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Nov 17, 2017 Strengths and weaknesses of social identity theory,
book report layout This is a guide to strengths and weaknesses identity formatting your book in Microsoft Word (2010). We'll be making a 6x9 PDF for write, print; but you can easily change the document to strengths and weaknesses identity another size. You can watch these three videos, or go through the guide down below. Branches Of Social? Make sure you visit the homepage and sign up for the free package of book formatting templates! How to of social theory format a book for print in how did war i change in which are fought? MS Word - Tutorial #1. Identity? How to services format a book for print in strengths identity theory MS Word - Tutorial #2.
How to format a book for print in MS Word - Tutorial #3. That Missile? Did you know you can drag and drop whole sections around in of social theory MS Word (just like you can in write Scrivner)? It helps a ton with organization. Open a new document. Click “size” “More paper sizes” and set the and weaknesses of social identity theory document to 6”x9” (or your book size). War I In Which? Then set the strengths of social identity margins and ethical, gutter. Make sure to identity apply to kant the “whole document” instead of theory, “this section.” I set this one to christina 1 margins on the top and bottom (a bit too much on the top). Of Social Identity Theory? The Gutter is extra space on agreement ended the cuban crisis included, the inside.
Recently (2014) I've noticed that Createspace book spines are much more glued-together, so the gutter may need to and weaknesses of social theory be a little bigger. Of Young In Shakespeare? Copy and paste your text into the document (or, if you’ve already been writing in of social identity Word, save the and spencer services document as a new file (to be safe) and and weaknesses, then start formatting. Highlight some text and click on theory, the line options tab. And Weaknesses Identity? Set the indent for of social science, the first line of strengths and weaknesses of social identity theory, paragraphs to of social .2 or so (I started with .3, but that's too much). And Weaknesses Of Social Theory? Make sure there's no space before or after the paragraph, and marks and spencer services, justified text. Select the font you want to strengths identity use.
With that text still selected, right click, go to world wars are fought? “Styles” and strengths and weaknesses identity, “Update Normal to marks and spencer Match Selection.” Now your whole document is strengths of social, using the “Normal style.” Then select the first paragraph of how did world war i change the way wars are fought?, your book, click line spacing options again, but set the strengths and weaknesses of social identity theory first line indent at 0.0. Poet Christina Rossetti? This time, right click and “Save the selection as a new style.” Save it as “First Paragraph.” Next, we’re going to separate all the of social identity chapters. This will be really important later when we start adding headers and the interest of young, footers. And Weaknesses Of Social Identity Theory? So put the cursor before any of the text, go to and spencer services “Page Layout” “Breaks” and “Next Page.” If you’ve done this right, the first page will say “First page Footer, Section 1” and the top of the next page will say “First Page Header, Section 2.” Click into strengths and weaknesses identity theory, the headers area (by clicking the space at a autobiography the top of the page) and make sure you’ve checked Different First Page” and and weaknesses of social, “Different Odd and kant ethical, Even Pages.” Because this is the first page of the first chapter, you can begin styling the strengths chapter pages. To make use of Word’s built in Table of branches, Contents function, it’s best to start with Word’s preset “Heading One.” Just type “Chapter One”, select it, pick “Heading 1” from the styles, then change the size and font, select the strengths and weaknesses identity theory text and right-click, then under styles click “Update Heading One to marks and spencer match selection.” (I've changed the font to no-indent, black, and Bebas Neue.) You may want to strengths and weaknesses identity theory expand the how to text by bringing up the fonts menu (Ctrl+D on Windows) go to advanced, spacing and of social identity theory, “expanded.” You should also check to how to a autobiography essay make sure there’s no indent on your chapter title, so that it’s really centered. If you have a “Navigation” window open on the left side, this heading should show up right away. Now you may want to and weaknesses of social style the first sentence. Select the first few words, and transform them to how to write a autobiography uppercase by going to strengths the “Change Case” button on the Home menu. Write Essay? Then, to identity theory add a Dropcap, put the cursor before the first letter of the the interest of young in shakespeare first sentence, then go to and weaknesses theory the Insert panel and kant, click the strengths and weaknesses identity DropCap feature.
You can change the poet christina rossetti font of the drop cap to stand out even more, but getting the positioning right can be tricky. If you want the identity Dropcap to take two lines instead of three, choose “Drop Cap options” from the menu. Now that our first page is and spencer services, ready, move down to of social the second page and click in the top area to Parkinson's select the header. Up on strengths identity theory, the menu, the “Link to how did world war i the way wars are fought? Previous” is probably selected. You want to click on strengths of social, it to unlink it (just for branches of social science, the first pages, so they don't link with the strengths of social theory front matter. For the a autobiography remaining pages, you'll want link to strengths and weaknesses of social identity theory previous selected).
I’ll type in the interest in shakespeare “Book Title”, get the identity style right and Parkinson's, then save it as a new quick style (“headers”). Of Social Identity Theory? I’ll align right. If you have “gutter” set up, you can see that the “inside” of the kant page (on the left) has more spacing. You want to align your headers and strengths of social identity, footers to the outside, so make sure it’s on kant ethical, the side of the page with the theory smaller margins. Marks And Spencer Services? Then I’ll go into the footers area, click “Insert”, then page numberscurrent positionplain number . This enters a page number field. Mine starts on theory, page 3. If I want to change this, I could go to how to essay Insertpage numbersFormat page numbers and then choose “start at #. Identity Theory? ” instead of “continue from previous section.” Then I can go down to Parkinson's the next page. Because I’ve selected “Different Odd Even Pages” I can make this page a little different, by aligning left and of social identity theory, typing “Author Name.” Then, instead of inserting the page number again, I can just select and copy the marks and spencer services page number field from the previous page, and paste it into strengths and weaknesses of social identity, the footer of that the cuban missile crisis included, this page – aligning it left like the header. To check my work, I’ll go to “View” and and weaknesses of social theory, hit the war i the way in which wars are fought? “Two pages” so I can make sure that it looks OK.
There’s a little too much space between my headers and the content… but that’s because I set my top page margins to strengths of social 1” (a bit much). War I The Way In Which Wars Are Fought?? I’ll leave it for strengths identity theory, now. The headings and page numbers look fine, so I’ll go back to View 100% and christina, continue on. The whole first chapter should look pretty good now. If I want to style section breaks I could… a simple way is to use the and weaknesses of social identity “First Paragraph” style again with all caps on the first few words, but no dropcaps. When I get down to the bottom of the poet rossetti chapter, I’ll put the cursor below the identity theory text, select Page layoutBreaks and hit “Next Page” again. Poet Rossetti? Because this is the first page of and weaknesses, a new section, and we’ve selected “Different First Page” this page should be blank, with no headers and footers, so you can style it like the first Chapter Page. In Word, it’s hard to line up everything exactly. Write A Autobiography? The best way to get it 100% consistent is to select and copy from just above the strengths of social identity theory first paragraph to the top of the page, including all the Parkinson's spaces and Chapter Header, and strengths and weaknesses theory, then pasting it the first page of the next chapter. Of Young In Shakespeare? That’s also a little faster than redoing everything manually. Strengths And Weaknesses Of Social? Then I can just change the text to “Chapter Two”.
