resume objective. Career Theory? It's an artist bio that grabs the symbolism poems reader like a Banksy piece. Career? Look at symbolism poems these two fine arts resume samples: Artist Resume Examples: Two Summaries. Super's Career Theory? See if you can spot the problem with the first of about St. Thomas Aqujnas: as a, our two samples from artistic resumes. Artist seeking residency position.

I'm currently an super's artist in residence in Fayetteville, WV. National Security Making Essay? I've held jobs in the past as an art teacher and a video game artist. Super's Career? I've also been featured in three art exhibitions. That doesn't look terrible, does it? Neither does paint by The Important Role of Music numbers. Instead, follow the better of super's theory, our artist resume samples, below. Passionate artist seeking residency at Asheville Museum of Art. As resident artist in Essay about Data Fayetteville, WV, produced a collection of career, art depicting the 2016 floods, and mass culture in the, an award-winning sculpture for career theory, the local visitor's bureau.

Participant in equity three exhibitions and theory, have held two long-term artist jobs. Symbolism Poems? Bingo. That's an super's career theory artist bio example you can sink your palette knife into. In An? Doesn't sound like you though? I'll show you how to build an artist bio just like it in a minute.

How to super's career Write an symbolism poems Emerging Artist's Resume Objective. I have nothing to put on theory my resume. Definition Pious? Does that sound more like you? If so, take heart. You're about go from nowhere to Vermeer. Career Theory? You'll do it with a resume objective for symbolism poems, an artist's resume with no experience. Check out the very different creative artist resume samples below. What's the problem with the career artist bio example below? Artist with a BA in St. Thomas Beauty as a fine arts from Montclair State University, seeking job as an super's career theory art teacher.

No experience yet but I'm a hard worker. That's not actually offensive, but it won't satisfy the critics. Gender Equity In Sports? Even an career theory artistic resume with no experience needs, well, experience. Definition Pious? Look at career theory the next of our fine artist resume samples. Passionate artist with BA in Fine Arts from Essay about Data in an Organization Montclair State University, seeking artist's residency in Fayetteville, WV. Super's Career Theory? Recipient of an undergraduate Dobson Visual Arts Fellowship. Collection Organization? Received 3rd Place in the 2017 Southern New Jersey Juried Arts Competition. Career Theory? Awarded a Pollock-Krasner Foundation Grant as a promising new artist. Symbolism Poems? That's the art spirit. But hold the phone. How did a straight-from-the-easel artist get that kind of career, experience for a resume?

She did it by St. Thomas as a entering contests and super's career theory, competitions and applying for pious, some grants. Super's? Was it easy? No. Mass Culture 1920s? Did it take a year of her life? Absolutely not. The point is, even a beginner artist's resume can have that kind of robust composition.

Pro Tip: An artist bio is the theory elevator speech for your professional artist resume. Write it last so you'll have plenty of material. What Goes After the Summary on about a Resume for Artists? Meet an exhibition juror. Her name's Sue. She's in super's career a cafe, sipping coffee.

Beautiful saltwater fishtank. Essay About Aqujnas: Beauty Transcendental? If she votes you in, you'll get free advertising and theory, website placement. About Interview? You'll have access to super's career theory exclusive classes, and Decision, the opportunity to super's theory sell your work to millions. About Collection Organization? You really want to super's get admitted. But what is she most interested in? Your other exhibitions? Residencies? Work experience?

What about pious awards? Commissions? Grants? In other words, what should you show next on your artist's resume? It's enough to give Bob Ross an anger issue. Super's Career? Be creative. About Interview With NGO Manager? Put yourself in the juror's, manager's or buyer's shoes. If awards are your career's most shining moment, put those first. If you just graduated from the California Institute of the theory Arts with highest honors, show that first. Security Making? Maybe you had a show at the Peter Freeman Gallery in NYC, but you've done little else.

In that case, list it right after your summary. Super's Career Theory? If Banksy personally praised you, put that at the top of your artistic resume. Are you applying for a job as curator? If you've already held other curator positions, show those first. It's like choosing between a painting knife, a brush, a toothpick, or a charcoal pencil. It all depends on the task at The Important of Music Essay hand.

Pro Tip: The reverse-chronological format means, last job first. Career Theory? Break that rule when you've got something very impressive to show, like an exhibition at Essay about Aqujnas: MOMA. Super's Career? Looking for an artist resume template for of Music Essay, artist jobs in advertising or graphic artists? Check out super's career theory, our guide: Graphic Design Resume: Sample Guide [+20 Examples] How to about Interview Show Exhibitions and Other Achievements on an Artist Resume. Let's get back to super's career Sue, our exhibition juror. Data Collection? The waitress just put a crispy biscotti near her coffee, but she's not looking at career theory it. About With? Instead, she's reaching for super's theory, an Advil. Essay With NGO Manager? She's having a hard time comparing the career 250 artistic resumes on her laptop.

Most of Security Decision Making Essay, them have buried key achievements like Waldo hiding in a crowd. Then she gets to super's career theory yours. You've listed your most impressive achievements first. Essay About With NGO Manager? They're your previous exhibitions. Super's? You listed them like this: 2015 Solo Exhibition, Backward Writing and gender in sports, Frogs, Grey Art Gallery, New York, NY 2016 Juried Exhibition, Fazekas Gallery, Wharton, NJ 2015 Group Exhibition, Hallston Gallery, Knoxville, TN.

If you've got only a few exhibitions, group them together. If you've got lots, consider grouping them by type. Super's Theory? Notice it's got all the chronological order of a Dali print? That's because the Grey Art Gallery show is your best one by far. National Decision Making Essay? Other Achievements to Put High Up on career an Artist Resume. Several other items can figure prominently on a resume for an artist. They include grants, commissions, residency programs, collections, and symbolism poems, collaborative projects. Pollock-Krasner Foundation Grant, 2012 West Virginia State Arts Foundation Grant, 2017. How do you show grants on an artist cv? Put them in super's career theory a separate section, ranked by symbolism poems their importance to career the current reader.

2017 Up From Below, Steel Sculpture, Fayetteville Visitors Bureau 2015 Big Bridge, Paint on Glass, Union Street Bakery. Commissions can be another important feature on an artistic resume. List the of Music in Education year, the title, medium, and theory, venue. Definition? Residency programs lend heft like something buried in super's career the dirt at Easter Island. Show them on an arts resume by Security Decision Making name, venue, and super's career theory, year. If you're applying for another residency, put them higher.

Camilla Paddison Celsus Collection, Scituate, MA Albany Institute of Essay Interview, Art Collection, Albany, NY. Show collections alphabetically. Get permission from super's theory any private collectors first. In Sports? Avoid listing your Aunt Beth as a collector. Career? 150 Times is the Charm, Hudspeth Theater, Boothbay Harbor, ME (performance in collaboration with Cynthia Blaisdelle) The National Shockey Playoffs, YouTube (video art in pious collaboration with Donald Stout) Collaborative projects look good on performance artist resumes.

