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Best Resume Examples for a Variety of Jobs. Do you need to write a resume? Knowing how to start can be the biggest challenge and islam relationships looking at examples can be very helpful. Scottsboro? The following samples are among the best resumes and islam relationships you can use them as a starting point for creating your own resume. They vary greatly in skill level, profession and format and are filled with inspiration. In Shakespeare's? Take notes as you browse the examples, this will help you remember what you like and relationships dislike and which elements you want to l'oreal group include when you begin writing your own. The first step to islam writing a great resume is to choose the scottsboro boys trial, best type of resume for your work history, experience and the jobs you#39;re applying for. Islam Relationships? Browse these examples to get a sense of your options before choosing the The Social Problem a Theoretical Lens, right format for you.
Chronological Resume - A very traditional resume format that focuses on islam, your work experience and lists previous jobs in scottsboro boys, order. Functional Resume - Focus on your skills and expertise with a minor emphasis on islam, the companies you worked for. And Automatic Processing? Combination Resume - Combine the islam relationships, elements of controlled chronological and functional resumes to highlight both your skills and islam previous employment. Targeted Resume - Write a resume tailored to the specific position you#39;re applying for. Mini Resume - Everyone in your job search does not need to controlled and automatic processing see a full-length resume, use the islam, example to cisneros young write one that#39;s brief and to islam the point. Nontraditional Resume - From a video to cisneros an online portfolio, discover how to islam create and use a resume that is unique. Of Vengeance Essay? Resume Examples with Specific Highlight Sections. Islam? Every job seeker#39;s experience and goals are different and in Shakespeare's Hamlet Essay it#39;s important to add sections to your resume that highlight what makes you the relationships, best candidate. Cisneros? In these resumes, you will find examples of specific sections that can help you direct a hiring manager#39;s attention to what you feel is most important.
Resume with Profile Statement - Give a brief and specific overview of islam your skills. Resume with Accomplishments Section - Highlight your career accomplishments at in Shakespeare's Essay, the top of your resume to islam show off your biggest achievements. Resume with a Branding Statement - Create a short, catchy statement that sells you and your skills. Irrigation Mesopotamia? Resume Example with Headline - Add a headline to relationships bring attention to your value as a candidate. Resume with Summary of Qualifications - Summarize your entire resume in scottsboro boys, a well-written paragraph that gets to the heart of your work experience and skills. Islam Relationships? Resumes for and automatic processing Executive and islam Management Positions. John Adams Biographies? The following resumes are good examples for islam individuals in management and executive positions. John Biographies? They can be used when applying for islam other office and l'oreal group business jobs as well. The highlights of islam relationships these resumes are the john biographies, supervisory experience and relationships business management.
These are skills that employers are looking for when hiring business professionals and sandra it is islam best to include concrete facts and examples of your achievements. The world of business is vast and there is a great variety of positions available in it. The examples below are a sampling of The Social Through a Theoretical Essay great resumes used by business professionals. No matter your skill level or the position you#39;re applying for, these resumes should provide inspiration while writing your own. They include various skill sets and relationships experience, which will help you along the processing, way. Positions in relationships, the tech industry are particularly competitive and it is extremely important that your resume stands out from irrigation mesopotamia your competition. You need to islam relationships be specific about i compare thee, your skills, the programs you#39;re proficient with, and it#39;s good if you can give examples of islam relationships end results as well. The Theme Of Vengeance In Shakespeare's? Many resumes in the technology space include a #39;Technical Skills#39; section in which you list every program, language, etc. Islam Relationships? Sign up for the Doyle Report and get expert job-hunting advice sent straight to adams biographies your inbox, with tips on writing a great resume and relationships acing your interview! you know.
It gives your prospective employer the irrigation, chance to islam relationships quickly understand where your skills lie. Resumes for The Theme of Vengeance in Shakespeare's Essay Education and islam Human Services Positions. Shakespeare I Compare? If your career is in relationships, education or any field related to human services, your resume needs to mesopotamia highlight both your work experience and certifications. Be sure to include any professional licenses or affiliations you have as well. You will notice that a number of these sample resumes feature volunteer experience.
What you do outside the relationships, workplace can have an impact in landing a great job in these fields, so it#39;s worth noting any volunteer work you do. Careers in mesopotamia, healthcare are filled with technical skills as well as patient interaction and islam relationships both should be highlighted in your resume. The Theme In Shakespeare's Essay? Nurses, therapists and medical specialists should include any certifications and islam relationships licenses you hold as well as details of sandra cisneros your work experience. Volunteer experience is also a nice addition to relationships healthcare resumes because it shows the hiring manager that you have compassion off the Through Lens Essay, job as well. If possible, include how you went above the call of duty or add any significant career achievements. Every trade position has a specific set of islam skills that are required on the job and controlled and automatic it is islam relationships important that you highlight your technical training in your resume. Of Vengeance Essay? Include any certifications, licenses, affiliations and achievements that are relevant or necessary to your field. Notice how the relationships, example resumes are very specific when it comes to technical skills. Sandra Cisneros Young? Many also include supervisory and relationships management experience as well as the adherence to biographies codes and islam relationships the ability to troubleshoot technical problems.
Resumes for Writers, Creatives, and Freelancers. Controlled And Automatic? Freelancers, writers, and relationships other professionals in creative fields may have the john adams biographies, most difficult time writing a resume. Your jobs may be varied, your experience and islam skills vast, and it can be difficult getting it all on paper. There are many ways to approach these types of resumes and the examples should help you find a direction that#39;s right for you. You are a creative, so you need to put some of that ingenuity into Hamlet Essay, writing the islam, most effective resume you can. You might also consider developing a curriculum vitae (CV) and have that available as well. Resumes for Customer Service Jobs. John Adams? Customer service is a key element in many jobs and it is important that you focus on islam relationships, that in your resume. Whether you are applying at a restaurant, a hair salon or a local store, the hiring manager will want to and automatic processing know that you will put their customers first. Some of these resume examples also include specific skills required for the position. For instance, a chef may choose to relationships highlight the irrigation mesopotamia, presentation and speed involved in serving meals to islam customers.
A stylist will want to focus on of Vengeance in Shakespeare's, special treatments they have learned and a retail associate may want to show off their merchandising expertise. Also, be sure to relationships include any special honors or achievements you have received. Were you the employee of the cisneros young, month? Did you reach a high sales goal? Teenagers and islam relationships recent college graduates may need to write a resume as well and this can be tricky because of your limited work history.
You will need to boys supplement your resume with other achievements. Relationships? Include volunteer work and accomplishments at school in your resume and use these examples to sandra young learn how to feature them. Employers understand that you are young and looking to islam add to sandra young your experience, so give them as much as you can that shows you#39;ll be a valuable employee.
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How to Write a Bibliography – Examples in MLA Style. Please note, all entries should be typed double-spaced. In order to keep this Web page short,single rather than double space is used here. See Bibliography Sample Page for islam relationships a properly double-spaced Bibliography or Works Cited sample page. Examples cited on this page are based on the authoritative publication from of Vengeance in Shakespeare's Hamlet, MLA. If the example you want is islam relationships not included here, please consult the MLA Handbook, or ask the writer to processing look it up for relationships you. Format for entries: A single space is used after any punctuation mark.
When dividing a long word or URL onto two lines, put hyphen, slash, or period at the end of the line. Do not add a hyphen to and automatic a URL that was not originally there. Relationships. Never begin a new line with a punctuation mark. Double-space all lines in a bibliography entry. Do not indent the first line of a bibliography entry, indent second and subsequent lines 5 spaces, or 1/2? (1.25 cm) from the left margin.
Please see Chapter 11. Guidelines on How to Write a Bibliography for details. When writing a bibliography, remember that the purpose is to communicate to The Theme in Shakespeare's Hamlet the reader, in islam a standardized manner, the sources that you have used in sufficient detail to be identified. If you are unable to in Shakespeare's Essay find all the necessary information, just cite what you can find. Click here to see a selection of Common Abbreviations used in documentation. For a complete list of Common Scholarly Abbreviations used in parentheses, tables, and documentation, please go to Section 7.4 of the 6th edition of the MLA Handbook. Bell, Stewart. The Martyr’s Oath: The Apprenticeship of islam relationships a Homegrown Terrorist . Mississauga, ON: Wiley, 2005. Biale, David, ed. Controlled And Automatic Processing. Cultures of the Jews: A New History . New York: Schocken, 2002.
Bowker, Michael. Fatal Deception: The Untold Story of Asbestos: Why It Is Still Legal. and Still Killing Us . Islam. N.p.: Rodale, 2003. N.p. = No place of publication indicated. Capodiferro, Alessandra, ed.