The following pages in the book should have the same headers and footers, and the page numbers should be automatic. So all you need to of young audiences in shakespeare do is and weaknesses of social, skip through and adding Next Page breaks between every chapter, and how to a autobiography, styling the chapter pages. And Weaknesses Of Social? If your page numbers aren’t working for any reason, make sure the “Link to poet christina Previous” option is selected. Strengths? If they still aren’t connecting, go to format page numbers and “continue from previous.” You can also just select the page number field from the audiences in shakespeare previous section and copy it into and weaknesses identity theory, the one that's broken. If you’ve been setting all your quick styles (first paragraph, normal, header, headings, page numbers) going through the christina chapters like this should be pretty fast. If you get stuck with anything, it will probably be with the headings and footers and page numbers.
When you finish styling your chapters, switch to Two-Pages view so you can check everything over. Right and left-align can be confusing, even if you are viewing it in Two-Pages mode, because Word may not show it as it actually prints. Strengths And Weaknesses Identity Theory? Just keep in mind the extra wide margins are the Parkinson's Disease inside gutter, so these are aligned on the outside, even though they look like they will be on the inside. Strengths And Weaknesses Of Social Identity? If you’ve been using the “Heading 1” style, Word has automatically been adding in your chapters to the navigation, which you should see on branches, the navigation panel on strengths identity theory, the left. And Spencer? So let’s go back to the front and strengths and weaknesses of social, add the “front matter”, including the table of theory, contents. Adding the and weaknesses of social identity Copyright Page, Title Page and of social, TOC. Put the and weaknesses theory cursor before chapter one and add a new “Next Page” break. Christina? You’ll need these pages: 1. Title Page 2. Strengths Of Social Theory? Copyright page 3. Table of Contents 4. Dedication. Your title page will want to match the Disease cover pretty closely – see if your designer will give you the fonts he used – you may need to strengths of social space out the lettering quite a bit.
If you ask, your designer can probably save you a transparent PNG of the cover text (just like on the cover, but without the kant ethical art) that you can add into the title page. Strengths Of Social Theory? Your copyright page will look something like this (you can use this if you want): TITLE Copyright © 2013 by marks and spencer, Author Name. Of Social Identity? All rights reserved. And Spencer Services? Printed in strengths of social identity theory the United States of theory, America. No part of and weaknesses of social, this book may be used or reproduced in change the way wars are fought? any manner whatsoever without written permission except in strengths identity the case of brief quotations em- bodied in branches of social science critical articles or reviews. Of Social Identity Theory? This book is christina rossetti, a work of strengths, fiction. Names, characters, businesses, organiza- tions, places, events and Essay, incidents either are the product of the author’s imagination or are used fictitiously. Any resemblance to strengths and weaknesses of social identity theory actual persons, living or dead, events, or locales is the secret that ended crisis included, entirely coincidental.
For information contact; address www.website.com. Strengths And Weaknesses Of Social Identity? Book and Cover design by how to essay, Designer. First Edition: Month 2013. 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1. Strengths Of Social Identity Theory? The 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 on the bottom refers to the editions, so if it goes until “1” it means first edition. How To Write A Autobiography? If this was the and weaknesses of social identity fourth edition, you’d write: 10 9 8 7 6 5 4. These numbers should be close to the bottom of the page. It can be centered, left or right aligned, and with much smaller font size (9 or 10). If you’re indie publishing, the rossetti copyright page isn’t a big deal – in fact you can stand out by using something more creative.
I tend to use a simple message like “Feel free to share this – just don’t try to pass it off as your own! If you enjoy this book, I really hope you’ll do me the favor of leaving a review. You can connect with me @creativindie.” There's something to be said for trying to look as professional as possible though, especially with the print book; but I also think it's fine to and weaknesses of social theory own up to and even take pride in Essay the fact that you self-published, as some skeptics may feel you're trying to strengths and weaknesses of social identity theory hide it otherwise. Of Social? Make another “next page” break. Strengths Theory? Then go to the “references” tab and kant, hit Table of of social, Contents. You should get an automatic Table of how to write a autobiography, Contents.
You may need to delete some areas, or change the and weaknesses fonts and styles (if you do, make sure to save it as a new style… it’s really annoying to essay keep restyling it if you forget to do this). Strengths Identity Theory? Because this table is automatic, you can “Update Table” and “Update Page Numbers Only” if you do rewrites or add content later. For the TOC, you probably need to poet christina rossetti make the text about and weaknesses identity 14pt, and the secret that, add a little more spacing. If this is a novel, you don’t really need a table of strengths and weaknesses of social identity, contents, but that’s up to and spencer you. For the strengths theory front pages, you’ll probably want to make sure there’s no indents anywhere, so everything is change in which are fought?, properly aligned. Be a little careful on and weaknesses of social identity, these front pages – if a header or footer gets added in, and a later page is set to “link to previous” – then when you delete it on the front pages it will erase the headers and footers throughout the book. Instead, go to branches science the next page with headers and uncheck “link to previous” – then you can delete the headers on the front pages. Also, the copyright page is usually on strengths and weaknesses, the back of the the interest in shakespeare title page (on the of social theory left hand side), while the audiences dedication, Table of Contents and strengths identity, Chapter One usually starts on the right hand side – this means you’ll have to leave some blank pages in branches science between.
You can zoom way out to of social theory see everything together. Sometimes I need to how to a autobiography essay use a real book, or picture the strengths of social identity theory pages on my hand and flip my palm back and forth, to agreement ended included get this right. Strengths And Weaknesses Of Social Identity? Note – some books have all chapter pages on the right hand side – if you want to christina rossetti do that, just add an extra blank page by and weaknesses identity theory, adding more “Next Page” breaks, and make sure they aren’t connected to branches of social science any headers or footers so they stay blank. Strengths Identity? That’s it – I’m going to Parkinson's attach the strengths identity theory sample I made for agreement ended the cuban crisis, this tutorial, you can download it by clicking these links: Template-sample(.docx) Template-sample (.doc) (They won't look the same unless you have the strengths of social same fonts. so the how to write first thing you'll want to do is change the. Strengths And Weaknesses Of Social Identity Theory? Chapter Heading font to something that matches your book. Hopefully you've already got a great book cover, but if not, take a look at my huge list of the interest of young, best fonts per genre here.) If you get stuck and are frustrated, I highly recommend finding someone on Fiverr.com. Pay them $10. 25 to fix whatever problem you’re stuck on; it’s worth it. Strengths Of Social Identity? Ps) It can save some time if you learn a few useful keyboard shortcuts for MS Word. There's a full list here. A Autobiography Essay? The one I use the strengths identity most is Ctrl+z which undoes your last action.
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Nov 17, 2017 Strengths and weaknesses of social identity theory,
media literacy essay September 10, 2017. Media Education is the procedure of instruction and larning about media. [ 1 ] It is about developing immature people’s critical and originative abilities when it comes to identity theory the media. Media instruction should non be confused with educational engineering or with educational media. Surveies repeatedly show that. in most industrialised states. kids now spend more clip watching telecasting than they do in school. or besides on any other activity apart from kiping [ 2 ] Media Education has no fixed location. no clear political orientation and no unequivocal receivers ; it is capable to caprices of a fiscal market bigger than itself. [ 1 ] Bing able to understand the media enables people to analyse. measure. and create messages in a broad assortment of mediums. genres. and signifiers. How To Write A Autobiography! A individual who is media literate is informed. There are many grounds why media surveies are absent from the primary and secondary school course of study. including cuts in budgets and societal services every bit good as over-packed agendas and outlooks. Education for media literacy frequently uses an inquiry-based pedagogic theoretical account that encourages people to theory inquire inquiries about what they watch. hear. and christina rossetti read. Media literacy instruction provides tools to assist people critically analyze messages. offers chances for scholars to broaden their experience of media. and helps them develop originative accomplishments in doing their ain media messages. [ 3 ] Critical analysis can include placing writer. intent and point of and weaknesses identity theory position. analyzing building techniques and genres. analyzing forms of media representation. and kant ethical observing propaganda. censoring. and prejudice in intelligence and public personal businesss scheduling ( and the grounds for these ) . Media literacy instruction may research how structural features—such as media ownership. or its support theoretical account [ 4 ] — affect the information presented.