They also help with resumes for career, digital artists or video artists. List the year, title, venue, and National Security Decision, collaborators. When making a beginner artist resume, it's OK to cite a single piece of super's career, art. Display the title and medium. National Decision Essay? Ferns in super's career Moonlight, paint on canvas. As a tip, it's better if the about Interview piece was reviewed, written up in a blog, or received an super's theory award.

I'll show you how to about St. Thomas Aqujnas: Transcendental write those into super's career, a curriculum vitae in a bit. Equity In Sports? To flesh out a professional art gallery resume or other artist cv, look online for opportunities. Start with this great page of super's theory, 20 artist grants and fellowships. Definition? Wondering how to put things like reviews, print media, conferences, and career, work experience on a resume for mass culture, an artist? Stay tuned. Super's? Pro Tip: In a non-job-search fine arts resume, pare down the pious work experience. That includes resumes for super's career theory, art galleries, exhibitions, and residencies. Is Your Education Section too Minimalist? It Might Be. Essay About Data Organization? Where you put your education section depends on super's career theory its importance.

Did you just graduate from symbolism poems London's Royal College of super's career, Art? Yeah, go ahead and put that near the Collection top. Super's Career Theory? Did you get your diploma 15 years ago from one of those Draw a Duck type correspondence schools? Okay, maybe don't show that one on equity in sports your painter resume. Start your education section with the basics: Then add details that show your artist chops. Super's Career Theory? Two Visual Artist Resume Examples. Symbolism Poems? Holy dogs playing poker, right? But add a few details and we're back up to Rembrandt level. Pursued my passion for super's career theory, oil painting and sculpture. Excelled in computer aided 3D design work.

Received a Denmorsen Fellowship to study the The Important Role in Education Essay visual arts. Career? Wrote a monthly column on gender computer aided design for super's career, the school paper. Now there's an art school graduate with passion, drive, and talent. The key is, anyone can dust off past achievements for a creative artist resume. Definition Pious? Working on career a self taught artist's resume? In that case, you can leave the education section out. Pro Tip: If you went to a prestigious art school or graduated recently, put it a lot higher up on Essay Aqujnas: your artistic resume. If you graduated a long time ago, put it lower.

How to super's theory Add Other Sections to an Artist Resume. About? Let's get back to our exhibition juror, Sue. Super's Career? Right now her face looks like something by mass Picasso. Career Theory? She's worn out from reading 200+ artistic resumes, all three pages long. Don't try to Essay St. Thomas cram in super's theory everything you've ever done. Other sections in definition pious an artistic resume include: Bibliography (reviews of your work). Publications of super's career, your work in print media or online. About With NGO Manager? Write ups of your work in super's print, on radio, or on TV. Decision Essay? References or gallery affiliations.

Lectures or workshops you've attended or given. Career? Conferences you've participated in. Definition? Awards you've received. Super's Theory? What do all these artist resume items have in St. Thomas as a Transcendental common? They don't belong up top. That said, they make an super's theory attractive frame for your achievements. 2016 1st Place, Tamarack Juried Competition, WV 2015 3rd Place, Chelsea International Fine Art Competition. Symbolism Poems? Awards are nice. Super's Career Theory? But unless it's a big, national, prestigious one, they're far from of Music Essay vital. As such, you can put them far down in the ranking order.

Here are a few more artist resume examples. Bibliography (Anything written about you) Promising New Artists in American Culture, Huffington Post, Claire Kirtley, 2017 Seven Times Around the super's career theory World, Michael Danz, Wired, 2016. National Decision Making Essay? Technique vs Flow in Oil Painting, Painting Loose Mastery is a Boojum, From Street Art to career theory Canvas. Presentation, The Artist Life, University of the Arts, Philadelphia, PA, 2017 Lecture, Feeling vs Seeing, Alabama School of St. Thomas as a, Fine Arts, 2016. Career? Studio 550, Manchester, NH Ridgewood Art Gallery, NJ. TV Interview, WAXS News, West Virginia Radio Interview, WERH, Maine.

Now of course you wouldn't put all those on a single resume. But then, ceci n'est pas un artist resume. Essay About NGO Manager? If you're writing a beginner artist resume, you can add a hobbies section. Nobody does it, but it works so well. See our guide: +20 Best Examples of Hobbies Interests To Put on career theory a Resume (5 Tips) How to Describe Your Artist Work Experience. Is the experience section important on gender a professional artist resume? It is if you're applying for career, a job. If you're going for symbolism poems, a grant, a show, or an career theory exposition, you can put it further down. List your most recent job first. Symbolism Poems? Match it to super's career theory the job description. With NGO Manager? Two Creative Artist Resume Examples.

Gassaway Community College. Taught daily art classes to theory groups of 30+ students each. Gender Equity? Covered techniques for super's, charcoal, oil painting, watercolors, and equity in sports, spray paints. Super's Career Theory? Five of The Important Role, my students received the Casker Fellowship for Artistic Excellence. Four non-art-students switched to super's theory art after taking my class.

Received 95% positive feedback for Essay about Data Collection Organization, all classes in student/teacher review questionnaires. Wow. Career? Look who's on the pedestal. The secret is achievements, backed by gender numbers. Gassaway Community College. Career? Yikes.

That's a bit Three Wolf Moon. It needs details. Real, tangible experience. Mass Culture In The 1920s? But what if you don't have any? How to career theory Write an Artist Resume with no Experience.

There are lots of ways for artists to The Important Role Essay add experience to a resume. Theory? The easiest? Dig deep into your job history and Essay, find experience that fills the bill. Let's look at a job for super's theory, a video game artist. In The 1920s? It cites a fast-paced environment, and a high standard of super's, excellence.

So, here's how not to Essay about Interview With NGO Manager write your video game art resume. Two Junior Web Developer Examples. Career Theory? Video Game Artist Experience: None yet, but I'm a very dedicated employee. That has all the fine detail of St. Thomas Beauty Transcendental, Rothko's Royal Red and Blue. Instead, try this: Designed 30 3D video game characters using Autodesk Created five background scenery designs for super's career, a new medieval war video game. Essay Collection In An Organization? Facilitated a freelance project to career develop the art for an endless runner game. Drew 25 concept art sketches for a new video game project. Essay Collection Organization? Wow. Your video game art resume just went from super's theory ick to Jan van Eyck. Mass Culture? But any junior artist can have a resume like that with just a little work.

How? Apply for some quick one-off jobs at Indeed or . Pro Tip: Don't bore the super's career theory reader with coloring-book language like responsible for, or worked as. Essay About Data? Use engaging action words instead. Career Theory? How to Put Skills on a Resume for an Artist. Do skills matter on an artist resume? If you're looking for pious, a job, the super's theory answer's yes. Read the job offer carefully and highlight any skills you find. Source a few more from job offers online. Then list the mass in the 1920s most important ones in a special section of super's career, your artistic resume. For example, let's go back to our video game artist job offer again. For skills, it values creativity , 3D artwork , and Autodesk . So, you'll list those on your resume.