Wonders of the World: Masterpieces of controlled and automatic Architecture from. 4000 BC to the Present . Vercelli: White Star, 2004. Cross, Charles R. Room Full of Mirrors: A Biography of Jimi Hendrix . New York: Maltin, Leonard, ed. Movie Video Guide 2002 Edition . New York: New American, 2001. Meidenbauer, Jorg, ed. Discoveries and Inventions: From Prehistoric to Modern Times . Lisse: Rebo, 2004. Puzo, Mario. The Family: A Novel . Islam. Completed by Carol Gino.
New York: Harper, 2001. Rowling, J.K. Harry Potter and the Chamber of The Social a Theoretical Lens Essay Secrets . New York: Scholastic, 1999. —. Harry Potter and relationships, the Prisoner of Azkaban . Thorndike, ME: Thorndike, 2000. Suskind, Ron. The Price of Loyalty: George W. Bush, the White House, and the Education of. Paul O’Neill . New York: Simon, 2004. If your citation is from one volume of a multivolume work and each volume has its own title, you need cite only the actual volume you have used without reference to other volumes in the work.
Example: The Bourgeois Experience: Victoria to Freud comes in irrigation mesopotamia 5 volumes, written by Peter Gay. (Title of Vol. Islam Relationships. 1: Education of the Senses ) Gay, Peter. Education of the Senses . New York: Norton, 1999. (Title of Vol.
2: The Tender Passion) Gay, Peter. Hamlet. The Tender Passion . New York: Oxford UP, 1986. (Title of Vol. 3: The Cultivation of Hatred ) Gay, Peter. The Cultivation of Hatred . Islam Relationships. London: Harper, 1994.
(Title of Vol. 4: The Naked Heart ) Gay, Peter. The Naked Heart . New York: Norton, 1995. (Title of Vol. 5: Pleasure Wars ) Gay, Peter. Pleasure Wars . The Social Problem Essay. New York: Norton, 1998. 2. Book with two authors or editors: Bohlman, Herbert M., and Mary Jane Dundas.
The Legal, Ethical and International. Environment of Business . 5th ed. Cincinnati, OH: West, 2002. Bolman, Lee G., and islam, Terrence E. Problem Lens Essay. Deal. Leading with Soul: An Uncommon Journey. of Spirit . Rev. ed. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2001. Calvesi, Maurizio, and Lorenzo Canova, eds.
Rejoice! 700 Years of Art for the Papal. Jubilee . New York: Rizzoli, 1999. Cohen, Andrew, and J.L. Granatstein, eds. Trudeau’s Shadow: The Life and Legacy. of Pierre Elliott Trudeau . Toronto: Random, 1998. Heath, Joseph, and Andrew Potter.
The Rebel Sell: Why the islam relationships, Culture Can’t Be Jammed . 2nd ed. Toronto: Harper, 2005. Llewellyn, Marc, and controlled processing, Lee Mylne. Islam. Frommer’s Australia 2005 . John Adams. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2005. Summers, Anthony, and Robbyn Swan. Sinatra: The Life . New York: Knopf, 2005. Book prepared for publication by two editors: Shakespeare, William. Islam. The Tragedy of Hamlet, Prince of Denmark . Ed.
Barbara A. Mowat and Paul Werstine. New York: Washington. 3. Book with three authors or editors: Clancy, Tom, Carl Stiner, and shakespeare shall i compare thee, Tony Koltz. Shadow Warriors: Inside the relationships, Special. Forces . New York: Putnam, 2002. Hewitt, Les, Andrew Hewitt, and Luc d’Abadie. The Power of Focus for College. Students . Deerfield Beach, FL: Health Communications, 2005.
Larsson, Mans O., Alexander Z. Processing. Speier, and Jennifer R. Weiss, eds. Let’s Go: Germany 1998 . New York: St. Martin’s, 1998. Palmer, R.R., Joel Colton, and Lloyd Kramer.
A History of the Modern World: To 1815 . 9th ed. New York: Knopf, 2002. Suzuki, David, Amanda McConnell, and Maria DeCambra. The Sacred Balance: A Visual Celebration of Our Place in Nature . Vancouver: Greystone, 2002. 4. Book with more than three authors or editors: You have a choice of listing all of the authors or editors in the order as they appear on the title page of the book, or use “et al.” from the Latin et alii, or et aliae , meaning “and others” after the first author or editor named. Nelson, Miriam E., Kristin R. Baker, Ronenn Roubenoff, and Lawrence Lindner. Strong Women and Men Beat Arthritis . New York: Perigee, 2003. Nelson, Miriam E., et al. Strong Women and Men Beat Arthritis . New York:
Hogan, David J., et al., eds. The Holocaust Chronicle: A History in Words and Pictures . Lincolnwood, IL: International, 2000. Pound, Richard W., Richard Dionne, Jay Myers, and James Musson, eds. Canadian. Facts and Dates . 3rd ed. Markham, ON: Fitzhenry, 2005.
Pound, Richard W., et al., eds. Canadian Facts and Dates . 3rd ed. Islam Relationships. Markham, ON: Rogerson, Holly Deemer, et al. Words for Students of shakespeare thee English: A Vocabulary. Series for islam relationships ESL . Vol. 6. Processing. Advanced Level ESL. Pittsburgh, PA: U of Pittsburgh P, 1989. 5. Islam Relationships. Book with compilers, or compilers and editors: McClay, John B., and Wendy L. Matthews, comps. and eds.
Corpus Juris Humorous: A Compilation of Outrageous, Unusual, Infamous and Witty Judicial Opinions. from 1256 A.D. to the Present . New York: Barnes, 1994. O’Reilly, James, Larry Habegger, and Sean O’Reilly, comps. and irrigation mesopotamia, eds. Danger: True Stories of Trouble and Survival . San Francisco: Travellers’ Tales, 1999.
Teresa, Mother. Relationships. The Joy in Loving: A Guide to Daily Living with Mother Teresa . Comp. Jaya Chaliha and Edward Le Joly. Of Vengeance In Shakespeare's. New York: Viking, 1997. Note abbreviation: comp. = compiler or compiled by. 6. Book with no author or editor stated: Maclean’s Canada’s Century: An Illustrated History of the People and Events. That Shaped Our Identity . Toronto: Key, 1999. Microsoft PowerPoint Version 2002 Step by Step . Redmond, WA: Perspection, 2001. The Movie Book . London: Phaidon, 1999. With Scott to the Pole: The Terra Nova Expedition 1910-1913 . Photographs of.
Herbert Ponting. Islam. New York: BCL, 2004. 7. Book with one author, translated by another: Muller, Melissa. Anne Frank: The Biography . Trans. Rita and Robert Kimber. New York: Metropolitan, 1998. 8. Work in an anthology, a collection by several authors, with one or more editors and/or compilers:
Fox, Charles James. “Liberty Is Order, Liberty Is Strength.” What Is a Man? 3,000 Years of Wisdom on the Art of Manly Virtue. Ed. Waller R. Newell. New York: Harper, 2001. 306-7. Wilcox, Robert K. “Flying Blind.” Danger: True Stories of Trouble and Survival . Comp. and ed. James O’Reilly, Larry Habegger, and Sean O’Reilly. San Francisco: Travellers’ Tales, 1999.
211-22. 9. Article in an encyclopedia with no author stated: “Nazi Party.” New Encyclopaedia Britannica . Shall. 1997 ed. “Tajikistan.” World Book Encyclopedia of People and islam, Places . 2000 ed. 10. Article in an encyclopedia with an author: If the encyclopedia is well known and l'oreal group, articles are arranged alphabetically, it is islam relationships not necessary to indicate the volume and page numbers. If the encyclopedia is not well known, you must give full publication information including author, title of The Social Through a Theoretical Lens article, title of encyclopedia, name of editor or edition, number of volumes in the set, place of publication, publisher and islam relationships, year of publication. Kibby, Michael W. “Dyslexia.” World Book Encyclopedia . 2000 ed. Midge, T. “Powwows.” Encyclopedia of North American Indians . Ed.
D.L. Birchfield. 11 vols. New York: Cavendish, 1997. 11. Article in a magazine, journal, periodical, newsletter, or newspaper with no author stated: “100 Years of Dust and Glory.” Popular Mechanics Sept. 2001: 70-75. “Celestica to Repair Palm Handhelds.” Globe and Mail [Toronto] 29 Oct. 2002: B6. “E-Money Slips Quietly into Oblivion.” Nikkei Weekly [Tokyo] 22 Jan.
2001: 4. “McDonald’s Declines to The Theme in Shakespeare's Fund Obesity Education on Danger of Eating Its Food.” National Post [Toronto] 18 Apr. 2006: FP18. “Pot Use Doubled in islam relationships Decade, Study Says: 14% Smoked Up in the Past Year.” Toronto Star. 25 Nov.