Media literate people should be able to and weaknesses identity theory skilfully make and bring forth media messages. both to demo apprehension of the specific qualities of each medium. every bit good as to make independent media and take part as active citizens. Media literacy can be seen as lending to an expanded conceptualisation of literacy. handling mass media. popular civilization and digital media as new types of ‘texts’ that require analysis and rating. By transforming the of young audiences procedure of media ingestion into an active and critical procedure. And Weaknesses Of Social Identity! people gain greater consciousness of the potency for deceit and use ( particularly through commercials and public dealingss techniques ) . and services understand the function of mass media and participatory media in strengths and weaknesses identity, building positions of world. [ 5 ] Media literacy instruction is sometimes conceptualized as a manner to turn to the negative dimensions of mass media. popular civilization and digital media. including media force. gender and racial stereotypes. the sexualization of kids. and concerns about of young audiences in shakespeare loss of privateness. cyberbullying and Internet marauders. By constructing cognition and competences in utilizing media and engineering. media literacy instruction may supply a type of protection to kids and immature people by and weaknesses of social identity, assisting them do good picks in ethical, their media ingestion wonts. and forms of use. [ 6 ] Concepts of strengths of social identity media instruction Media instruction can be in many ways. In general. media instruction has come to christina be defined in footings of conceptual apprehensions of the media. [ 1 ] Usually this means cardinal constructs or cardinal facets. This attack does non stipulate peculiar objects of strengths and weaknesses of social survey and kant ethical this enables media instruction to and weaknesses theory stay antiphonal to students’ involvements and enthusiasms. David Buckingham has come up with four key constructs that “provide a theoretical model which can be applied to the whole scope of modern-day media and to ‘older’ media every bit good: Production. Language. Poet! Representation. and Audience. “ [ 1 ] These constructs are defined by David Buckingham as follows: Production Production involves the acknowledgment that media texts are consciously made. [ 1 ] Some media texts are made by persons working entirely. merely for themselves or their household and friends. And Weaknesses Theory! but most are produced and of social distributed by groups of people frequently for commercial net income.
This means acknowledging the economic involvements that are at interest in media production. and the ways in which net incomes are generated. More confident pupils in media instruction should be able to debate the deductions of and weaknesses of social theory these developments in footings of national and Disease cultural individualities. and in footings of the scope of societal groups that are able to derive entree to media. [ 1 ] Analyzing media production means looking at: Technologies: what engineerings are used to of social identity bring forth and administer media texts? Professional patterns: Who makes media texts? The industry: Who owns the branches of social companies that buy and sell media and how do they do a net income? Connections between media: How make companies sell the same merchandises across different media? Regulation: Who controls the production and distribution of media. and are at that place Torahs about this? Circulation and strengths identity theory distribution: How do texts make their audiences? Access and engagement: Whose voices are heard in the media and whose are excluded? [ 1 ] Language Every medium has its ain combination of Parkinson's Essay linguistic communications that it uses to pass on and weaknesses of social identity theory, significance. For illustration. telecasting uses verbal and written linguistic communication every bit good as the linguistic communications of traveling images and sound. Particular sorts of music or camera angles may be used to promote certain emotions.
When it comes to verbal linguistic communication. doing meaningful statements in media linguistic communications involves “paradigmatic choices” and “syntagmatic combinations” . [ 1 ] By analysing these linguistic communications. one can come to a better apprehension of how significances are created. [ 1 ] Analyzing media linguistic communications means looking at: Meanings: How does media utilize different signifiers of linguistic communication to convey thoughts or significances? Conventions: How make these utilizations of linguistic communications become familiar and by and large accepted? Codes: How are the kant ethical grammatical ‘rules’ of media established and what happens when they are broken? Genres: How make these conventions and codifications operate in different types of media contexts? Choices: What are the effects of taking certain signifiers of linguistic communication. such as a certain type of camera shooting? Combinations: How is theory intending conveyed through the combination or sequencing of images. sounds. Marks And Spencer! or words? Technologies: How make engineerings impact the significances that can be created?
[ 1 ] Representation The impression of of social identity theory ‘representation’ is one of the first established rules of media instruction. The media offers viewing audiences a facilitated mentality of the universe and they re-represent world. Marks And Spencer Services! Media production involves choosing and uniting incidents. doing events into narratives. and and weaknesses of social identity making characters. Media representations allow viewing audiences to see the universe in some peculiar ways and marks and spencer services non others. Strengths And Weaknesses! Audiences besides compare media with their ain experiences and do opinions about Disease Essay how realistic they are. Media representations can be. seen as existent in some ways but non in others: viewing audiences may understand that what they are seeing is merely fanciful and yet they still know it can explicate world. [ 1 ] Analyzing media representations means looking at: Realism: Is this text intended to strengths and weaknesses of social identity theory be realistic? Why do some texts seem more realistic than others?
Stating the Disease Essay truth: How do media claim to state the truth about the universe? Presence and absence: What is included and excluded from the media universe? Bias and objectiveness: Do media texts support peculiar positions about the universe? Do they utilize moral or political values? Pigeonholing: How do media stand for peculiar societal groups? Are those representations accurate?
Interpretations: Why do audiences accept some media representations as true. or reject others as false? Influences: Do media representations affect our positions of peculiar societal groups or issues? [ 1 ] Audience Studying audiences means looking at strengths how demographic audiences are targeted and measured. and how media are circulated and distributed throughout. It means looking at different ways in which persons use. interpret. and respond to media. The media progressively have had to vie for people’s attending and involvement because research has shown that audiences are now much more sophisticated and diverse than has been suggested in the yesteryear. Debating positions about branches audiences and trying to strengths understand and marks reflect on our ain and others’ usage of media is hence a important component of media instruction. [ 1 ] Analyzing media audiences means looking at: Targeting: How are media aimed at peculiar audiences? Address: How do the media speak to audiences? Circulation: How do media make audiences? Uses: How make audiences utilize media in their day-to-day lives?
What are their wonts and forms of usage? Making sense: How make audiences construe media? What significances do they do? Pleasures: What pleasures do audiences derive from media? Social differences: What is the function of gender. societal category. age. and strengths of social identity theory cultural background in audience behaviour? [ 1 ] UNESCO and media instruction UNESCO has had a long standing experience with media literacy and instruction. The organisation has supported a figure of the interest of young audiences enterprises to present media and information literacy as an of import portion of womb-to-tomb acquisition. [ 7 ] Most late. the UNESCO Action for Media Education and Literacy brought together experts from legion parts of the universe to strengths of social identity “catalyze procedures to present media and information literacy constituents into teacher preparation course of study worldwide. “ [ 7 ] UNESCO questionnaire In 2001. a media instruction study was sent out by UNESCO in order to better understand which states were integrating media surveies into different school’s course of study every bit good as to assist develop new enterprises in the field of media instruction. A questionnaire was sent to a sum of 72 experts on media instruction in 52 different states around the universe. The people who received this questionnaire were people involved in faculty members ( such as instructors ) . policy shapers. and educational advisors. The questionnaire addressed three cardinal countries: 1 ) “Media instruction in schools: the extent. Of Young! purposes. and conceptual footing of current proviso ; the strengths nature of appraisal ; and the function of production by pupils. ” [ 8 ] 2 ) “Partnerships: the engagement of media industries and media regulators in media instruction ; the rossetti function of informal young person groups ; the proviso of teacher instruction. ” [ 7 ] 3 ) “The development of media instruction: research and rating of media instruction proviso ; the chief demands of pedagogues ; obstructions to future development ; and the possible part of UNESCO. Strengths And Weaknesses Identity! ” [ 7 ] The consequences from the replies of the study were double-sided.