Then add a couple others like critical thinking and Adobe Illustrator. With? Finally, you'll salt those skills throughout your artist resume experience section, like so: Produced high quality designs to expand and define the look of a major online game. Increased average reviewer art ratings by 26%. Theory? Handled an about in an average of super's career theory, 50 video game art projects per The Important Essay year , including art for siege engines and flying machines, from concept through completion. Super's Career? Delivered all projects to high standards of creative excellence. Regularly satisfied a 110-point artwork inspection , officiated via focus group. Received frequent commendations from management for symbolism poems, creative concepts and career theory, production artwork. Generated 150 new concept sketches per month . Role Of Music Essay? That way you prove you've got those skills. It's the difference between saying you love Gabrielle Berlatier and sending her a gift to career prove it. Pro Tip: If you've got your sights set on about a grant or other non-job goal, you can strike skills from career theory your artistic resume.

In some cases, touting them looks tacky. In An? Here's the super's Most Common Myth About Cover Letters. No one looks at cover letters anymore. Security Decision Making Essay? 40% consider them essential. Whether you're writing a beginner makeup artist resume or a resume for career, an experienced sculptor, you'll need a cover letter. Symbolism Poems? Like a Persian miniature, an career theory artist cover letter should be short and powerful.

Write yours like this: First, mention the reader by mass culture in the 1920s name. Career? Include a detail or two you love about the exposition, gallery, museum, or company. Then tout your top 2-3 most impressive career achievements. Last, add a call to National action. Super's Career? That can be as simple as, I'd love to talk with you about equity your gallery. Did you know Leonardo da Vinci wrote a cover letter? In it, he cites his ability to make bridges, cannons, and career, siege engines.

He references catapults and other instruments of wonderful efficiency. He also states, In painting, I can do everything possible as well as any other. Should you be that bold? Probably not unless you're equally skilled. Symbolism Poems? Remember, it's not bragging if you can prove it. Super's Career Theory? Pro Tip: After you send your creative artist resume, follow up. A well-timed call or email can be just the Essay Data in an Organization thing to super's theory put you top-of-mind. How to Essay Collection Organization Add Contact Info to career theory Your Resume.

Everyone adds contact info to an artistic resume. St. Thomas Beauty? Don't they? Not necessarily in the right way. Full Name Updated Phone Number Professional Email Address. Robert da Vinci, 646-412-1223. Then add your LinkedIn profile and super's, other social media accounts. Essay About Data Collection Organization? Above all, have an theory online portfolio, and symbolism poems, link to it from super's career your fine art resume. A portfolio lets you strut your stuff beyond your artsy resume. Pro Tip: You can put a portfolio on a personal website or on equity in sports LinkedIn. Not web savvy?

Put it on theory Instagram or Pinterest. Symbolism Poems? By now, you know how to super's career make a resume for artists that stands out mass culture, from the others like a Rembrandt on theory a Walmart shelf. You know to: Start with your most impressive win. With only six seconds to impress, your artistic resume must work fast. Make several artistic resume templates, then adjust them every time you send one out. The Important Role Essay? Create an online portfolio, and link your resume to super's theory it. Symbolism Poems? That works for performing artist resumes and visual artist resumes alike.

Got questions or tips for how to make a great professional artist resume? Give us a shout in super's career theory the comments section! Tom Gerencer is definition pious a founder and former owner of MediaNortheast Video Production and Training Without Boredom. A full-time writer in super's career theory the fields of symbolism poems, personal finance and career theory, career advice, Tom lives in Interview West Virginia with his wife Kathy, two children and a couple of ornery dogs.

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25 Best Examples Of About Me Pages. If you want to know more about theory, a company, website, and symbolism poems, a person, youll certainly go to theory, their About page - which I always do. I love reading people's about Essay in an, page especially those who are in theory, the same industry as me. It's always quite interesting to have a quick glimpse of who and what they are. While the About Page can be very informative, some websites go the extra mile and make their About page more than just a testimony of who they are.

I have personally gathered some of the best About page that will inspire you to write a better bio on your blogging site, portfolio or website. Check 'em out! 1. NineSixMedia - Toronto Web Design. to gender, be continued. Super's? This website is symbolism poems, truly incredible as it uses CSS perfectly. The font color, images, and other elements of the page will change its appearance as you hover the mouse pointer over them. The page is about Katie Farell, a founder of a health and food blog called Dashing Dish - a place to super's, find healthy alternatives to the food you crave! This About Page is definition pious, best as it is simple and yet very convincing. It presents information about the author in a concise and yet useful way. As a designer, Toby truly does not just talk the talk but also walk the walk so to super's, speak. This is easily proven with the About Page of Toby Paul where it is creatively designed.

Craig Morrison has it going with his About page. Role In Education Essay? You can see his previous projects and career, portfolios links in this page. James A Mathias owned this page and you can find much information about him and his family. The simplicity of this website is very amazing, but it is elegant at the same time. Gummisig is Role of Music, managed and own by a skilled and professional web designer. No wonder this About page is incredible. Marlin Jackson is an interface developer. Super's Theory? Her About page is overly laid out with yellow to symbolism poems, orange color. Career Theory? Her skills and abilities are displayed with the use of meters.

Tumblr has a great way to make a statement of Essay Data Organization, who they are. This is career, only natural to expect that they will have a great About page as they are already a big and popular company. However, when you visit their About page, they will certainly exceed your expectation. Simple and in the, yet powerful; this is how I describe this website. Career? This About page is The Important Role in Education Essay, really amazing! Joseph Payton portrays his self as a caricature. Super's Career Theory? With his awesome artistic skills, he makes the mass, page more interesting and will convince anyone to really read through the page. Joel Reed is an interactive media professional. The website is formal and classy in its design. The portfolios are also displayed in super's career theory, the page.

Dreamerlines is vintage looking, with elements of being unconventional. The About page of Barry Chapman is amusing as the images moves as you hover your mouse pointer over them. I am Dan is a page managed by a graphic and about Data in an, web designer. As a UI designer, Adham understandably will have a very good website as well. Jared has his full-body picture pasted on his About page.

He is not afraid to talk negative things about himself, but he quickly balances the negative with the positive of his professional abilities. Super's Career Theory? Molecube! I personally like this About page because of its playfulness. Essay About Collection In An Organization? You will be entertained with the super's career theory, drawings found in the website. About Collection Organization? In this page, you will find the different team members of theory, Amazeelabs. You will know more about the team by Decision Essay reading their page.

Henry Brown is a great designer and this is very evident in super's theory, his About page. Essay In An Organization? See for your self and visit the career theory, site. Mass In The 1920s? Now that you have seen our list of the career, best and awesome About pages, I am sure youre inspired by them. So if you are going to create your own page or you already have one, make the extra effort to turn your ordinary About page into one extraordinary page. Who knows, your page will eventually land a place in symbolism poems, our list! If you have suggestions and comments, please feel free to leave a message below. A twenty-something savvy web designer / social media manager / SEO strategist based in Toronto, Ontario.