2004: A18. “Secondhand Smoke Reduces Kids’ IQs.” Buffalo News 23 Jan. L'oreal Group. 2005: I6. 12. Article in a magazine, journal, periodical, newsletter, or newspaper with one or more authors:
Use “+” for pages that are not consecutive. Example: When numbering pages, use “38-45” if page numbers are consecutive. Use “A1+” if article begins on page A1, contains more than one page, but paging is not consecutive. For page numbers consisting of more than 3 digits, use short version if it is clear to the reader, e.g. 220-268 may be written as 220-68, but 349-560 must be written in islam relationships full. Note also that there is no period after the month. The period in “Mar.” is for the abbreviation of March. If there are 4 or less letters in the month, e.g. May, June, and July, the months are not abbreviated.
If the publication date is July 18, 2005, citation will be 18 July 2005. Where a journal or magazine is a weekly publication, “date, month, year” are required. Where a journal or magazine is a monthly publication, only “month, year” are needed. Where a newspaper title does not indicate the location of publication, add the city of l'oreal group publication between square brackets, e.g. Daily Telegraph [London]. Square brackets are used to enclose a word (or words) not found in islam the original but has been added by you.
An article in a scholarly journal is treated somewhat differently: Nielsen, Laura Beth. “Subtle, Pervasive, Harmful: Racist and Sexist Remarks in. Public as Hate Speech.” Journal of Social Issues 58.2 (2002): 265. The above citation shows: Author’s name, Article title, Name of scholarly journal (underlined), Volume number, Issue number, Year of publication (in parentheses), and Page number. If the article is john biographies accessed online, add Access date and URL at relationships, the end, see 23. Internet citations, or citing electronic sources (e). Bogomolny, Laura. Mesopotamia. “Boss Your Career.” Canadian Business 13-16 Mar. 2006: 47-49. Cave, Andrew. “Microsoft and Sun Settle Java Battle.” Daily Telegraph [London] Cohen, Stephen S., and J. Bradford DeLong. “Shaken and Stirred.” Atlantic Monthly.
Jan.-Feb. 2005: 112+. Coleman, Isobel. “Women, Islam, and islam, the New Iraq.” Foreign Affairs Jan.-Feb. 2006: 24+. Daly, Rita. “Bird Flu Targeting the Young.” Toronto Star 11 Mar. 2006: A1+. Dareini, Ali Akbar. “Iranian President Defends Country’s Nuclear Ambitions.” Buffalo News. Hewitt, Ben. “Quick Fixes for The Social Through a Theoretical Lens Essay Everyday Disasters.” Popular Mechanics Nov. 2004: 83-88.
Johnson, Linda A. “Fight Flu with Good, Old Advice from Mom.” Buffalo News. 10 Oct. 2004: A1-2. Mather, Victoria. “In Tiger Country.” Photos by James Merrell. Relationships. Town Country Travel. Fall 2004: 102-111. Mohanty, Subhanjoy, and Ray Jayawardhana. “The Mystery of Brown Dwarf Origins.” Scientific American Jan.
2006: 38-45. Petroski, Henry. “Framing Hypothesis: A Cautionary Tale.” American Scientist Jan.-Feb. Plungis, Jeff, Ed Garsten, and Mark Truby. “Caremakers’ Challenge: Green, Mean. Machines.” Detroit News and Free Press Metro ed. 12 Jan. 2003: 1A+. Sachs, Jeffrey D. “A Practical Plan to john End Extreme Poverty.” Buffalo News 23 Jan. 2005: I2. Saletan, William. “Junk-Food Jihad.” National Post [Toronto] 18 Apr. 2006: A18.
Thomas, Cathy Booth, and Tim Padgett. “Life Among the Ruins.” Time 19 Sept. 2005: 28+. Wolanski, Eric, Robert Richmond, Laurence McCook, and Hugh Sweatman. “Mud, Marine Snow and islam, Coral Reefs.” American Scientist Jan.-Feb. 2003: 44-51. Wolanski, Eric, et al. John Adams Biographies. “Mud, Marine Snow and Coral Reefs.” American Scientist. Jan.-Feb. 2003: 44-51. 13.
Article from SIRS (Social Issues Resources Series): Suggested citation example from SIRS: Bluestone, Barry, and islam, Irving Bluestone. “Workers (and Managers) of the World Unite.” Technology Review Nov.-Dec. 1992: 30-40. Biographies. Reprinted in WORK . (Boca Raton, FL: Social Issues Resource Series, 1992), Article No. 20. Bluestone, Barry, and Irving Bluestone. “Workers (and Managers) of the World Unite.”
Technology Review Nov.-Dec. 1992: 30-40. Work . Ed. Eleanor Goldstein. Vol. 5. Boca Raton: SIRS, 1992. Art. 20. Put in square brackets [ ] important information you have added that is islam relationships not found in the source cited. Build-a-Bear.
Advertisement. 7 Feb. Adams Biographies. 2005 http://www.buildabear.com/shop/default.aspx. GEICO. Advertisement. Islam Relationships. Newsweek 16 Jan. 2006: 92. IBM. Advertisement. Globe and Mail [Toronto] . 29 Oct. 2002: B7. Toyota. Advertisement.
Atlantic Monthly . Jan.-Feb. 2005: 27-30. 15. Booklet, pamphlet, or brochure with no author stated: Diabetes Care: Blood Glucose Monitoring . Burnaby, BC: LifeScan Canada, 1997. 16. Booklet, pamphlet, or brochure with an author: Zimmer, Henry B. Canplan: Your Canadian Financial Planning Software . Calgary, AB: May use short forms: Rev. John. (Review), Ed. (Edition, Editor, or Edited), Comp. (Compiled, Compiler).
Creager, Angela N.H. “Crystallizing a Life in Science.” Rev. of Rosalind Franklin: The. Dark Lady of DNA , by Brenda Maddox. American Scientist Jan.-Feb. 2003: 64-66. Dillon, Brenda. “Hana’s Suitcase.” Rev. of Hana’s Suitcase , by Karen Levine. Professionally Speaking June 2003: 36. Foley, Margaret. “Measured Deception.” Rev. of The Measure of islam All Things: The. Seven-Year Odyssey and Hidden Error That Transformed the World, by Ken Alder. Discover Nov.
2002: 77. Groskop, Viv. “Chinese Torture – at biographies, Five.” Rev. of The Binding Chair, by Kathryn. Harrison. International Express 6 June 2000, Canadian ed.: 37. Hoffman, Michael J. “Huck’s Ironic Circle.” Rev. of The Adventures of Huckleberry. Finn , by Mark Twain. Modern Critical Interpretations of Mark Twain’s. Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, ed. Harold Bloom. New York: Chelsea,
Iragui, Vicente. Rev. of Injured Brains of Medical Minds: Views from Within , comp. and ed. Narinder Kapur. New England Journal of Medicine 26 Feb. 1998: Neier, Aryeh. Islam. “Hero.” Rev. of Defending Human Rights in Russia: Sergei Kovalyov, Dissident and Problem Essay, Human Rights Commissioner, 1969-2003 , by Emma Gilligan. New York Review of Books 13 Jan.
2005: 30-33. Onstad, Katrina. “A Life of Pain and Paint.” Rev. of relationships Frida , dir. Julie Taymor. Irrigation Mesopotamia. National. Post [Toronto] 1 Nov. 2002: PM1+.
Redekop, Magdalene. “The Importance of Being Mennonite.” Rev. of A Complicated. Kindness, by Miriam Toews. Literary Review of Canada Oct. 2004: 19-20. Simic, Charles. “The Image Hunter.” Rev. of Joseph Cornell: Master of Dreams , by. Diane Waldman. New York Review 24 Oct. 2002: 14+. 18. Relationships. CD-ROM, DVD: See also 35. Tape Recording: Cassette, Movie/Film on VHS or DVD (Digital Videodisc), Videocassette, Filmstrip.
A Place in the Sun . Shakespeare Shall. Dir. George Stevens. 1951. DVD. Paramount, 2001 . Encarta 2004 Reference Library . CD-ROM. Microsoft, 2003 . Encarta 2004 Reference Library Win32 . Islam. Educ. ed. DVD. Microsoft, 2003. LeBlanc, Susan, and Cameron MacKeen. Processing. “Racism and the Landfill.” Chronicle-Herald.
7 Mar. 1992: B1. CD-ROM. SIRS 1993 Ethnic Groups. Vol. 4. Art. 42. Links 2003: Championship Courses . CD-ROM. Microsoft Game Studios, 2002. YellowPages.city: Toronto-Central West Edition , 1998.
CD-ROM. Montreal: 19. Computer service – e.g. Islam. BRS, DIALOG, MEAD, etc.: Landler, Mark. “Can U.S. Companies Even Get a Bonjour?” New York Times , Late Ed. – Final Ed., 1. 2 Oct. 1995.
DIALOG File 472, item 03072065. When citing a definition from a dictionary, add the abbreviation Def. Controlled Processing. after the word. If the islam, word has several different definitions, state the number and/or letter as indicated in the dictionary. “Mug.” Def. 2. Problem Through Essay. The New Lexicon Webster’s Encyclopedic Dictionary of the. English Language . Canadian ed. 1988. Short forms may be used, e.g. Islam Relationships. dir. (directed by), narr. (narrated by), perf. (performers), prod. (produced by), writ. (written by).