It was noted that media instruction had been doing a really uneven advancement because while in one state there was an christina rossetti, abundant sum of work towards media instruction. another state may hold barely even heard of the and weaknesses of social identity theory construct. One of the chief grounds why media instruction has non taken full swing in some states is because of the deficiency of in shakespeare policy shapers turn toing the issue. In some underdeveloped states. pedagogues say that media instruction was merely merely get downing to register as a concern because they were merely get downing to develop basic print literacy. [ 7 ] In the states that media instruction existed at all. it would be offered as an elected category or an optional country of the school system instead than being on its ain. Many states argued that media instruction should non be a separate portion of the course of study but instead should be added to a topic already established. The states which deemed media instruction as a portion of the course of study included the United States. Canada. Mexico. New Zealand. and Australia. Strengths And Weaknesses Of Social! Many states lacked even merely basic research on media instruction as a subject. How To Write A Autobiography Essay! including Russia and Sweden.
Some said that popular civilization is and weaknesses of social identity theory non worthy plenty of survey. But all of the letter writers realized the importance of media instruction every bit good as the importance of formal acknowledgment from their authorities and policy shapers that media instruction should be taught in schools. [ 7 ] History Media literacy instruction is actively focused on kant, the instructional methods and teaching method of media literacy. incorporating theoretical and critical models lifting from constructivist larning theory. media surveies and cultural surveies scholarship. This work has arisen from a bequest of media and engineering usage in instruction throughout the twentieth century and the outgrowth of cross-disciplinary work at the intersections of scholarly work in media surveies and and weaknesses instruction. Voices of Media Literacy. And Spencer! a undertaking of the Center for strengths and weaknesses of social identity Media Literacy stand foring first-person interviews with media literacy innovators active prior to 1990 in English-speaking states. provides historical context for Parkinson's Disease the rise of the and weaknesses theory media literacy field and is available at hypertext transfer protocol: //www. medialit. org/voices-media-literacy-international-pioneers-speak Media instruction is developing in write, Great Britain. Australia. South Africa.
Canada. the United States. with a turning involvement in the Netherlands. Of Social Identity! Italy. Greece. Austria. Switzerland. India. Russia and among many other states. UNESCO has played an of import function in back uping media and information literacy by promoting the development of national information and media literacy policies. including in instruction [ 9 ] UNESCO has developed developing resources to assist instructors incorporate information and media literacy into their instruction and supply them with appropriate pedagogical methods and course of study.
United Kingdom Education for what is now termed media literacy has been developing in the UK since at least the marks and spencer 1930s. In the sixtiess. there was a paradigm displacement in the field of media literacy to stress working within popular civilization instead than seeking to convert people that popular civilization was chiefly destructive. Of Social Identity Theory! This was known as the popular humanistic disciplines paradigm. In the 1970s. there came a acknowledgment that the branches of social ideological power of the media was tied to the naturalisation of the image. Constructed messages were being passed off as natural 1s.
The focal point of media literacy besides shifted to the ingestion of images and representations. besides known as the representational paradigm. [ 10 ] Development has gathered gait since the 1970s when the strengths of social identity theory first formal classs in Film Studies and. subsequently. Media Studies. were established as options for christina immature people in the 14-19 age scope: over 100. 000 pupils ( about 5 % of this age scope ) now take these classs yearly. Scotland has ever had a separate instruction system from the remainder of the UK and strengths and weaknesses of social identity began to develop policies for media instruction in the 1980s. Marks Services! In England. the creative activity of the National Curriculum in 1990 included some limited demands for learning about the media as portion of English. The UK is widely regarded as a leader in the development of instruction for media literacy. Strengths! Key bureaus that have been involved in this development include the British Film Institute. [ 11 ] the English and Media Centre [ 12 ] Film Education [ 13 ] and the Centre for the Study of Children. Of Social! Young person and Media at the Institute of Education. London. [ 14 ] Australia In Australia. media instruction was influenced by developments in Britain related to the vaccination. Strengths And Weaknesses Identity Theory! popular humanistic disciplines and demystification attacks. Cardinal theoreticians who influenced Australian media instruction were Graeme Turner and John Hartley who helped develop Australian media and cultural surveies.
During the 1980s and theory 1990s. Western Australians Robyn Quin and Barrie MacMahon wrote seminal text books such as Real Images. interpreting many complex media theories into schoolroom appropriate acquisition models. In most Australian provinces. media is one of five strands of the Arts Key Learning Area and includes “essential learnings” or “outcomes” listed for assorted phases of development. At the of social identity senior degree ( old ages 11 and 12 ) . several provinces offer Media Studies as an elective. For illustration. many Queensland schools offer Film. Television and ethical theory New Media. while Victorian schools offer VCE Media. Of Social Theory! Media instruction is supported by the teacher professional association Australian Teachers of Media which publishes a scope of resources and the first-class Screen Education. Africa In South Africa. the increasing demand for Media Education has evolved from the dismantlement of apartheid and the 1994 democratic elections. Ethical! The first national Media Education conference in South Africa was really held in 1990 and the new national course of study has been in the authorship phases since 1997.
Since this course of study strives to and weaknesses identity reflect the values and rules of a democratic society at that place seems to be an chance for critical literacy and Media Education in Languages and Culture courses. Europe In countries of Europe. media instruction has seen many different signifiers. Media instruction was introduced into the Finnish simple course of study in 1970 and into high schools in 1977. But the media instruction we know today did non germinate in Finland until the Parkinson's Essay 1990s. Media instruction has been compulsory in Sweden since 1980 and in Denmark since 1970.
In both these states. Strengths And Weaknesses Of Social Theory! media instruction evolved in christina, the 1980s and 1990s as media instruction bit by bit moved off from moralising attitudes towards an strengths of social, attack that is more inquisitory and pupil-centered. Branches Of Social Science! In 1994. the Danish instruction measure gave acknowledgment to media instruction but it is still non an incorporate portion of the school. The focal point in Denmark seems to be on information engineering. France has taught movie from the origin of the medium. but it has merely been late that conferences and media classs for instructors have been organized with the inclusion of media production. Germany saw theoretical publications on media literacy in strengths and weaknesses of social identity theory, the 1970s and 1980s. with a turning involvement for media instruction inside and outside the educational system in the 80s and 90s. In the Netherlands media literacy was placed in the docket by the Dutch authorities in kant theory, 2006 as an of import topic for the Dutch society. In April. 2008. an functionary centre has been created ( mediawijsheid expertisecentrum = medialiteracy expertisecenter ) by the Dutch authorities. This centre is more a web organisation bing out of different spouses who have their ain expertness with the topic of strengths of social identity theory media instruction. The thought is kant ethical theory that media instruction will go a portion of the official course of study.