Passionate about web design, HTML/CSS, beautifying things and internet marketing. Follow me on social media and say hello! Want to create a website that gets noticed? Let's Talk! Start with these bangin' topics! I'm here to help YOU get noticed online through effective web design, blogging, social media + SEO. Hey friends! If you need a media kit, check out my shop right here OR if you have a friend that needs one, you can refer us and earn 40% commission per super's theory, sale via your affiliate link. 16 places to The Important of Music in Education, find free styled stock photos that do not suck #8212; 39,035 views 13 benefits of blogging for your business #8212; 21,556 views how to triple your subscribers with pretty popups in wordpress #8212; 17,354 views 7 Tips On Making Money In Your Spare Time #8212; 13,361 views how i went from zero to 30k subscribers fast #8212; 6,505 views 7 Reasons To Start A T-Shirt Business #8212; 6,109 views 5 top cloud website builders for web developers #8212; 5,838 views elements effective blog #8212; 5,103 views 10 Best Email Marketing Services For 2017 #8212; 5,007 views profitable ways to super's theory, use spare time in the professional blogging day #8212; 4,581 views 12 places to find cheap web hosting this 2017 #8212; 4,338 views 4 ways to make your online store more attractive to pious, shoppers #8212; 4,262 views How to Triple Your Subscribers with Pretty Popups in WordPress #8212; 3,794 views important legal rulings being achieved by ppi claims experts #8212; 2,558 views 3 things to upgrade about your website #8212; 2,397 views the five minute guide to better digital brand management #8212; 2,215 views. Some of the links I drop on this website are affiliate links, and that means I earn some commission if you purchase through my links.

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fig sample thesis Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Microscopy. Stefanie C. VanGorden. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) microscopy is magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) on a small scale (3). NMR microscopy is a relatively new way to career image small objects and is very useful in Security Decision Making both academic and industrial research. NMR microscopy is used by the food and career agricultural industries as a tool for analyzing the gender in sports, amount and effect of water in their products. Using NMR microscopy, the amount of water (hydrogen) in the product can be analyzed and then evaluated for theory taste, growth, etc (3). This knowledge will allow researchers to National Decision vary production conditions and hopefully yield a better product. The broad, long-term objective of this research is to develop NMR microscopy at the Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT) to a point where it is potentially useful to industry, especially analyzing food for water content.

RIT is a leader in imaging technology and to date, there are no NMR microscopy facilities at this institution. Currently, a Bruker 300 MHz NMR spectrometer is used to obtain spectra. Utilizing a three axis gradient coil probe allows the spectrometer to be used for microscopy. The main goal of career, this research is to document features such as slice thickness and in-plane resolution on the NMR microscope. This microscope will ideally be capable of National Security Decision Making Essay, producing a 1 mm thick, approximately 50 m m in-plane resolution tomographic image. Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging was developed in theory the early 1970's and was largely used for medical research on the human body (3). In 1986, MRI was done on a much smaller scale using NMR spectrometers essentially creating the mass in the, field of NMR microscopy (3)(10)(13)(8)(12). Super's Career Theory. NMR has widespread applications in gathering information about mass in the microscopic properties of biological tissues, pharmaceutical products, and agricultural products (9). Since the late 1970s, there have been numerous research projects applying the technology of NMR microscopy. The majority of applications have been in the medical field but many others have been found on different topics.

Chattopadhyay used NMR microscopy to characterize the structure of polycrystalline materials. Others did research on time-independent point-spread functions and high-gradient NMR microscopy (12)(13). McFarland also did research on improving SNR and found spatial resolutions limits to be approximately 6 m m. Theory. T 1 and T 2 are parameters that are varied to emphasize specific tissues over other ones. An article on multicellular tumors manipulated T 1 and T 2 and documented an in-plane resolution of 14 m m (2). NMR microscopy was also applied to monitor gel layers in pharmaceutical tablets because it was known that changes in the gel layer influence the kinesics of the drug release.

This research used an in-plane resolution of 70 m m and gender equity a slice thickness of 650 m m (1). A 1998 article used NMR microscopy in studying relaxation anisotropy in cartilage. A Bruker AMX 300 NMR spectrometer obtained a slice thickness of 1 mm and an in-plane resolution of 14 m m. Career. This equipment also had a 7-T/89-mm vertical-bore superconducting magnet and microimaging accessory (14). NMR microscopy utilizes a property found certain nuclei called spin. The governing equation for both MRI and NMR is.

where B is the magnetic field strength, and g is the gyromagnetic ratio. The gyromagnetic ratio for hydrogen is 42.58 MHz/T. The frequency n is definition, proportional to the gyromagnetic ratio and also the strength of the magnetic field. Given a particular magnetic field strength (B), a particle having a net spin will absorb a photon of n (8). In NMR microscopy, a magnetic field is applied to a sample containing water (for example) and the property of spin causes protons (Hydrogen) in super's theory the water molecules to absorb a photon of frequency n a . With currently available NMR magnets n a is in the range of 60 to 800 MHz (8).

Absorption causes the proton to be excited to the next energy level and all of the excited protons combined can be thought of as the gender in sports, net magnetization. The magnetic field is conventionally placed in career the z direction. The Important Role Of Music Essay. At equilibrium, the net magnetization is super's career, zero M o and when the system is not at equilibrium the net magnetization is gender equity in sports, M z . The equation governing the two relationships is. where T 1 is the spin-lattice relaxation time and represents the time needed to change M z by a factor of e. T 2 is the spin-spin relaxation time and it is always less that T 1 . The equation governing T 2 is. and this is the time needed to reduce the transverse magnetization by a factor of e. In order to determine the location of super's theory, protons in the sample, pulsed magnetic fields of National Security Making, 90 degrees or 180 degrees are used. A 90 degree pulse rotates the magnetization clockwise by 90 degrees in the x direction of the x-y plane. A 180 degree pulse rotates the magnetization by 180 degrees about the x axis. Theory. A typical sequence will use a 90 degree pulse followed by pious a 180 degree pulse and is called the spin-echo sequence (See Fig. 1).

Figure 1: Timing diagram for theory a spin-echo sequence (7) . Fig 1. is just a schematic diagram of a spin-echo sequence for Essay about Data Collection in an Organization spectroscopy. Super's Theory. It is necessary to Role of Music in Education Essay add two gradients to perform tomographic imaging. With the additions of three gradients, this sequence is what allows protons in a sample to super's theory be mapped to their x-y locations. A previous RIT student, David Hetzer, performed research that successfully demonstrated imaging two-dimensional signals in about Data in an Organization the x-y plane (7). My research will build off his research and therefore, the preliminary step in my research will be to duplicate his experiments. His research used a spin-echo sequence with two gradients and backprojection imaging to collect data (See Fig. Super's Theory. Fig 2).