A minimal entry should include title, director, distributor, and The Social Through a Theoretical Essay, year of release. May add other information as deemed pertinent between the title and islam, the distributor. If citing a particular person involved in the film or movie, begin with name of that person. Charlie and the Chocolate Factory . Dir. Tim Burton. Based on in Shakespeare's Hamlet Essay book by islam relationships Roald Dahl. Perf. Johnny Depp. Warner, 2005. Depp, Johnny, perf. Charlie and the Chocolate Factory . Dir.
Tim Burton. Based on john adams biographies book. by Roald Dahl. Warner, 2005. Burton, Tim, dir. Charlie and the Chocolate Factory . Based on book by Roald Dahl. Relationships. Perf. Johnny Depp. Warner, 2005. Monster-in-Law . Dir. Robert Luketic.
Writ. Anya Kochoff. Prod. Paula Weinstein, Chris Bender, and J.C. Spink. Perf. The Social Problem Through A Theoretical. Jennifer Lopez and Jane Fonda. New Line, 2005. Nanny McPhee . Dir. Kirk Jones. Based on Nurse Matilda Books Writ.
Christianna. Brand. Islam Relationships. Prod. Lindsay Doran, Tim Bevan, and Eric Fellner. Perf. Emma Thompson, Colin Firth, and Angela Lansbury. Universal, 2005. One Hour Photo . Writ. and dir. Mark Romanek. Prod.
Christine Vachon, Pam Koffler, and Stan Wlodkowski. Perf. Robin Williams. Fox Searchlight, 2002. Titanic . Dir., writ., prod., ed. James Cameron. Controlled. Prod. Jon Landau. Twentieth. Century Fox and Paramount, 1997.
The Tuxedo . Dir. Kevin Donovan. Prod. John H. Williams, and Adam Schroeder. Perf. Jackie Chan and Jennifer Love Hewitt. DreamWorks, 2002. Cite government document in the following order if no author is stated: 1) Government, 2) Agency, 3) Title of publication , underlined, 4) Place of publication, 5) Publisher, 6) Date. Canada.
Minister of Indian Affairs and islam, Northern Development. Gathering Strength: Canada’s Aboriginal Action Plan . Ottawa: Minister of Public Works and. Government Services Canada, 2000. United States. National Council on Disability. Carrying on the Good Fight – Summary Paper from Think Tank 2000 – Advancing the Civil and Human. Rights of shall People with Disabilities from islam relationships, Diverse Cultures . L'oreal Group. Washington:
Note: GPO = Government Printing Office in Washington, DC which publishes most of the relationships, U.S. federal government documents. In citing a Congressional Record, abbreviate and underline the term, skip all the details and The Theme in Shakespeare's, indicate only the date and page numbers. Example – for the following record: United States. Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 . PL 104-193. Congressional Record. Washington: GPO, July 31, 1996. Cong.
Rec . 31 July 1996: 104-193. For examples on how to islam relationships cite more complicated government documents, please see Section 5.6.21 in MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, 6th ed. 23. Internet citations, or citing electronic sources: Basic components of an Internet citation: 2) “Title of Article, Web page or site” in quotation marks. 3) Title of Magazine, Journal, Newspaper, Newsletter, Book, Encyclopedia, or Project , underlined. 5) Indicate type of material, e.g. advertisement, cartoon, clipart, electronic card, interview, map, online posting, photograph, working paper, etc. if not obvious.
6) Date of article, of Web page or site creation, revision, posting, last update, or date last modified. 7) Group, association, name of forum, sponsor responsible for Web page or Web site. 8) Access date (the date you accessed the Web page or site). 9) Complete Uniform Resource Locator (URL) or network address in processing angle brackets. Note: An exception is made in referencing a personal e-mail message where an individual’s e-mail address is omitted for relationships privacy reasons. Skip any information that you cannot find anywhere on the Web page or in the Web site, and carry on, e.g. Mesopotamia. if your Internet reference has no author stated, leave out the author and begin your citation with the title. Always put your access date just before the islam, URL which is placed between angle brackets or “less than” and Problem Essay, “greater than” signs at the end of the citation. Generally, a minimum of three items are required for an Internet citation: Title, Access Date, and URL. If the islam, URL is too long for a line, divide the address where it creates the least ambiguity and confusion, e.g. do not divide a domain name and end with a period such as geocities . Do not divide a term in the URL that is made up of combined words e.g. The Theme Hamlet Essay. SchoolHouseRock . Never add a hyphen at the end of the line to indicate syllabical word division unless the hyphen is actually found in the original URL.
Copy capital letters exactly as they appear, do not change them to islam lower case letters as they may be case sensitive and be treated differently by some browsers. Remember that the john adams biographies, purpose of islam relationships indicating the URL is for readers to be able to access the Web page. Accuracy and clarity are essential. a. Internet citation for an advertisement: IBM. Advertisement. 23 Mar. 2003 http://www.bharatiyahockey.org/2000Olympics/ TheraTears. Advertisement. And Automatic Processing. 2003.
8 May 2004 http://www.theratears.com/dryeye.htm. b. Islam Relationships. Internet citation for an article from an controlled, online database (e.g. SIRS, eLibrary), study guide, magazine, journal, periodical, newsletter, newspaper, online library subscription database service, or an article in PDF with one or more authors stated: Bezlova, Antoaneta. “China to Formalize One-Child Policy.” Asia Times Online . 24 May 2001. 10 Oct. Relationships. 2005 http://www.atimes.com/china/CE24Ad02.html. Clifford, Erin. “Review of Neuropsychology.” SparkNotes . 10 Oct. 2005. Machado, Victoria, and George Kourakos.
IT Offshore Outsourcing Practices in adams Canada . Ottawa: Public Policy Forum, 2004. 10 Oct. 2005 http://www.ppforum.com/ow/it_outsourcing.pdf. Marshall, Leon. “Mandela in Retirement: Peacemaker without Rest.” 9 Feb. 2001. National Geographic 10 Oct.
2005 http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/ Thomason, Larisa. “HTML Tip: Why Valid Code Matters.” Webmaster Tips. Newsletter . Dec. 2003. NetMechanic. 10 Oct. 2005 http://www.netmechanic.com/ If using an online library subscription database service, add the islam, name of the service, the name of the library or library system, plus the location of the library where the shakespeare thee, database is accessed, e.g.: Gearan, Anne. “Justice Dept: Gun Rights Protected.” Washington Post . 8 May 2002.
SIRS. Iona Catholic Secondary School, Mississauga, ON. 23 Apr. 2004. Note: 8 May 2002 = date of publication, 23 Apr. 2004 = date of access. Relationships. Indicate page numbers after publication date if available, e.g. 8 May 2002: 12-14.
Leave out i compare, page numbers if not indicated in source. Pahl, Greg. Islam. “Heat Your Home with Biodiesel”. Through A Theoretical. Mother Earth News . 12 Jan. 2003. eLibrary Canada. Twin Lakes Secondary School, Orillia, ON.
10 Apr. Islam Relationships. 2006. Note: If citing the above source but information is obtained from accessing eLibrary at home, leave out the location of the school. Pahl, Greg. “Heat Your Home with Biodiesel”. Mother Earth News . 12 Jan. 2003.
eLibrary Canada. 10 Apr. 2006. http://www.proquestk12.com. c. Internet citation for an article from an online encyclopedia: Duiker, William J. “Ho Chi Minh.” Encarta Online Encyclopedia . 2005. Microsoft. 10 Oct.
2005. “Ho Chi Minh.” Encyclop?dia Britannica . 2005. Encyclop?dia Britannica Premium Service. 9 Oct. 2005 http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9040629. “Royal Shakespeare Company (RSC).” Britannica Concise Encyclopedia . Irrigation. 2005. Encyclop?dia Britannica.
8 Oct. 2005 http://concise.britannica.com/ebc/article?eu=402567. d. Internet citation for an article from an online magazine, journal, periodical, newsletter, or newspaper with no author stated: “Childcare Industry ‘Should Welcome Men’.” BBC News Online: Education .7 June 2003. 10 Oct. 2005 http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/low/education/2971310.stm. “Taiwan: A Dragon Economy and the Abacus.” BrookesNews.Com . 8 Dec. Islam. 2003. 10 Oct. 2005 http://www.brookesnews.com/030812taiwan.html. e. Internet citation for an article in a scholarly journal: Nielsen, Laura Beth. “Subtle, Pervasive, Harmful: Racist and Sexist Remarks in.
Public as Hate Speech.” Journal of Social Issues 58.2 (2002), 265-280. 7 June 2003. f. Internet citation for l'oreal group a cartoon, chart, clipart, comics, interview, map, painting, photo, sculpture, sound clip, etc.: “Islamic State of Afghanistan: Political Map.” Map. Atlapedia Online . 1993-2003. Latimer Clarke. Islam. 7 June 2003 http://www.atlapedia.com/online/maps/ Kersten, Rick, and Pete Kersten. John Adams Biographies. “Congratulations!” Electronic card. Blue Mountain Arts . 2000. 7 June 2003 http://www.bluemountain.com/ Lee , Lawrence.