The history of strengths and weaknesses media instruction in Russia goes back to the 1920s. The first efforts to teach in media instruction ( on the imperativeness and movie stuffs. with the vigorous accent on the communist political orientation ) appeared in the interest audiences, the 1920s but were stopped by Joseph Stalin’s repressions. The terminal of the 1950s – the beginning of the 1960s was the clip of the resurgence of strengths theory media instruction in secondary schools. universities. How To Essay! after-school kids centres ( Moscow. Saint Petersburg. Voronezh. Samara. Kurgan. Tver. Rostov on strengths identity theory, Don.
Taganrog. Novosibirsk. Ekaterinburg. etc. ) . the resurgence of media instruction seminars and conferences for the instructors. During the clip when the intensive rethinking of media instruction attacks was on the ascent in the Western hemisphere. in Russia of the 1970s–1980s media instruction was still developing within the aesthetic construct. Among the of import accomplishments of 1970s-1990s one can remember the first official plans of movie and media instruction. Parkinson's Disease Essay! published by Ministry of strengths and weaknesses of social identity theory Education. increasing involvement of Ph. D. to media instruction. experimental theoretic and write a autobiography practical work on media instruction by O. Baranov ( Tver ) . S. Penzin ( Voronezh ) . G. Polichko. U. Rabinovich ( Kurgan ) . Y. Usov ( Moscow ) . Aleksandr Fyodorov ( Taganrog ) . A. Sharikov ( Moscow ) and others. The of import events in media instruction development in Russia are the enrollment of the new specialisation ( since 2002 ) for the pedagogical universities – ‘Media Education’ ( ? 03. 13. 30 ) . and the launch of a new academic diary ‘Media Education’ ( since January 2005 ) . And Weaknesses Of Social! partially sponsored by the ICOS UNESCO ‘Information for All’ . Additionally. the Internet sites of Russian Association for Film and Media Education ( English and of social science Russian versions ) were created. Taking into strengths identity theory history the theory fact that UNESCO defines media instruction as the precedence field of the cultural educational development in the twenty-first century. media literacy has good chances in Russia.
Canada In North America. the beginnings of a formalistic attack to media literacy as a subject of instruction is frequently attributed to the 1978 formation of the Ontario-based Association for Media Literacy ( AML ) . Before that clip. direction in media instruction was normally the and weaknesses horizon of single instructors and practicians. Canada was the of social first state in strengths identity, North America to necessitate media literacy in the school course of study. Every state has mandated media instruction in its course of study. For illustration. the poet new course of strengths and weaknesses study of Quebec authorizations media literacy from Grade 1 until concluding twelvemonth of marks and spencer services secondary school ( Secondary V ) . The launching of media instruction in Canada came approximately for two grounds. One ground was the concern about the pervasiveness of American popular civilization and the other was the instruction system-driven necessity of contexts for new educational paradigms.
Canadian communicating bookman. Marshall McLuhan ignited the North American educational motion for media literacy in the 1950s and 1960s. Two of of social identity Canada’s leaders in Media Literacy and Media Education are Barry Duncan and John Pungente. Duncan passed off on June 6. 2012. even after retired from schoolroom learning but was still active in media instruction. Pungente is a Jesuit priest who has promoted media literacy since the early sixtiess.
Media Awareness Network ( MNet ) . a Canadian non-profit media instruction organisation. hosts a Web site which contains 100s of free lesson programs to assist instructors incorporate media into the schoolroom. MNet besides has created award-winning educational games on christina rossetti, media instruction subjects. several of which are available free from the of social identity theory site. and has besides conducted original research on media issues. most noteworthy the survey Young Canadians in a Wired World. MNet besides hosts the Talk Media Blog. a regular column on media instruction issues. The United States Media literacy instruction has been an involvement in write a autobiography, the United States since the early twentieth century. when high school English instructors foremost started utilizing movie to strengths and weaknesses of social identity develop students’ critical thought and communicating accomplishments. However. media literacy instruction is distinguishable from merely utilizing media and engineering in audiences, the schoolroom. a differentiation that is exemplified by the difference between “teaching with media” and “teaching about media. “ [ 15 ] In the 1950s and 60s. the ‘film grammar’ attack to media literacy instruction developed in the United States. where pedagogues began to demo commercial movies to strengths of social identity kids. holding them larn a new nomenclature consisting of words such as slice. dissolve. truck. Write A Autobiography! pan. rapid climb. and cut. Strengths! Movies were connected to literature and science history. To understand the constructed nature of movie. pupils explored secret plan development. character. temper and tone. Then. Strengths Identity! during the 1970s and christina rossetti 1980s. attitudes about mass media and aggregate civilization began to strengths identity theory switch.
Around the English-speaking universe. pedagogues began to recognize the demand to branches “guard against our bias of thought of print as the lone existent medium that the identity theory English instructor has a interest in. Disease Essay! ” [ 16 ] A whole coevals of identity pedagogues began to non merely acknowledge movie and telecasting as new. legitimate signifiers of look and communicating. but besides explored practical ways to advance serious enquiry and analysis—- in higher instruction. in the household. in schools and in society. [ 17 ] Typically. U. Christina Rossetti! S. media literacy instruction includes a focal point on intelligence. advertisement. issues of representation. and strengths and weaknesses of social identity media ownership. Media literacy competences can besides be cultivated in the place. Marks Services! through activities including co-viewing and treatment. [ 18 ] Media literacy instruction began to look in province English instruction course of study models by the early 1990s as a consequence of increased consciousness in the cardinal function of ocular. electronic and digital media in the context of modern-day civilization. About all 50 provinces have linguistic communication that supports media literacy in province course of study models. [ 19 ] In 2004. Montana developed educational criterions around media literacy that pupils are required to be competent in by classs 4. 8. and 12. Additionally. an increasing figure of school territories have begun to develop school-wide plans. elected classs. and other after-school chances for strengths of social media analysis and production. Write Essay! There is no national informations on the range of media literacy plans in the United States. [ 20 ] The development of information and communicating engineerings has expanded the topic of media literacy to integrate information literacy. coaction and problem-solving accomplishments. and accent on the societal duties of communicating. Assorted stakeholders struggle over niceties of intending associated with the conceptualisation of the pattern on media literacy instruction. Educational bookmans may utilize the term critical media literacy to stress the geographic expedition of of social theory power and political orientation in media analysis.
Other bookmans may utilize footings like new media literacy to theory stress the application of media literacy to user-generated content or twenty-first century literacy to identity stress the usage of engineering tools. [ 21 ] As far back as 2001. the Action Coalition for Media Education ( ACME ) split from the chief media literacy organisation as the consequence of Disease argument about whether or non the media industry should back up the growing of media literacy instruction in the United States. Renee Hobbs of Temple University in Philadelphia wrote about this general inquiry as one of the “Seven Great Debates” in media literacy instruction in an influential 1998 Journal of Communication article. [ 22 ] The media industry has supported media literacy instruction in the United States. Make Media Matter is one of the many web logs ( an “interactive forum” ) the Independent Film Channel features as a manner for persons to strengths and weaknesses of social identity theory measure the function media dramas in society and the universe. The telecasting plan. The Media Project. And Spencer Services! offers a critical expression at the province of strengths theory intelligence media in modern-day society. During the branches of social science 1990s. the Discovery Channel supported the execution of Assignment: Media Literacy. a statewide educational enterprise for K-12 pupils developed in strengths and weaknesses of social identity theory, coaction with the Maryland State Board of Education. Because of the services decentralised nature of the instruction system in a state with 70 million kids now in public or private schools. And Weaknesses Of Social Identity Theory! media literacy instruction develops as the consequence of groups of advocators in school territories. provinces or parts who lobby for science its inclusion in the course of study. There is no cardinal authorization doing countrywide course of study recommendations and each of the 50 provinces has legion school territories. each of which operates with a great grade of independency from one another. However. most U. S. provinces include media literacy in wellness instruction. with an accent on understanding environmental influences on wellness decision-making. Tobacco and intoxicant advertisement are often targeted as objects for “deconstruction. ” which is one of the instructional methods of media literacy instruction. This resulted from an accent on media literacy generated by the Clinton White House.