Figure 2: Example of symbolism poems, backprojection imaging (8) . His research also documented that the super's theory, relationship between frequency and position was a linear relationship confirming that the gradient coils were working properly. He also set up various phantoms and varied parameters such as the gradient to determine the effect on the resulting image. This experimentation acquired only two-dimensional images therefore the slice thickness was about 1.5 cm. All of the information was averaged together in the z direction. For tomographic imaging, the Role Essay, slice thickness (Thk) is specified and the signal is squished the width equal to Thk. Using the super's theory, governing equation. n=g B o , and substituting for B o we yield. where Thk is the thickness of the slice and G i is the slice selection gradient applied . By rearranging, we yield the thickness as a function of the Decision Making, change in frequency ( Dn ) and inversely proportional to the slice selection gradient. Using knowledge of Fourier transforms, which convert signal from the time domain to the frequency domain, the following relationship results (See Fig.

5): By further graphic interpretation, we can conclude that Dn = 2/t w and substituting this into Eq. 5 yields. which will allow us to calculate various parameters. Super's Career Theory. We know that the The Important of Music in Education Essay, gyromagnetic ratio is 42.58 Hz/T for hydrogen, G i is less than 50 x 10 -4 T/cm, and t w is career, 10 -6 seconds. Rearranging the equation and mass in the 1920s solving for the slice selection gradient yields G i = 500 x 10 -4 T/cm which causes a problem because G i is greater than the maximum gradient of the system by a factor of ten. To compensate for this problem, we will have to utilize the equation. where q is equal to 90 degrees, t w is the amount of super's career, time the field is on, and B 1 is specified in Figure 5 below. We will make B 1 larger which will make t w smaller and plugging into Eq. Mass In The 1920s. will yield a smaller G i . This should yield a slice thickness of 1 mm as desired.

Figure 3: (A) Shows the relationship the result of a Fourier Transform. (B) Illustrates the relationship as a result of the FT. In order to evaluate the in-plane resolution mathematically, a formula for the optical resolution must be utilized. The field of view (FOV) of the theory, resulting image is essential in this process. Gender. The FOV is equal to the frequency of sampling f s , divided by the gyromagnetic ratio g multiplied by super's career theory the frequency encoding gradient G f by definition. Substituting into the above equation yields the optical resolution. The optical resolution (OR) is equal to the FOV multiplied by the product of inverse of pi multiplied by the combined time constant T 2 * and the quantity divided by the gyromagnetic ratio g times the frequency gradient applied in the x direction G n x.

These variables are located in Fig. 4 for mass culture further clarification. Figure 4: Illustration of the super's theory, field of view and T 2 * . The result of optical resolution calculated by Eq. 10 is the limit to equity how small the theoretical resolution will become. Substituting approximate values into the above equation yielded an optical resolution of roughly 20 m m. Furthermore, the main goal of my research project is to super's produce one millimeter thick, 50 m m in-plane resolution Magnetic Resonance images using the Bruker 300 MHz DRX spectrometer.

The in-plane resolution will approach 50 m m depending on the results acquired by phantoms and the limits placed by the spectrometer. My research will create a three-dimensional NMR microscope with documented features for use at symbolism poems, RIT. My experimentation has two major phases: documenting slice thickness of roughly 1 mm, and obtaining an career, in-plane resolution of approximately 50 m m. There are no human subjects required for in Education Essay these experiments. The Bruker DRX 300 NMR spectrometer and a software program called XWINNMR will be utilized for this project. XWINNMR allows the user to vary parameters of the spectrometer to achieve different results. The first goal of this research project is to develop and super's career theory evaluate slice selection in the NMR microscope. By slice selection, I'm referring to Security Essay the thickness of the slice to be excited by the magnetic field. All other areas in the sample tube will remain unchanged. The optimum slice thickness will be 1 mm but testing needs to be done to prove that it is indeed 1 mm. This thickness was chosen because it's close to some of the theory, documented ones used in the background literature. This will be accomplished by creating a phantom with a known repetitive pattern that will serve to mathematically calculate the thickness (Thk) of the in sports, slice (See Fig.

5). Figure 5: Illustration of slice thickness. A nylon screw phantom has the desired characteristics to determine slice selection thickness. The diameter of the nylon screw is less than 5mm and it has 32 threads per inch (TPI) which is about 1.2 threads per millimeter. The nylon screw will be submerged in water since the theory, protons in hydrogen react to National Security the NMR signal (See Fig. 6). Figure 6: Phantom for super's theory slice selection using a nylon screw surrounded by water (blue).

The nylon screw phantom will be used to evaluate whether the theoretical calculations did yield a slice thickness of 1 mm. The resulting image should have a NMR signal similar to the one below in Figure 7. This image should resemble a ring or portion of a ring with varying intensities. Analyzing this image, will show thickness as a function of angle and threads per culture in the, inch, yielding the super's career theory, equation. Thk = f /360 * 1/TPI * 25.4 mm/In [11] from trigonometry and converting TPI to threads per millimeter. Below is a Figure illustrating these concepts.

Figure 7: Resulting image of the slice selection phantom. used to determine the thickness of the slice. Once the thickness of the slice selection has been documented the experimentation will take another route. The second set of experiments that I'll be doing will evaluate the in-plane resolution of the NMR microscope. Resolution refers to The Important the measure of the super's career theory, system's ability to symbolism poems distinguish between to closely spaced point sources (6). The fundamental limit to super's theory this system is that as size of the volume element gets smaller, its signal contribution is reduced and a reduction occurs in the signal-to-noise ratio (3). This phenomenon can be reduced using signal averaging. This will not be concentrated on The Important Role Essay, in this experimentation though. The theoretical resolution limit of this system is about 20 m ms. To quantitatively test this limit, a specific phantom will be created.

It should be noted that since the diameter of the sample tube is 5 mm, it is very difficult to construct useful phantoms small enough to fit inside the tube. After much consideration, a phantom with nylon cords of varying diameter will be used. Theory. The lower limit of cord diameter used will be approximately 45 m m or about the thickness of the definition, diameter of super's career, glass rods. The upper limit will be approximately 139 m m for gender in sports fishing line. The sample tube will contain cords ranging from the lower limit to the upper limit. The sample tube will also be filled with water around the cords since the protons in water will generate a NMR signal.

This phantom will utilize slice selection and it is also very important that the cords be perpendicular in the sample tube. An illustration of the sample phantom is located in Figure 8 below. Figure 8: Illustration of phantom to evaluate in-plane resolution. The goal of this phantom is to use the known diameter of the nylon cords and career theory the resulting NMR image to determine the in-plane resolution of the system. The number of pixels that the image of the cord occupies will be recorded for pious each cord diameter. These results will then be graphed and to show how pixel size ( m m) and diameter ( m m) are related. The slope of this curve should equal one for the ideal case where the objects are the same size in super's the image as they were when measured. If possible, the exact location of the cords will vary some to yield an average curve.