Interview. JournalismJobs.com . Feb. 2003. 10 Oct. 2005. Schulz, Charles. “Peanuts Collection – Snoopy Cuddling Woodstock.” Cartoon. Islam Relationships. Art.com . 25 Apr. 2004 http://www.art.com/asp/sp.asp?PD=10037710RFID=814547. “Woodhull, Victoria C.” American History 102 Photo Gallery. 1997. State.
Historical Society of irrigation mesopotamia Wisconsin. 10 Oct. Relationships. 2005 http://us.history.wisc.edu/ g. Internet citation for an e-mail (email) from an individual, a listserve, an The Theme Hamlet, organization, or citation for islam relationships an article forwarded from an online database by e-mail: Barr, Susan I. “The Creatine Quandry.” Bicycling Nov. 1998. EBSCOhost Mailer. E-mail to E. Interior.
11 May 2003. Kenrick, John. “Re: Link to Musicals101.com.” E-mail to I. Lee. 10 May 2003. “NEW THIS WEEK for September 8, 2005.” E-mail to author. 8 Sept. 2005. PicoSearch. “Your PicoSearch Account is Reindexed.” E-mail to John Smith. h. Internet citation for an online government publication: Canada.
Office of the Auditor General of Canada and the Treasury Board. Secretariat. Modernizing Accountability Practices in john the Public Sector . 6 Jan. 1998. 10 Oct.
2005 http://www.tbs-sct.gc.ca/rma/account/ United States. National Archives and Records Administration. The Bill of Rights . 29 Jan. 1998. Relationships. 10 Oct. 2005 http://www.archives.gov/exhibit_hall/ i. Internet citation for an online posting, forum, letter to the editor: Kao, Ivy. “Keep Spreading the Word.” Online posting. 4 June 2003.
Reader Responses, Opinion Journal, Wall Street Journal Editorial Page . 10 Oct. 2005. Seaside Harry . Mesopotamia. “My Friend Drove My Car with the Parking Brake On!” Online. posting. 10 Oct. 2005. PriusOnline.com Forum Index – Prius – Technical . 10 Oct. 2005 http://www.priusonline.com/viewtopic.php?t=6298highlight=. j. Internet citation for an online project, an information database, a personal or professional Web site:
The MAD Scientist Network . 1995-2001 or 30 Feb. Islam. 1906. Washington U. School of Medicine. 10 Oct. Problem Through. 2005. Relationships. http://www.madsci.org. O’Connor, J.J., and E.F. Robertson. “John Wilkins.” Feb. L'oreal Group. 2002. U of St.
Andrews, Scotland. 10 Oct. 2005 http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/ Officer, Lawrence H. “Exchange Rate between the United States Dollar and Forty. Other Countries, 1913 -1999.” Economic History Services, EH.Net, 2002. 13 Apr. 2006 http://www.eh.net/hmit/exchangerates/.
Savill, R. Islam Relationships. Richard. “Jazz Age Biographies.” The Jazz Age Page . 23 Oct. 2000. 12 Apr. 2006 http://www.btinternet.com/ Sullivan, Danny. “Search Engine Math.” 26 Oct. 2001.
Search Engine Watch . 10 Apr. Shakespeare. 2006 http://www.searchenginewatch.com/facts/math.html. Wurmser, Meyrav, and Yotam Feldner. “Is Israel Negotiating with the Hamas?” Inquiry and islam, Analysis No. 16. 23 Mar. John. 1999. The Middle East Media and. Research Institute.
10 Oct. 2005 http://memri.org/bin/articles.cgi? k. Relationships. Internet citation for a software download: It is not essential to include the file size. Do so if preferred by your instructor. RAMeSize . Vers. 1.04. 15K. 24 Sept. 2000. Blue Dice Software.
12 Oct. 2004. l. Internet citation for shakespeare shall thee a speech taken from a published work with an islam relationships, editor: Lincoln, Abraham. “The Gettysburg Address.” 19 Nov. 1863. The Collected Works of. Abraham Lincoln . Ed.
Roy P. Basler. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers UP, 1955. Abraham Lincoln Online. 10 Oct. 2005 http://showcase.netins.net/ m. Internet citation for a work translated and irrigation, edited by another: Augustine, Saint, Bishop of Hippo. Confessions Enchiridion . Trans. and ed. Albert C. Outler. 1955.
Dallas, TX: Southern Methodist U. Digitized 1993. 10 Oct. 2005 http://www.ccel.org/a/augustine/confessions/ Blair, Tony. Interview. Prime Minister’s Office. 31 May 2003. 13 Apr. 2006. Chirac, Jacques. Interview.
Time 16 Feb. 2003. 10 Oct. 2005. Longin, Hellmut. Telephone interview. 3 May 2006. Neilsen, Jerry. E-mail interview. 28 Apr. Islam. 2006. Wyse, Randall. Personal interview. 24 July 2005.
State name of speaker, title of lecture in quotes, conference, convention or sponsoring organization if known, location, date. Bradley, Vicki. L'oreal Group. “Marriage.” Agnes Arnold Hall, U of Houston. Relationships. 15 Mar. 2003. Wilson-Smith, Anthony. “Hello, He Must Be Going.” Editorial. Maclean’s 26 Aug.
2002: 4. Lange, Rick. L'oreal Group. “U.N. Has Become Ineffective and Ought to Be Disbanded.” Letter. Islam. Buffalo. News 23 Jan. 2005: I5. Woods, Brede M. John. Letter. Newsweek 23 Sept. Islam Relationships. 2002: 16. Kolbert, Elizabeth. “Six Billion Short: How Will the l'oreal group, Mayor Make Ends Meet?” Letter. New Yorker 13 Jan.
2003: 33-37. Geens, Jennifer. Reply to letter of Bill Clark. Relationships. Toronto Star 29 Sept. Of Vengeance Hamlet Essay. 2002: A1. A letter you received from John Smith: Smith, John. Letter to islam the author. Shakespeare Thee. 15 June 2005. Twain, Mark. “Banned in Concord.” Letter to Charles L. Relationships. Webster.
18 Mar. 1885. Letter 850318 of Mark Twain . Ed. Jim Zwick. 2005. 10 Oct. 2005. Treat citation as if it is a book with no author stated. Indicate if the citation is for a chart or a map.
2004 Andex Chart . Chart. Controlled. Windsor, ON: Andex, 2004. Canada . Map. Ottawa: Canadian Geographic, 2003. “Dallas TX.” Map. 2005 Road Atlas: USA, Canada, Mexico . Greenville, SC: Michelin, 2005. Components: 1) Name of composer. 2) Title of ballet, music or opera, underlined, 3) Form, number and relationships, key not underlined. Beethoven, Ludwig van. Fur Elise.
Strauss, Richard. L'oreal Group. Traumerei , op. 9, no. 4. Components for a published score, similar to a book citation: 1) Name of composer. 2) Underline title of ballet, music, opera, as well as no. and islam, op., important words capitalized, prepositions and conjunctions in lower case. 3) Date composition written. 4) Place of publication: 5) Publisher, 6) Date of publication.
Chopin, Frederic. Mazurka Op. 7, No. 1 . New York: Fischer, 1918. Ledbetter, Huddie, and John Lomax. Irrigation Mesopotamia. Goodnight, Irene . 1936. New York: Spencer, 1950. Stier, Walter C. Sweet Bye and Bye . London: Paxton, 1953. Weber, Carl Maria von. Invitation to islam relationships the Dance Op. 65 . 1819.
London: Harris, 1933. 29. Painting, photograph, sculpture, architecture, or other art form. Components for citing original artwork: 1) Name of artist. L'oreal Group. 2) Title of artwork, underlined. 3) Date artwork created. 4) Museum, gallery, or collection where artwork is relationships housed; indicate name of irrigation mesopotamia owner if private collection, 5) City where museum, gallery, or collection is located. Ashoona, Kiawak.
Smiling Family . 1966. McMichael Canadian Art Collection, Brancusi, Constantin. The Kiss . 1909. Tomb of T. Rachevskaia, Montparnasse. The Great Sphinx . Relationships. [c. 2500 BC]. Giza.
Ingres, Jean-Auguste-Dominique. Odalisque . 1814. Louvre Museum, Paris. Raphael. The School of Athens . 1510-11. Stanza della Segnatura, Vatican Palace, Rude, Francois. La Marseillaise . 1833-36.
Arc de Triomphe, Paris. Components for artwork cited from a book: 1) Name of artist. 2) Underline title of artwork. 3) Date artwork created (if date is uncertain use [c. 1503] meaning [circa 1503] or around the year 1503). 4) Museum, art gallery, or collection where artwork is The Social a Theoretical house, 5) City where museum, gallery, or collection is located. 6) Title of book used.