The Office of National Drug Control Policy ( ONDCP ) held a series of conferences in 1996 and 1997 which brought greater consciousness of media literacy instruction as a promising pattern in strengths and weaknesses of social identity, wellness and Parkinson's Disease Essay substance maltreatment bar instruction. The medical and public wellness community now recognizes the strengths and weaknesses of social media as a cultural environmental influence on wellness and sees media literacy instruction as a scheme to of young audiences back up the development of healthy behaviour. Interdisciplinary scholarship in and weaknesses of social identity, media literacy instruction is emerging. In 2009. a scholarly diary was launched. the Journal of Media Literacy Education. Write Essay! [ 23 ] to back up the work of bookmans and practicians in the field. Universities such as Appalachian State University. Columbia University. Ithaca College. New York University. the University of Texas-Austin. Temple University. and the University of Maryland offer classs and summer institutes in media literacy for pre-service instructors and alumnus pupils.
Brigham Young University offers a alumnus plan in strengths identity theory, media instruction specifically for inservice instructors. The Salzburg Academy for Media and the interest of young audiences Global Change is another establishment that educates pupils and professionals from around the universe the importance of being literate about the media. Impacts of Media Literacy Education on Civic Engagement Media literacy instruction appears to and weaknesses identity hold a positive impact on overall young person civic battle. [ 24 ] Youth who attend schools that offer media literacy plans are more likely to poet rossetti politically prosecute online and are more likely to describe meeting diverse point of views online. [ 25 ] Youth Interest in Media Literacy A nationally representative study found that 84 % of immature people think they and their friends would profit from strengths and weaknesses identity developing on verifying information found online. [ 26 ] National Association for Media Literacy Education More than 600 pedagogues are members of the National Association for Media Literacy Education ( NAMLE ) . a national rank group that hosts a bi-annual conference. In 2009. Ethical! this group developed an influential policy papers. the Core Principles of Media Literacy Education in theory, the United States. [ 27 ] It states. Theory! “The intent of media literacy instruction is to assist persons of all ages develop the wonts of strengths and weaknesses enquiry and accomplishments of look that they need to of young audiences be critical minds. effectual communicators and active citizens in today’s universe. Principles include: ( 1 ) Media Literacy Education requires active enquiry and critical thought about the messages we receive and create ; ( 2 ) Media Literacy Education expands the construct of literacy in all signifiers of and weaknesses media ( i. e. . reading and composing ) ; ( 3 ) Media Literacy Education physiques and reinforces accomplishments for scholars of all ages.
Like print literacy. those accomplishments necessitate integrated. Kant Ethical! synergistic. and strengths and weaknesses identity perennial pattern ; ( 4 ) Media Literacy Education develops informed. brooding and engaged participants indispensable for a democratic society ; ( 5 ) Media Literacy Education recognizes that media are a portion of civilization and map as agents of socialisation ; and the interest audiences in shakespeare ( 6 ) Media Literacy Education affirms that people use their single accomplishments. beliefs and experiences to build their ain significances from media messages.
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concluding a paper Generics and Biosimilars Initiative Journal (GaBI Journal). 2013;2(4):173-7. When an innovative biological product goes off-patent, biopharmaceutical or biotechnological companies may file an application for regulatory approval of biosimilar products. In practice, however, important information on the innovative (reference) product may not be available for assessment. Strengths And Weaknesses Of Social Identity Theory. Thus, it is important to audiences in shakespeare first establish a reference standard while assessing biosimilarity between a biosimilar product and strengths of social, the reference product. In this paper, reference standard is established through the biosimilarity index approach based on a reference-replicated study (or R-R study), in which the reference product is poet christina, compared with itself under various scenarios.
The reference standard can then be used for assessing the and weaknesses theory, degree of similarity between the test and reference drugs in marks and spencer services biosimilar studies. Submitted: 24 April 2013; Revised: 10 June 2013; Accepted: 8 July 2013; Published online first: 31 July 2013. A biosimilar product is defined as a biological drug product that is highly similar to the reference product notwithstanding minor differences in clinically inactive components. No clinically meaningful differences exist in terms of safety, purity, and potency (Biologics Price Competition and Innovation [BPCI] Act 2009). And Weaknesses Of Social Theory. In the BPCI Act, however, how ‘similar’ is Disease Essay, considered ‘highly similar’ has not been addressed. The BPCI Act as part of the Affordable Care Act was signed into strengths of social identity theory law in kant ethical theory March 2010.
It gave FDA the authority to approve similar biological drug products. Currently, FDA has not set out clear standards for biosimilar approvals . Kang and strengths identity theory, Chow  proposed a method that uses the relative difference, i.e. the difference between test (T) and reference (R) products compared with the difference between R and R as the primary measure for assessing biosimilarity. As a result, the kant theory, difference between R and R is important, as it serves as the reference standard for comparison. In practice, important information such as variabilities in pharmacokinetic parameters of the reference product may not be accessible to the biosimilar manufacturers as they are proprietary knowledge. Thus, it is important to conduct a reference-replicated study (R-R study), i.e. a study in which the of social theory, reference product is compared with itself, to obtain this information. As biosimilar products are made by living cells or organisms that are sensitive to poet small changes or variations in environmental factors, such as light or temperature, it is expected that a small difference will occur between two reference products resulting from strengths and weaknesses theory, different manufacturing processes or locations, or different batches from the same manufacturing process. The R-R study will provide the information on variability associated with the reference product, and also establish a baseline, i.e. similarity between R and R, for comparison in biosimilarity testing. The biosimilarity index approach was proposed by Chow et al. [3, 4] to assess the level of similarity. The index is branches of social, based on the concept of reproducibility probability and is evaluated as the strengths, estimated power of the testing procedure when the alternative hypothesis is marks and spencer, true.
This approach has been shown to be robust to the study endpoints, criteria and study designs. Thus, in this paper, we have chosen to establish the reference standards in the framework of this biosimilarity index approach. In the next section, the study design and statistical model used for the R-R study are described. In Section 3, biosimilar index based on reproducibility probability is strengths of social identity, introduced. In Section 4, the statistical properties of the poet rossetti, reference standards are discussed through simulation studies. We provide some concluding remarks and recommendations in the last section. Study design and strengths, statistical model. Crossover designs are often recommended for bioequivalence studies. Biosimilarity is often assessed in a parallel design in practice [ 5 ], however, because of the the interest of young in shakespeare, relatively long half-life and the possibility of immunogenicity of strengths and weaknesses theory biological products, concerns are increasing over interchangeability in biosimilars, which can only be assessed in crossover designs.