This is attempting eliminate samples taking up more pixels because of Role of Music in Education Essay, falling half on career theory, one pixel and half on the next pixel. This graph will then serve as a lookup table for further application to celery stalks or plant stems. These organic structures will be measured using a microscope and then compared to the LUT values to further evaluate the system. This research evolved around the existing Bruker 300 MHz NMR spectrometer and a program called XWINNMR for editing parameters. A portion of the research time was spent learning how to operate the spectrometer, and use the symbolism poems, software. There are two probe heads on career theory, the spectrometer, one for taking spectra (qnp #7) and one for imaging (bbi #11). This spectrometer is normally used for culture in the 1920s taking spectra so the super's career theory, probe head was changed and replaced for in sports each day of data collection. Files are located in various directories that are in the rigid XWINNMR directory structure that is automatically used. The pulse programs are located in the directory /u/exp/stan/nmr/lists/pp/ and they have .ssse extensions. The gradient matrices are located in the directory /u/exp/stan/nmr/lists/gp and have extensions similar to .ssse.r.

Images are located in /disk2/data/scv996/nmr/. The pulse programs and gradient matrices are located in the appendix. XWINNMR was utilized to perform this research since it allows the user to vary input parameters for changing features on the microscope. The table below contains many of the commands that were used. Research was done in manual control mode that turns off the super's career theory, sweeping feature of the spectrometer. Table 1: Common XWINNMR commands and their meanings. Read in shim file for a particular probe. Write a shim file for a particular probe.

Change probe seen by the software. Shows the FID (Free induction decay) window. Allows the user to view a simulation or timing diagram. Receiver gain adjustment. Allows user to tune the probe. Ends the wobb command. Runs the program specified in the eda display. Used to change programs or length of pulses. Performs the FT to turn resulting signal into an image for this research. Number of scans taken.

Number of Role, dummy scans. Duration of the 90 degree pulse. Duration of the 10 degree pulse. Amplitude of the above pulses. Loop counter parameters (choose 4 and it'll perform 4*256 scans)

The time it takes for image collection varies. The user can specify the career theory, image size and the number of repetitions. Images collected were 256x256. It takes about 1.5 minutes to obtain an image. Raw images were transferred by using file transfer protocol (FTP) for processing. An Interactive Data Language (IDL) program was used to symbolism poems read in the raw data and career change the resulting images into TIFF format. This IDL program is definition, located in the appendix. To begin this research, previous non-tomographic microscopy results needed to super's career theory be verified (7). This research essentially created a NMR microscope which would take the hydrogen signal from the entire sample tube range of National Decision Making Essay, 1.5 cm and average it to create an image. The length of the sample tube is represented by the z-axis and the magnetic field excited the entire portion of the sample tube.

The resulting image has all the sample values in super's career the z-direction averaged to yield one z value for each x-y location. This causes differences from the bottom to the top of the sample tube to be filtered out. Essay About In An Organization. The timing diagram for this pulse sequence is located in Figure 9. The images collected showed the amount of hydrogen mapped in the xy-plane over the full range of the sample tube (7). Figure 9: Diagram illustrating the two-dimensional sequence . The same phantoms and identical pulse sequences were used to theory verify his results. However, while verifying his results, a horizontal artifact was present in in the 1920s the resulting images (See Fig. 10). This image is of capillary tubes filled with water.

The artifact was caused by residual longitudinal magnetization remaining after the 180 degree pulse. To minimize this artifact, a crusher pulse was applied before and after the phase encoding gradient to theory remove the mass culture, remaining magnetization. The crusher pulse effectively removed the career theory, artifact and Collection in an the previous research was verified. Figure 10: Image with a horizontal artifact present. Slice Thickness Documentation. Nylon Screw Phantom. To create a tomographic NMR microscope, a slice selective gradient was applied in super's theory addition to the phase encoding gradient, and frequency encoding gradient (See Fig. 11). A spin-echo sequence was used for this research and the code is located in the appendix. This sequence, by Decision manipulating the pulse width and the values for the slice selection gradient, caused a specific portion of the sample tube to be excited and created a tomographic NMR microscope. Super's. The slice selection gradient must be applied perpendicular to the imaging plane.

The phase encoding and frequency encoding gradients need to Security Decision Making be applied in the same plane as the slice but orthogonal to each other (See Fig. 12). By manipulating the application of the three pulses, slices may be taken in the xy-plane, the xy-plane and the yz-plane (See Table 2). Oblique imaging can also be implemented by applying combinations of the career theory, various gradients to yield the desired angles. To change the thickness of the in the, slice, the slice selection gradient was modified.

The thickness of the slice is found using the formula Thk = Dn/(g Gs) where the thickness is inversely proportional to the slice selection gradient. Gradient values implemented into the time sequence are percentages. Career. The maximum gradient is 50 G/cm for this spectrometer and by symbolism poems using a slice selection gradient of 100%, the gradient applied will be 50 G/cm. Using a value of 10% would yield a gradient of 5 G/cm. Theory. Since thickness is inversely proportional to the slice selection gradient, implementing a value of 10% will yield a thicker slice than that of 100%.

Figure 11: Pulse program for of Music Essay a tomographic spin-echo sequence using three gradients. Figure 12: Diagram of the three gradients used for imaging with their plane locations. Table 2: Gradients for imaging in various Planes. To evaluate the super's career, performance of the tomographic sequence, a nylon screw phantom was imaged to attempt to document slice thickness. This phantom consisted of a nylon screw with 32 threads/inch submerged in water. Definition. It was thought that this phantom would work well due to it's repetitive shape and by yielding signal such that the angle of super's, signal was related to the thickness.

Images were taken with various gradients (See Fig. 13). By increasing the gradient, the most obvious change in the image was the signal-to-noise ratio. This is understandable since a thinner slice will have less hydrogen atoms relative to the thicker slice causing less signal. Figure 13: Images of the screw phantom taken with 20, 30, 40, and 60 % of maximum gradients respectively.

While trying to document the results from this phantom, it became apparent that if multiple turns were present in the image, there'd be no way to determine how many turns occurred. Also, the input for in sports the 90 and 180 degree pulses is square. Super's Theory. Therefore, the in Education Essay, Fourier Transform of this input is a sinc function. This means that a uniform slice is not excited and that determining the exact thickness of the slice is much more complicated. Due to these factors, the screw phantom was abandoned as a way to document slice thickness. This phantom did serve to illustrate that by changing the z gradient, the super's theory, signal-to-noise ratio varied from image to image as seen in Figure 13 above. The difficulty documenting slice thickness due to The Important Role of Music Essay the repeating threads on the screw phantom led to the implementation of career, a new phantom. Data In An. This phantom consisted of a hollow plastic cone submerged in water.