7) Author or editor of book. 8) Place of islam relationships publication: 9) Publisher, 10) Date of shall thee publication. Islam. 11) Other relevant information, e.g. figure, page, plate, or slide number. Abell, Sam. Japan . 1984. National Geographic Photographs: The Milestones . By Leah Bendavid-Val, et al. Washington, DC: National Geographic, 1999. Carr, Emily. Controlled And Automatic. A Haida Village . [c. 1929]. McMichael Canadian Art Collection,
Kleinburg, ON. The McMichael Canadian Art Collection . By Jean Blodgett, et al. Toronto: McGraw, 1989. 134. Kasebier, Gertrude. The Magic Crystal . [c. 1904]. Royal Photographic Society, Bath. A Basic History of Art . By H.W.
Janson and Anthony F. Janson. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice, 1991. 412. Leonardo, da Vinci. Mona Lisa (La Gioconda) . [c. 1503-5]. Louvre Museum, Paris.
Favorite Old Master Paintings from the relationships, Louvre Museum . New York: Abbeville, 1979. Shakespeare Shall I Compare Thee. 31. Michelangelo. David . 1501-04. Accademia di Belle Arti, Florence. The Great. Masters . Relationships. By Giorgio Vasari. Trans. Gaston Du C. de Vere. New York:
Park Lane, 1986. The Social Through Lens Essay. 226. Sullivan, Louis. Wainright Building . 1890-91. St. Louis, MO. Islam Relationships. A Basic History of Art . By H.W. Janson and The Social Problem a Theoretical, Anthony F. Janson. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice, Tohaku, Deme.
Ko-omote Female Mask . Edo period [1603-1867], Japan. Naprstek. Museum, Prague. The World of Masks . By Erich Herold, et al. Trans. Dusan. Zbavitel. Relationships. London: Hamlyn, 1992. 207. Vanvitelli, Luigi, and The Social a Theoretical Essay, Nicola Salvi. Chapel of St.
John the islam relationships, Baptist . 1742-51. Sao Roque, Lisbon. By Rolf Toman, ed. Baroque: Architecture, Sculpture, Painting . Cologne: Konemann, 1998. 118. Components for a personal photograph: 1) Subject (not underlined or put in quotes).
2) Name of person who took the photograph. 3) Date photograph taken. War in The Social Problem Lens Iraq: Operation Iraq Freedom on CNN. Personal photograph by author. Great Wall of China, Beijing, China. Personal photograph by Cassy Wyse. 28 July 2005. Components: 1) Patent inventor(s) or owner(s).
2) Title of patent. 3) Issuing country and islam, patent number. 4) Date patent was issued. Arbter, Klaus, and Guo-Qing Wei. “Verfahren zur Nachfuhrung eines Stereo-Laparoskope. in der minimal invasiven Chirurgie.” German Patent 3943917. July 1996. “Conversion of Calcium Compounds into Solid and Gaseous Compounds.” US Patent 5078813. Kamen, Dean L., et al. Shakespeare Shall I Compare Thee. “Transportation Vehicles and Methods.” US Patent 5971091.
31. Performance: (ballet, concert, musical, opera, play, theatrical performance) Disney’s The Lion King . By Roger Allers and islam relationships, Irene Mecchi. Dir. Julie Taymor. Music and lyrics by Elton John and Tim Rice. Princess of Wales Theatre,
Toronto. 9 June 2002. The Hobbit . By J.R.R. Tolkien. Dir. Kim Selody. Perf. Herbie Barnes, Michael. Simpson, and Chris Heyerdahl. Mesopotamia. Living Arts Centre, Mississauga, ON.
The Nutcracker . By Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky. Chor. and Libretto by James. Kudelka. Relationships. Cond. Ormsby Wilkins and Uri Mayer. National Ballet of. Canada. Hummingbird Centre, Toronto. 30 Dec. 1999.
Phantom of the Opera . By Andrew Lloyd Webber. Lyrics by Charles Hart. Dir. Harold Prince. Based on novel by l'oreal group Gaston Leroux. Pantages Theatre, Toronto. 20 Sept. 1998. The Shanghai Acrobats . Islam Relationships. By Incredible!
Acrobats of China. Living Arts Centre, Mississauga, ON. 4 Mar. 2005. Components: 1) Title of episode, underlined; or in quotes if appropriate. 2) Title of program, underlined. The Social Problem Lens. 3) Title of series. Islam Relationships. 4) Name of network.
5) Radio station or TV channel call letters, 6) City of local station or channel. 6) Broadcast date. The CFRB Morning Show . By Ted Woloshyn. CFRB Radio, Toronto. 12 Sept. 2003. Law and Order . Prod. Wolf Film, Universal Television.
NBC Television Network. WHEC, Rochester, NY. 16 Oct. 2002. “New Threat from Osama?” By Jim Stewart. CBS News . Problem A Theoretical Essay. WBEN, Buffalo. “New York Museum Celebrates Life of Einstein.” By Martha Graybow. Reuters, New York. Islam. WBFO, Buffalo. 13 Nov.
2002. “The Nightmare Drug.” By Bob McKeown, Linden MacIntyre, and Hana Gartner. The Fifth Estate . CBC, Toronto. 16 Oct. 2002. “U.S.: Tape Sounds Like Bin Laden.” AP, Washington, DC. On Your Side . WGRZ-TV, Buffalo. 13 Nov. 2002. 33. Recording – Music CD, LP, magnetic tape:
1) Name of author, composer, singer, or editor. 2) Title of song (in quotation marks). 3) Title of recording (underlined). 4) Publication medium (LP, CD, magnetic tape, etc.). 5) Edition, release, or version.
6) Place of Through publication: Publisher, Date of publication. If citing from Internet, see Item 23. Backstreet Boys. Islam. Larger than Life . Millennium. CD. Exclusive Management by. The Firm, Los Angeles, CA. Mastered by Tom Coyne, Sterling Sound, NYC. Burch, Marilyn Reesor.
Mosaic . CD. Writ., dir. and prod. John Adams. Marilyn Reesor. Burch. Islam Relationships. Choirs dir. Don and Catherine Robertson. Barrie, ON: Power. Plant Recording Studio, n.d. Burch, Marilyn Reesor. Mosaic . CD.
Writ., dir. and prod. Marilyn Reesor. Burch. Processing. Choirs dir. Don and Catherine Robertson. Barrie, ON: Power. Plant Recording Studio, [c. 1997]. Note: “n.d.” means “no date” available. Islam. [c.
1997] means “circa 1997.” McDonald, Michael. No Lookin’ Back . LP. Prod. Michael McDonald and. Ted Templeman. Engineered and mixed by R. ThinkPad ACP Patch for ThinkPad 600, 770, and 770E . Diskette. Vers. 1.0.
Tape Recording: Cassette, DVD (Digital Videodisc), Filmstrip, Videocassette. Covey, Stephen R. Living the 7 Habits: Applications and Insights . Cassette. tape recording read by author. New York: Simon, Audio Div., 1995. Ginger . Irrigation. Solid Ground. Cassette tape recording from album Far Out . Vancouver: Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban . Dir.
Alfonso Cuar o n. Based on novel. by J.K. Rowling. Perf. Daniel Radcliffe, Rupert Grint, and Emma Watson. DVD. Warner, 2004. Jane Austen’s Emma . Videocassette. Relationships. Meridian Broadcasting. New York:
New Video Group, 1996. Kicking Screaming . Dir. Jesse Dylan. Writ. Leo Benvenuti and Steve Rudnick. Perf. Will Ferrell and Robert Duvall. DVD. Universal, 2005. The Sisterhood of the Traveling Pants . Shall I Compare Thee. Dir.
Ken Kwapis. Based on novel by. Ann Brashares.Perf. Amber Tamblyn, America Ferrera, Blake Lively, and Alexis Bledel. DVD. Warner, Dungaree, 2005. Super Searching the Web . Videocassette. Lancaster, PA: Classroom Connect, The Wizard of Oz . Dir. Victor Fleming. Based on relationships book by Lyman Frank Baum.
Perf. Judy Garland, Frank Morgan, Ray Bolger, Bert Lahr, Jack Haley, Billie Burke, Margaret Hamilton, Charley Grapewin, and the Munchkins. MGM, 1939. VHS. Irrigation Mesopotamia. Warner, 1999. State author, title of unpublished dissertation or thesis in quotes, label Diss. or MA thesis, name of university, and year. Elmendorf, James. Islam Relationships. “The Military and the Mall: Society and Culture in Long Beach, California.” BA.
thesis. Hampshire College, 1995. Jackson, Marjorie. “The Oboe: A Study of Its Development and controlled and automatic processing, Use.” Diss. Columbia U, 1962.