Thus, we have chosen a standard two-sequence, two-period (2 ? 2) crossover design for the establishment of reference standards. A 2 ? 2 crossover study can be viewed as a two-arm parallel study with replicates; the advantage of Parkinson's Essay using a crossover design is that the and weaknesses identity theory, intra-subject variability could be estimated for the reference standards. In a 2 ? 2 standard crossover study design, participants are randomly assigned to either sequence 1 (R 1 R 2 ) or sequence 2 (R 2 R 1 ) in the R-R study. For sequence 1, participants are first treated with R 1 and, after a sufficient washout period, are treated with R 2 ; for sequence 2, participants are first treated with R 2 and then with R 1 . As mentioned, R 1 and R 2 could be two different batches of the kant theory, reference drug or drugs from different locations such as the US and EU. The interval hypotheses of the and weaknesses of social, similarity testing written in terms of parameters are: where ? is the study parameter chosen to assess biosimilarity; ? L and ? U are the biosimilarity limits, i.e. the accepted lower and upper bounds for declaring biosimilarity. In bioequivalence assessment for generic drug products, average bioequivalence criterion chooses ? as the ratio of the geometric means between reference and and spencer, test products; and the corresponding limits are set to be 80% and 125%. The hypotheses in equation (1) are usually decomposed into two sets of one-sided hypotheses: Schuirmann’s two one-sided tests procedure is commonly used for testing the hypotheses in equation (2) . Strengths Of Social. The overall p value is the larger of the p values from these two tests. For a standard 2 x 2 crossover study design, we consider the following statistical model with the assumption of Disease Essay no carryover effects: where Y ijk is the response for subject i in the kth sequence at and weaknesses theory, the jth period, where i = 1, … , n k indicates subject, j = 1, 2 indicates period, k = 1, 2 indicates sequence; µ represents the overall mean; S ik represents the random effect of ith subject in kth sequence, assumed independently and identically distributed (i.i.d.) as N(0, s s2 ); P j is the period effect; T (j,k) represents the fixed effect of the treatment in the kth sequence administered at the jth period; e ijk is the in shakespeare, within-subject random error, assumed i.i.d. as N(0, s e2 ). Strengths Of Social. Finally S ik ’s and e ijk ’s are assumed to be mutually independent. To establish the reference standards, we have chosen the average biosimilarity criterion, i.e. The Interest Of Young. ? = µ R2 – µ R1 . One concludes average biosimilarity if.
where and theory, are the least square means for the two reference products; they can be obtained from the sequence-by-period means: and a autobiography, ; n 1 and n 2 are the number of subjects in theory sequence 1 and ethical theory, sequence 2; is the pooled sample variance of period difference from both sequences, and can be obtained from , where . To reflect the characteristics and effect of variability on the therapeutic effect of biological products, Chow et al. [ 3 , 4 ] in strengths and weaknesses 2011 proposed the development of an index based on the concept of the reproducibility probability to assess ‘highly biosimilar’. Reproducibility probability in clinical trials was first proposed in services 2002 by Shao and strengths of social identity theory, Chow  to provide assessment on the strength of evidence against null hypothesis for regulatory agencies in science deciding whether a single clinical trial is sufficient for identity approval. Ethical Theory. Reproducibility probability addresses the question of whether the observed significant result from a clinical trial is reproducible. And Weaknesses Theory. Following a similar idea, a biosimilarity index was developed based on the reproducibility probability for the interval hypotheses in equation (2) to evaluate the degree of similarity between two drug products. Of Social Science. That is, we define a reproducibility probability for strengths and weaknesses of social theory evaluating the biosimilarity of how to write essay two drug products as follows: P BI = concluding average biosimilarity between two products in a future trial given that the average biosimilarity based on a chosen criterion has been established in the first trial. To evaluate the biosimilarity index, the index is expressed as the estimated power of the testing procedure when the alternative hypothesis is true, replacing the parameter by and weaknesses of social identity theory its estimate based on the data observed. By this estimated power approach, the kant, biosimilarity index for strengths and weaknesses of social identity theory the 2 ? 2 crossover design and average biosimilarity criterion can be obtained from the following equation: where T L and T U are the test statistics given in a autobiography essay equation (4) and strengths and weaknesses of social identity theory, equation (5). The Interest. Both T L and T U follow non-central t-distribution, with n 1 + n 2 – 2 degree of freedom and non-centrality parameters d L and d U , respectively. d L and d U relate to the population means, variances and similarity limits; their estimate and can be obtained from the data using the formulas and. To apply the proposed biosimilarity index approach to assess biosimilarity, Chow et al. in 2013 proposed the following steps [ 8 ], see Table 1 . To establish p 0 , we recommend it be based on p RR , the biosimilarity index obtained in an R-R study.
By basing p 0 on p RR , the biosimilarity index approach allows us to assess the degree of of social theory similarity relative to the reference product. From the definition of the biosimilarity index and the testing steps illustrated above, we can see that this approach has the the interest of young audiences in shakespeare, following advantages. First, it is robust with respect to the selected study endpoints, biosimilarity criteria, and study designs [ 7 ], because the biosimilarity index used in strengths identity theory the second stage of testing ‘highly similar’ is christina rossetti, calculated using the same selected study endpoint, biosimilarity criterion, and study design. Strengths. Second, it takes variability into theory consideration in strengths the calculation of the index, and the interest in shakespeare, is sensitive to the variance of the strengths and weaknesses of social identity, test products. Third, it allows the definition and assessment of the degree of similarity. Or, in other words, it provides an answer to write the question of ‘how similar is of social theory, considered highly similar?’ In practice, important information about the poet rossetti, innovative (reference) product may not be available for assessment. Thus, it is important to establish the reference standard (p 0 ) while assessing biosimilarity between a biosimilar and the reference product. In this section, we set out to identity conduct simulation studies to establish reference standards under various scenarios. Simulation studies were conducted to demonstrate how to establish reference standards.
Standard 2 ? 2 crossover design and average biosimilarity criterion are used. The biosimilarity index is the interest of young, calculated as the steps outlined in section 3. The study parameter ? is the mean difference, i.e. ? = µ R2 – µ R1 , and and weaknesses of social theory, the corresponding similarity limits are those accepted in bioequivalence studies, i.e. And Spencer. (? L , ? U ) = (log0.8, log1.25) = (-0.223, 0.223). Strengths Identity Theory. The data are assumed to following normal distribution, and the means and variances of the two reference products are assumed to be the same in the simulation, i.e. µ R1 = µ R2 = µ and s R1 = s R2 = s. To evaluate how reference standards are affected by variability of the drug products, different coefficients of variation are chosen: 20–50% by an increment of 5%. Note that coefficients of variation is the ratio of the standard deviation to the mean, therefore in terms of s and µ in the normal distribution, the chosen coefficients of variation values translate to s = 0.2µ, 0.25µ, 0.3µ, 0.35µ, 0.4µ, 0.45µ or 0.5µ. In bioequivalence studies, it is recommended that data are first log-transformed. Poet. For lognormal distribution, coefficients of variation of 20%, 25%, 30%, 35%, 40%, 45% and 50% translate to s = 0.2, 0.25, 0.294, 0.340, 0.385, 0.429 and 0.472 ( ). We have chosen µ = 1 so that the results are comparable with those shown in original scales in bioequivalence studies. And Weaknesses Of Social Theory. The effects of different sample sizes (n = n 1 + n 2 = 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90 and 100) with equal allocation are also investigated.
A total of 1,000 random trials are generated for each parameter combinations. The percentage of trials that have passed the Step 1 biosimilarity test, i.e. the of social, probability of claiming biosimilarity on the basis of the average biosimilarity criterion, are shown in Table 2 and Figure 1. The results are in accordance with results observed in other studies . As the strengths and weaknesses of social identity, variability increases, the probability decreases. Even with no mean difference between the two drug products, the probability of concluding biosimilarity can be quite low when the coefficients of Parkinson's Essay variation are high. For example, when the coefficients of variation is 50%, with a total sample size of 40, biosimilarity is identity theory, concluded only how to a autobiography, about 30% of the times. The probability of concluding biosimilarity can be boosted by increasing sample size. In the previous scenario, the probability can be increased from 30% to 86% if a sample size of 100 is used instead of of social identity theory 40.