The cone was originally used for . The premise behind this phantom was to theory vary the gradients (thickness) to determine if the National Making, resulting images reflected a thicker or thinner circle from the cone. The angle of the super's career, cone was found to be degrees and the width of the cone wall was found to be 0.55 mm (See Fig. 14). Since the 90 and 180 degree pulses are square waves, the Fourier Transform yields a sinc function with a width 1/160 m s. Equity. The sinc means that a uniform slice is not excited in the sample but can be schematically represented by Figure 15. Figure 14: Schematic diagram of the cone phantom used to super's career theory document slice thickness. Figure 15: Illustration of the non-uniform slice excited by the sinc function. Utilizing information about the sinc function (See Fig. 15), showed the symbolism poems, relationship Dn= 2/tw. By plugging it into Thk = Dn/(g Gs), yielded Thk = (2/tw) /(g Gs) where the thickness of the slice (Thk) is inversely proportional to the width of the 180 degree pulse. The 180 pulse was 160 m s in super's duration. By calculations, this yielded a slice thickness of 0.01 mm (gradient = 60%) and slice thickness of 0.59 mm (gradient=10%).

The original goal was to produce a slice equivalent to 1 mm. Due to this optimal goal, the above equation was rearranged to National Making solve for the width of the pulse that would create a 1 mm slice. Career Theory. A gradient of 30 G/cm (gradient=60%) was used and the theoretical width of the pulse (tw) was calculated to be 157 m s. Pious. Therefore, by making the width of the 180 degree pulse 157 m s, the pulse sequence would theoretically yield a thickness of 1 mm. Super's. The width of the 90 degree pulse is 7.5 #109; s or half that of the 180 degree pulse. A gradient of in sports, 60% was used so that the thickness of the slice could increase or decrease without changing the theory, width of the RF pulses. This result may be useful for more intricate studies but for this research, images were taken using a 180 degree pulse width of 160 m s and a 90 degree pulse width of 80 m s. The slice selective gradients varied the thickness from approximately 0.01-0.59 mm. These pulse widths were used for National Security Essay all of the career theory, collected images and thicknesses seemed satisfactory to see changes in Role of Music the images. For this piece of equipment, as mentioned previously, the maximum gradient is 50 G/cm but this number may not be exact although the theoretical calculations assume that it is. It should also be mentioned again that the pulses were square so a non-uniform thickness was excited in the sample causing the signal to be generated from an average of the super's, thickness that followed a sinc pattern. This also leads to inaccuracies in the resulting image dependent on the phantom or sample used.

Below are some images taken of the National Security Essay, cone phantom for career theory various slice selective gradient parameters. Most of the noticeable differences in the image result from the change in SNR for the different thicknesses. The cone also appears to be slightly skewed in the sample tube as seen by the circle being somewhat lopsided. Figure 16: Images of the The Important Role in Education Essay, cone phantom taken with thinner and career thicker slices. In order to quantitatively measure the width of the circle present in the above images, a horizontal profile was taken through the center of each image.

The horizontal profiles are located below in mass culture 1920s Figure 17. For these profiles, the x-axis represents the width of the image which is career theory, 256 pixels and the y-axis is the NMR signal created by hydrogen present in the water molecules of the excited slice. The width of the areas of symbolism poems, lower signal represent the thickness of the slice. This graph was then compared with the theoretical horizontal profiles of the cone knowing the dimensions of the sinc function. Figure 17: Horizontal profiles of the images used to determine if the images followed the super's, right shape functions. The top image in Figure 17 shows the horizontal profile for a thick slice and Essay about Data Collection the lower image shows an image of thinner slice. The x-axis shows the location along the horizontal line in the image and theory the y-axis shows the grayscale value. The shape of these profiles matches the expected relationship. The edges are slightly tapered and the data value reaches a minimum that is not zero. Visible in the plots is the culture, difference in the amount of signal-to-noise from varying the super's career, slice thickness. These slices vary from about 1 mm (Left) to of Music Essay a thin slice of.

0.3 mm (Right). These are theoretical values. Due to the small slice thickness relative to the geometry of the career theory, cone, there is not much difference in the width of the symbolism poems, non-signal areas for the different thicknesses. These results make sense when conceptualizing the cone phantom. The thicker the slice, the wider one would expect the area of super's, non-signal to be. This is true but since the in the, slice is really a sinc function, there will always be signal present from outside the theoretical thickness range. In-Plane Resolution Documentation. The next goal of this research project was to document the in-plane resolution of the system.

In-plane resolution represents the size of the object necessary to be visible in the image. The fundamental optical limit was calculated to be approximately 20 m m. There were a few difficulties encountered during this area of experimentation. In order for super's the phantom to National Security Decision Making Essay be relatively accurate, it needed to be very small in diameter and also have a constant shape so that minimal effects would occur when the signal was averaged over the thickness ( 0.5 mm). Finding objects with a small diameter proved to be very difficult so fishing line was used. Human hair is around the same diameter but the super's career, line is much tougher. The other main dilemma was how to suspend these items in the sample tube and also keep them perpendicular. Fishing line also sometimes floats in water to The Important Essay add to the burden. After trial and error, the best method to keep the super's career theory, line perpendicular to the imaging plane (xy-plane) was to place the line inside capillary tubes (See Fig. National Security Making. 18).

A micrometer was used to measure varying diameters of fishing line. The fishing line varied in diameter from 87-139 m m and the width of the capillary wall was measured to theory be 4.25 mm. The line and capillary tubes were then submerged in in Education water to complete the phantom. All of the line was easily visible in the images as seen in Figure 19. Figure 18: Skematic diagram illustrating fishing line phantom design. Figure 19: Images of the fishing line phantom taken at 10, and 40 % gradients respectively.

Since this really was not a limiting resolution for the system, glass rods were stretched to diameters of. 50 m m and suspended in water. The rods were not exactly perpendicular to the imaging plane and appear oval in the resulting image. As seen in Figure 20, the three glass rods are visible to the eye and take up about 5 pixels. Figure 20: Image of the glass rod phantom taken with 10 % gradient. No other phantoms were used for in-plane resolution documentation due to the difficulty in finding phantoms with diameters small enough to super's career be useful. Definition. Therefore, the smallest diameter object imaged was around 50 m m and the above images used for documenting slice thickness. The eye can detect the presence of the fishing line and super's glass rods in the images for the FOV used. This however, doesn't give us an accurate portrayal of the relative size of these objects. Definition Pious. The dimensions of the objects are known and by assuming that the inner diameter of the sample tube is the same size in the image as was measured. Career. The inner diameter was measured as 4,250 m m and corresponds to approximately 179 pixels.

Dividing these numbers yielded 23.7 m m/pixel which was used to calculate the size of the capillary tubes, fishing line, and glass rods. This formula is listed below in Eq. 12. Image Size = (23.7 m m/pixel) * (Number of pixels in image) [12] The calculated image size numbers should ideally match the measured dimensions of the objects and yield a slope of 1 for the graph. This was not the case.

As illustrated in the below table and graph, there were numerous discrepancies between the two measurements. Table 3: Calculated values for measured diameter [ #109; m] and image diameter [ #109; m]. Inside dia. Security Essay. Cap. Tube.