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uc coursework a-g What if I don't have any activities or awards? Will I be penalized? Activities and relationships awards are not required. Knowing what you have done outside of school simply adds to adams our understanding of you as an applicant. We call academic subjects (history/social studies, English, etc.) the 'a-g' subject areas. Here, we want to know about other courses you have taken that have helped shape you but that might not have been granted academic credit. We want to know which have been most significant to relationships you. We want to know which have been most significant to you. We want to know which have been most significant to you. We want to know which have been most significant to you.
Having this information gives us a more complete picture of you. We want to know which have been most significant to you. We want to know which have been most significant to you. back. I did not qualify for a fee waiver. The Social Problem A Theoretical Lens Essay! What should I do if I can't afford to apply? Select check as your method of payment, then print out your bill and send it to the application center along with a College Board fee waiver, EOPS fee waiver or letter stating your family income and how many people are supported by that income. If your fee waiver is not accepted, you will be notified by the UC Application Center. No. Application fees are nonrefundable. If I've already submitted my application and want to apply to relationships an additional campus, should I start a new application?
No. If the The Theme Essay, campus you want to apply to is still open, you can add it to your existing application. You will have to pay an relationships, additional application fee. Some majors are open only to shakespeare i compare certain types of islam applicants (e.g., freshmen, junior-level transfers). Additionally, campuses have limited offerings for sophomore transfers and second baccalaureate and limited status applicants. Majors also are limited after the November filing period. If the program you want to The Theme in Shakespeare's Hamlet pursue is not an official double major program, select one major as the primary and the second major as the alternate.
This is an option to islam select another area of potential interest should you not meet the controlled and automatic processing, selection criteria for islam relationships a specific major or academic area of study (e.g., Engineering, Biological Sciences, Theater, etc.). If you do not have an alternate major choice, the system defaults to 'no alternate major.' Some campuses do not allow an alternate major choice. For freshman applicants, each campus has an controlled, option for an undeclared or undecided major. It may be found within a specific college (e.g., College of Letters and Science) or found in a listing of all undeclared majors (e.g., Irvine, Riverside and Santa Cruz's Undeclared Majors). Undecided/Undeclared generally is not an option for junior-level transfer applicants. Some majors require additional information for islam the admissions process.
Please follow the instructions given specifically for these majors within the published deadlines. How do I provide my best scores (i.e., super score) from different test dates? UC does not accept a super score. Please self-report only the SAT test date with the highest total score or the ACT test date with the The Theme in Shakespeare's Essay, highest composite score. Scores from other test dates can be ordered and reported officially from the testing agency. back. If you haven't taken an exam, try to take it by December. If you are unable to islam relationships do so, check the appropriate box and l'oreal group explain why in the space provided. Islam Relationships! Failing to take the exams may affect your admission. back. All requirements for freshman admission, including the examination requirement, must be completed prior to high school graduation. back.
We only accept the Math Level 2 exam, however, you may choose to send your official Math Level 1 score in The Theme in Shakespeare's order to clear a math subject area deficiency. back. No, but if you have taken or plan to take any AP exams, report them on the AP Exam page. This provides us with additional information about your academic history. back. Predicted International Baccalaureate (IB) results should be reported on the International External Exams page. Islam Relationships! Completed IB exams should be reported on l'oreal group the IB Exams page. back. No, but if you have taken or plan to take any IB exams, report them on the IB Exam page. This provides us with additional information about your academic history. back. You can make a note of this in the Additional Comments area in the Personal Insight section. back. Only international students enrolled in secondary school outside of the U.S. should report their predicted IB exam scores on the International External Exams page. For all students, completed and/or planned IB exams should be reported on the IB Exams page. back.
Only international students enrolled in secondary school outside of the U.S. should report their predicted IB exam scores. Islam! Report only counselor- or school-predicted IB exam scores; do not report self-predicted scores. back. Predicted International Baccalaureate (IB) results should be reported on the International External Exam page. Completed IB exams should be reported on the IB Exam page. back. If you have or will have AP or IB scores, request that the official score report be sent by biographies, the testing agency to the UC campus where you plan to enroll, after you have accepted the offer of islam admission; unlike ACT and SAT scores, AP and IB scores are not shared with each campus to which you have applied. Thee! back. The TOEFL and relationships IELTS are English proficiency exams for students whose native language is not English and who have had the majority of their education in secondary/high school and college/university in Through a Theoretical Essay a country where English is relationships, not the native language. And Automatic! back. The minimum accepted score for the TOEFL is relationships, 80 for the Internet-based test and The Social Problem a Theoretical 550 for the paper-based test. The IELTS examination is accepted with a 6.5 or better band score (academic modules). For admission selection, a UC campus may require a score higher than the minimum. back. Report all external exams completed and planned on the International External Exams page. Select the grades/marks received exactly as they appear on your certified results sheet rather than the mark assigned by your teacher at the end of the course.
If your exam was scored using a grade scale not listed on the International External Exams page, select 'other' and manually enter your results. Relationships! And, finally, if you sat for the same subject more than once, you must report the grades earned from each sitting. If only The Theme in Shakespeare's Essay, part of islam your schooling included external exams, report your school courses and grades as they will be listed on The Social Problem a Theoretical Essay your official secondary school transcript in islam relationships the Academic History section of the application. back. Yes. We do not require Subject Tests, but if you have taken them and want to report your scores we will consider them in our review of your application. Some majors at some campuses recommend specific Subject Tests. back. Yes, the application center will forward your scores to l'oreal group all campuses to islam relationships which you have applied. You still must arrange to irrigation have official scores sent by the testing agency to at least one campus. back. Freshman and Sophomore Applicants. Upper Division Transfer Applicants. Can I submit my transcripts instead of entering all my coursework and grades?
No. Do not send transcripts unless a campus Admissions Office requests them. If you are admitted you will be required to submit official transcripts. back. Report all external exams completed and planned on the International External Exams page in the Test Score section. Select the grades/marks received exactly as they appear on relationships your certified results sheet rather than the adams biographies, mark assigned by islam, your teacher at l'oreal group the end of the course.
If your exam was scored using a grade scale not listed on the International External Exams page, select 'other' and manually enter your results. And, finally, if you sat for the same subject more than once, you must report the grades earned from each sitting. back. Yes. List the relationships, courses you took and grades you earned for each term, even if you repeated them or plan to repeat them. back. Freshman and Essay Sophomore Applicants. Some middle-school courses in mathematics and language other than English count toward UC's subject requirement. back. Select Less than full year under the Term Period if you did not complete and pass the islam relationships, equivalent of l'oreal group two full semesters of the course. back. We call academic subjects (history/social science, English, etc.) the 'a-g' subject areas.
Each accredited California high school has a list of courses that have been certified by UC as meeting the 'a-g' subject requirements. If you attended school outside of California, list your courses in the appropriate academic subject areas. back. Integrated math courses (e.g., Math II, Math III, etc.) with geometry content may be equated with a standard course in geometry. back. You can meet this requirement in one of several ways, including through SAT Subject Tests. You can also have your high school principal certify your proficiency in a language other than English. Tell us how you have met this requirement in the Additional Comments section. back. Enter your honors level courses, as identified by your high school, by selecting HL as the Honors Type for the course(s). back. UC approves courses at all accredited California high schools as meeting the 'a-g' requirements.
Some courses are approved as honors-level courses, meaning they meet higher standards. back. In calculating your high school GPA, we don't count pluses and minuses. back. Indicate summer course enrollment with your school information for each academic year. Islam! You will be asked to enter summer courses separately after each grade level. If you took college courses, enter them in The Social Problem the Colleges Courses section. back. If the islam relationships, online school has an approved UC course list, add the school as one of the high schools you attended. We no longer allow principal certification of and automatic online courses. back. If you took a course through a community college, regardless of the relationships, physical location of the course, enter the community college in your list of colleges attended while in high school. back. The additional honors point is awarded to college-level courses that are transferable to the University of California.
High school-level courses taken at a community college do not receive the honors designation. back. For the off-term, enter the grade of NO (No Course). back. If your school''s term system is Through a Theoretical Lens, Semester (2 final grades per islam relationships, year), enter your summer grade in one of the biographies, grade fields and islam enter NO for the other grade field. If your school's term system is john biographies, Trimester(3 final grades per year), enter your summer grade(s) in islam relationships 2 of the grade fields and NO for the other grade field. If your school's term system is Quarter (4 final grades per i compare, year), enter your 2 summer grades received and NO for the other 2 grade fields. back. Complete the Academic History as best you can. Be sure to relationships list all schools attended, beginning with grade nine, even though grade nine may have been completed at a junior high or middle school.
Report all academic subjects completed and grades/marks earned each year exactly as they appear on irrigation mesopotamia your official secondary school transcript or academic record. Relationships! UC has experienced international admission specialists who are knowledgeable about the different grading systems and methods of reporting coursework in l'oreal group different countries. If you sat/will sit for international external exams, report your exam subjects and grades on the International External Exams page in the Test Score section. You can also contact an International Admissions Specialist at the campus you want to attend. Their contact information is included on the campus pages of the UC admissions website. back.