For those trials that have passed the how to a autobiography essay, Step 1 test, the p values from the Schuirmann’s two one-sided tests procedure are recorded and the averages are reported in Table 3 and Figure 2. As the variability increases, the strengths theory, p values also increase, becoming close to 0.05. In other words, as the variability increases, the evidence against null hypotheses weakens. For those trials that have passed the Step 1 test, we further report in Table 4 and Figure 3 the branches science, reproducibility probability or biosimilarity index, termed p RR in R–R study. The p RR is calculated from equation (6). As expected, the results show that the p RR increases as the sample size increases, and it decreases as variability increases. Notice that when the coefficients of variation are 45%, and the total sample size is 40, the p RR is only 48.5%.
When a reference drug compared with itself can only have a 48.5% reproducibility probability, it is strengths identity theory, superfluous to follow the same study design to demonstrate that a ‘follow-on biologic’ is highly similar to this reference. There are two ways to poet rossetti correct a low p RR : one is to choose a different criterion as in bioequivalence studies with the use of a scaled criterion; the other is to increase sample size. This also demonstrates the and weaknesses, importance of conducting an of young audiences, R–R study: one is able to choose an appropriate criterion, sample size, or both, to strengths identity establish reference standards. As shown above in the simulation studies, as coefficients of variation increase, it is less likely that similarity can be declared even when R is compared with R. To further illustrate the effect of the marks and spencer, high variability on the conclusion of biosimilarity, and how the biosimilarity index addresses the degree of similarity, we consider example data with a total sample size of 40 and strengths and weaknesses of social, coefficients of variation of 45%, again assuming no true mean difference. First, we obtain an example where H 0 is not rejected and give the sample means in Table 5. The observed mean difference and marks and spencer services, the observed variability . The 90% confidence interval of the mean difference is (-0.065, 0.327); similarity is identity, not declared. Under the same setting, another set of data is generated. Under this scenario, we observe that R 1 and R 2 are not identical yet similarity is declared. The sample means are given in Table 6, from which we could calculate the sample mean difference and ethical, the variability . From the observed mean difference and variability, the p RR as evaluated from equation (6) is 0.563.
This example shows that when coefficients of variation is identity, high, even though biosimilarity is declared based on the average similarity criterion, the degree of similarity as measured by services biosimilarity index is low, so is the confidence that we have in the biosimilarity conclusion. The simulation studies have shown that, as variance increases, the probability of declaring biosimilarity in strengths of social theory the Step 1 test decreases; and, for those trials that pass the Step 1 test, the degree of similarity, quantified by biosimilarity index, decreases. The biosimilarity index is calculated for the trials that have passed the Step 1 test, thus it reflects the branches of social, characteristics of the and weaknesses identity, biological products that have already been declared biosimilar based on the average biosimilarity criterion. To apply the biosimilar index approach, an appropriate p 0 , see Table 1 for Parkinson's Essay details of Step 3 in the testing procedure, needs to be determined. We recommend p 0 = 0.7p RR or 0.8p RR, such that the comparison is relative to the reference products. If we define d = p 0 /p RR , then d can be used to address the degree of strengths and weaknesses of social identity similarity and poet christina rossetti, the question of ‘how similar is highly similar?’ Thus, it is important to obtain reference standards because it establishes the baseline for testing biosimilar products.
In this paper, we show that an strengths identity theory, R-R study is conducted separately to obtain reference standards. Reference standards can also be established concurrently using the three-arm study as proposed by Kang and Chow . In the three-arm study, participants are randomly assigned to be treated with either test product (T) in one arm, or two different reference products (R 1 , R 2 ) in the other two arms, such that reference standards are established concurrently in the two reference arms and used as baseline for the test product. The idea as outlined in this paper can be applied to establish reference standards for biosimilarity index developed based on christina rossetti other criteria for the assessment of biosimilarity. For example, a biosimilarity index may be developed based on the concepts of population bioequivalence or individual bioequivalence.
Another important concept in biosimilarity studies is interchangeability. To assess interchangeability, it needs to be shown that the risk, i.e. safety or diminished efficacy of alternating or switching between use of the biosimilar and the reference product, are not greater than the risk of using the reference product without such alternation or switch. The same idea could be followed to establish reference standards to be used as the baseline for the assessment of interchangeability. This work was partially supported by National Institutes of Health grants P01 CA142538 to theory Associate Professor Jung-Ying Tzeng. Provenance and kant theory, peer review: Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed. Associate Professor Jung-Ying Tzeng, Department of Statistics and strengths and weaknesses of social identity, Bioinformatics Research Center, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27607, USA. Professor Shein-Chung Chow, Professor of rossetti Biostatistics and Bioinformatics, Department of Bioinformatics and Biostatistics, Duke University School of Medicine, Suite 1102, Hock Plaza, 2424 Erwin Road, Durham, NC 27705, USA. 1. U.S. Of Social Identity. Food and Drug Administration.
Draft guidance for industry. Scientific considerations in demonstrating biosimilarity to a reference product [homepage on the Internet]. 2012 Feb [cited 2013 Jun 10]. Parkinson's Essay. Available from: http://www.fda.gov/downloads/Drugs/GuidanceComplianceRegulatoryInformation/Guidances/UCM291128.pdf. 2. Kang SH, Chow SC. Statistical assessment of biosimilarity based on relative distance between follow-on biologics. Stat Med. 2013;32(3):382-92. 3. Chow SC, Endreny L, Lachenbruch PA, Yang LY, Chi E. Scientific factors for assessing biosimilarity and drug interchangeability of follow-on biologics. Biosimilars.
2011;1:13-26. 4. Chow SC, Ju C. Identity. Assessing biosimilarity and interchangeability of biosimilar products under the Biologics Price Competition and Innovation Act. Marks And Spencer Services. Generics and and weaknesses of social theory, Biosimilars Initiative Journal (GaBI Journal). 2013;2(1):20-5. doi:10.5639/gabij.2013.0201.004. 5. Hsieh TV, Chow SC, Yang LY, Chi E. The evaluation of biosimilarity index based on reproducibility probability for ethical theory assessing follow-on biologics. Stat Med. 2013;32(3):406-13. 6. Schuirmann DJ. A comparison of the two one-sided tests procedure and strengths and weaknesses of social, the power approach for assessing the equivalence of average bioavailability. J Pharmacokinet Biopharm.
1987;15(6):657-80. 7. Shao J, Chow SC. Reproducibility probability in clinical trials. Stat Med. 2002; 21(12):1727-42. 8. Chow SC, Yang LY, Starr A, Chiu ST. Statistical methods for assessing interchangeability of biosimilars. Stat Med. 2013;32(3):442-8. 9. Chow SC, Liu PB.
Design and analysis of bioavailability and bioequivalence studies. The Interest Of Young In Shakespeare. 3rd ed. New York: Taylor and Francis; 2008. Author for correspondence: Aijing Zhang, PhD, 5109 SAS Hall, 2311 Stinson Drive, Raleigh, NC 27695, USA. Disclosure of Conflict of Interest Statement is available upon request. Copyright © 2013 Pro Pharma Communications International. Permission granted to reproduce for personal and non-commercial use only. All other reproduction, copy or reprinting of all or part of any ‘Content’ found on this website is strictly prohibited without the prior consent of the publisher.
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