Outside dia. Super's. Cap. Tube. Inside dia. Sample Tube. Figure 21: Graphs of measured diameter [ #109; m] vs. calculated image diameter [ #109; m]. For the smaller objects, the image size is more than double that of the original size but for the larger measurements, the size in the image is smaller than the measured value. The glass rods measured 45 m m in diameter but are 118 m m in the resulting images.

Therefore, the smallest in-plane resolution is 118 m m in the image and corresponds to approximately 5 pixels. The cause of this discrepancy in size is unclear. It might be due to rods not being perpendicular in the sample tube. The phantom consisted of a large area of water which generated the NMR signal. Depending on the organic substances imaged, there may be less signal generated in the images and it may become more difficult to document features of the in sports, images. Errors were present in super's theory the images due to the fishing line or glass rods not being exactly perpendicular to the imaging plane. Also, this documentation used a fixed FOV which allowed the entire diameter of the sample tube to symbolism poems be present in the images. Theory. Modifying the FOV such that only one capillary tube is present in the image would likely increase the Essay Data Collection in an Organization, in-plane resolution. Super's. The increased size of the National Decision, smaller objects is due to a fundamental limitation of MRI. This causes the objects to super's career become smeared in the images and the exact reason is unknown. Due to this knowledge, the image results appear feasible for this system.

To demonstrate the potential usefulness of this microscope, flies and celery stalks were imaged. The flies were unsuccessfully imaged but this is probably due to the fly being dehydrated from being imaged at a post-mortem date. The celery stalks were submerged in water and the resulting images showed a lot of variation resembling a realistic view of the celery. The signal variation represents areas of high hydrogen content (white) and mass in the 1920s low hydrogen reaction (black). Images were taken with thicker and super's thinner slices and equity also an image was taken two weeks after the initial images. Structure variations are present between all images. The signal-to-noise ratio decreases proportional to the thickness of the slice and is visible in the images. Decomposition is present in the right hand image and super's theory the structures appear to have broken down also. This application has successfully imaged vegetation with the microscope.

Future work could be done on germinating seeds and NMR images could potentially capture various stages of development. Figure 22: Images of celery taken with gradients 10%, and 20% respectively and pious an image taken two weeks after the initial image with a gradient of 40%. The purpose of super's theory, this research was to use a Bruker 300 DRX Spectrometer for tomographic NMR microscopy and document features such as in-plane resolution and slice thickness. The in-plane resolution refers to gender in sports the smallest object that can be resolved in the resulting image. Slice thickness for super's career theory this research represents the amount of sample to get excited by the magnetic field documented in the z-direction. Ideal goals were a slice thickness of in the 1920s, 1 mm and an in-plane resolution of 50 m m. This research set numerous optimistic goals that were slightly out of range for the amount of time available. It was very difficult to find phantoms with the desired characteristics that were also small enough to fit inside the sample tube. It was also difficult to determine a slice thickness due to the pulse being shaped like a sinc in Fourier space and a non-uniform slice being excited from the theory, phantom. Another dilemma was that most of the known parameters on the Bruker Spectrometer were not fully trusted for accuracy.

An example of symbolism poems, this is that the maximum gradient is defined as 50 G/cm but this number may not be exact. This value changes the theoretical calculations if inaccurate. A nylon screw phantom was initially used to document slice thickness because it was thought to have the desired characteristics. The screw was submerged in water to create the nmr signal. The screw phantom was going to have signal corresponding to the number of thread turns but this did not work as first expected. There was no way to discriminate between thread turns of more than one. Also, due to the sinusoidal nature of the excited hydrogen protons, it was difficult to tell whether the slice was thick or whether sinusoidal shape was adding additional signal from outside the desired 1 mm slice. Theory. The screw phantom was abandoned due to these difficulties and a new phantom consisting of a cone submerged in water was imaged. Intricate measurements were taken of this phantom and the theoretical amount of signal was modeled for use in determining the slice thickness. This phantom behaved as expected for the system given a non-uniform slice thickness.

The horizontal plots of the in an Organization, images show both signal-to-noise changes between the career, images and also a relative shape that takes into account the slice thickness. The next goal of this research was to document the in-plane resolution using a constant field of view. The major difficulties with this phantom were that it was difficult to The Important in Education Essay find objects with the desired characteristics that were small enough to super's theory test the in-plane resolution limits. Initially, fishing line was imaged but the smallest diameter was 87 m m and the goal of the system was at least 50 m m. To test the limits further, glass rods were stretched and submerged in The Important Essay water since they were the smallest objects available for use with diameters of approximately 45 m m. Glass rods are visible in the resulting images. It was very difficult to keep the glass rods perpendicular in the sample tube and career this is visible in the images by their oval shape. Since the symbolism poems, glass rods were pieces of stretched glass, the diameter might not be uniform anyway. The calculated image size using the images shows that the in-plane resolution is 118 m m for a 45 m m object diameter. These results could also be effected to the large amount of signal present in the sample relative to the tiny glass rods. The smearing of the object size in the image is due to super's a limitation of MRI so these results aren't unusual. Future work in this research area should include adding user control of the slice location the definition pious, sample tube.

Some ideas for super's this are in the following paragraphs. Building off the phantom for slice selection, a new phantom will be developed to test a slice selection locator feature. Assuming that that the results from the first phantom adequately documented the thickness of the slice, this feature will allow the mass culture in the, user to career theory freely choose the definition, particular location of the theory, 1 mm slice. The user will also be able to choose different slice locations to be taken from the same sample tube. Symbolism Poems. This concept is illustrated below in Figure 10 and career will work best for samples that vary in the z direction such as a fly or corn kernel.

Figure 23: Fly with varying signal components in The Important Role of Music Essay the z direction. and illustration of the slice selection locator. Mathematically, this will be accomplished by utilizing the theory, relationship between frequency and mass 1920s the location in the z direction. Super's Career. The location in the z direction is equal to the change in frequency divided by the product of the gyromagnetic ratio and the frequency gradient of the slice. Change in frequency will be equal to definition the frequency we apply minus a reference frequency at zero. The phantom for this experiment will have similar characteristics to super's career the slice selection phantom. National Security Decision Making. This phantom must have a measurable variance in the z direction as far as water content or signal variance. A simple phantom can be constructed with capillary tubes filled with varying amounts of super's career theory, water in symbolism poems them over the z range of the detector. This should result in a variance of signal proportional to the z location and give us enough knowledge to narrow down where the theory, slice is being taken. An illustration of this phantom is in Figure 11 below. After getting an approximate region of where the symbolism poems, slice is being taken, the nylon screw may be placed in a measured amount of water and the results should yield enough information to determine the final location of the slice.

Figure 24: Slice taken at super's, location (dotted lines) for The Important Role of Music in Education Essay slice selection locator phantom. Given that the thickness of the slice and the in-plane resolution are both accurately documented, the super's theory, phantom mentioned above should allow the specification to the location of the slice. The amount of accuracy may also be tested by varying parameters slightly to 1920s detect a subtle change in signal.