Knowing your high school record helps us determine if you're eligible for admission prior to junior standing. We accept sophomore transfer students only if they met UC admission requirements in relationships high school or met all but the subject requirement and Through a Theoretical have taken the missing subjects in college. back. In the United States, 12th grade is equivalent to the year of islam schooling before you attend university. Controlled Processing! If you attended school in a system where primary and secondary education total 13 years (Germany or Great Britain, for example), list your 13th year of islam coursework under 12th grade and adams work backward through 11th, 10th and 9th grades. Islam Relationships! It's also important to note that we often use the adams biographies, words 'college' and 'university' interchangeably. In the relationships, U.S., college level is the same as university level; college is not upper-level secondary school. back. Each California community college has a list of The Social Problem Through a Theoretical Essay courses that have been certified as meeting the 'a-g' subject requirements. back. If you attend a school where you earn a high school diploma and college credit at the same time, enter the high school you attend and the classes taken at the high school first.
After you complete your high school information, you will be asked about colleges and college courses taken while in islam relationships high school. back. If you are admitted, you must arrange to have a final, official high school transcript (showing your date of graduation) sent to the campus where you plan to enroll. Unless a campus requests it, do not send a transcript during the l'oreal group, application process. back. You must report all colleges/universities you have attended and all coursework attempted, regardless of how long you attended or the grades you earned, whether courses were completed or whether you believe the record will affect your chances for relationships admission or yield transfer credit. L'oreal Group! If you provide incomplete or incorrect information, you may jeopardize your UC admission or enrollment. Relationships! back. Report military courses (not academic courses completed at a college or university) in irrigation the Additional Comments box - not in the Colleges and Courses section. Do not submit any transcripts at this time. If you are admitted and accept an offer of admission, you can then submit official military transcripts (e.g., ACE, SMAART) to the UC campus of your choice. UC may award transfer credit for relationships some of your military courses if the content is john adams, equivalent to a course taught by the University of California. back. You are not required to submit your military transcript unless you want them to be reviewed for possible transfer credit.
However, if you do not submit them by islam relationships, the stated deadline after you have been admitted, the admission office may not be able to review them after you begin classes at the campus. back. Visit the American Council on Education (ACE) website at: acenet.edu - search for military transcripts. back. You will be able to update your application. About five weeks after the application submission deadline, you must log in to your application and complete the transfer academic update to confirm or change your planned coursework. back. Manually enter the course as Course Title-Part 1, Course Title-Part 2, etc. Please explain in the Additional Comments section of Other Academic History. The Theme Of Vengeance Essay! back. Yes. Many transfer students who didn't participate in a transfer admission program enroll at UC. back. If you are a sophomore transfer applicant and were eligible for admission out of high school or have satisfied the missing subjects, you do not have to complete the seven-course pattern. If you are a junior or senior transfer applicant, you should plan to complete these courses by the deadline required by your chosen campus(es). back.
Enter this information in the Additional Comments area. back. IGETC is a series of courses California community college students can take to satisfy the relationships, lower-division general education/breadth requirements at and automatic processing UC. If is not an admission requirement. If you have followed an IGETC plan since entering a community college, see which campuses programs accept IGETC. Islam! back. All UC undergraduates must demonstrate proficiency in writing.
You can fulfill this requirement by completing a transferable college English composition course worth 4 quarter (3 semester) units. More back. Select STLIP (still in progress) for your course grades. Submit your academic update before the priority deadline and l'oreal group update your grades as soon as you receive them. back. Once you've submitted the Transfer Academic Update, you may log back in and make necessary changes. back. If you are admitted, you must arrange to have final, official transcripts sent to the campus where you plan to enroll. Unless a campus requests it, do not send a transcript during the application process. back.
Upper Division Transfer Applicants. You will need to relationships retrieve this information from shall i compare thee UC TAP in order to verify your identity and islam initiate the import into the application for admission to the University. UC TAP accounts and the UC admissions application accounts are NOT directly linked. back. Even though personal and adams demographic information are contained in UC TAP, only the academic history (school, coursework and UC TAP/TAG information) will be available for import into the UC application. back. Make sure you are using the correct UC TAP login ID and UC TAP email. back. UC Transfer Admission Planner data are current as of the date noted at the top of the page. Islam! If your last import is The Theme Hamlet Essay, before that date, you will need to make the same updates here as they will not be reflected in the imported data. back. If the system is unable to make the match between your UC TAP account and your application, you should manually enter your information. back. Freshman and Sophomore Applicants. Upper Division Transfer Applicants.
I attend a British System college. How should I enter my school? If you are completing Advanced Level examinations in relationships the British System (United Kingdom, Singapore, etc.), indicate your last school attended as your high school of graduation, even though your school may be called a college or junior college. Controlled And Automatic! We often use the words 'college' and 'university' interchangeably. Islam! College level is the of Vengeance in Shakespeare's, same as university level. Islam! College is The Theme of Vengeance, not upper-level secondary school in the U.S. back. Freshman and Sophomore Applicants. If your California high school does not appear in relationships the list, check that you have typed the name correctly. Try entering just the The Theme of Vengeance in Shakespeare's Hamlet Essay, unique words in your school name and leaving out words such as High School, College, or Saint. If your school is not in California and does not appear in the list (or no matches appear), enter the islam relationships, full name of the school, the city and institution type, then click 'Add This.' back.
Specialized curriculum focuses on a particular academic or career-technical area of i compare thee study. A career pathway/academy is a cohort of relationships students within a school who typically participate for three years in a state-funded California Partnership Academy with a focus on processing an area of islam relationships career interest. A magnet school accepts students based on their interest and proven talent in an academic area of shall i compare emphasis (e.g., the arts, or science and technology) and islam relationships nurtures student development in The Theme in Shakespeare's Hamlet Essay that area. If your school does not have a specialized curriculum, leave this blank. Do not select Other. back.
List 'Home School/Home Study' as your school name. Islam Relationships! For diploma/certification received, list either GED or High School Proficiency. The Social Problem Lens Essay! If you took courses through an online provider, a correspondence school or other accredited program, list the institution's name and dates of relationships attendance, and adams biographies any certificate received. Some campuses may require additional information such as a portfolio. For specific requirements, contact the individual campus. back. Enter all the requested information and answer 'Yes' to the question asking if this is the school you graduated from.
For diploma/certification received, select any equivalency you earned (e.g., GED or High School Proficiency) if applicable or Other and type None. Please explain why you did not graduate from high school in relationships the Additional Comments section of Other Academic History. back. If your school's grading system isn't listed, choose Other from the dropdown menu and enter your school's system. Do not select Other if the only differences are plus and processing minus letter grades. If your grades are from a school outside the islam relationships, U.S., do not convert them; enter your marks exactly as issued by biographies, your school when you are asked for your grades. If you attend school in islam Korea, which uses a ranking system (1-9), please report both your rank and your raw score in each course. Grades should be reported as follows: rank/raw score (e.g., 2/94). We have experienced international admission specialists who are knowledgeable about the different grading systems and shakespeare shall i compare methods of reporting coursework in different countries. back. Enter the dates as if there were no gap in attendance, starting with the islam, earliest date you attended the l'oreal group, school and ending with the most recent. Islam! back.
If the online provider has an approved UC course list (e.g., Laurel Springs Online, UCCP, EPGY), add the provider as one of the high schools you attended. If the controlled and automatic, online course is being certified by your high school principal and will appear on your high school transcript, you can self-enter the course as part of the curriculum taken at your high school. back. If you took a course through a community college, regardless of the physical location of the course, enter the community college in your list of colleges attended while in high school. back. If you attend a school where you earn a high school diploma and college credit at the same time, enter the high school you attend and the classes taken at the high school first. After you complete your high school information, you will be asked about relationships colleges and shakespeare shall i compare thee college courses taken while in high school, step 3 In This Section. back.
If your college is in California, check that you have typed the name correctly. Try entering just the relationships, unique words in your school name and leaving out words such as High School, College, or Saint. If your school is not in California and The Theme Hamlet does not appear in the list (or no matches appear), enter the full name of the school, the city and institution type, then click 'Add This.' back. Enter the dates as if there were no gap in islam relationships attendance, starting with the shakespeare, earliest date you attended the islam, school and ending with the The Theme Hamlet, most recent. back. Indicate as your current college the relationships, one where you are carrying the most units. back. Check with your California community college counselor to see if your degree is an approved Associate of and automatic Arts or Associate of Science degree for Transfer (i.e., AA-T, AS-T, SB 1440 degree). Select Associate's if your degree is not one of the approved degree programs or you are attending a community college outside of California. back. If your school's grading system isn't listed, choose Other from the dropdown menu and enter your school's system. Do not select Other if the relationships, only differences are plus and minus letter grades.
If your grades are from a school outside the controlled processing, U.S., do not convert them; enter your marks exactly as issued by your school when you are asked for your grades. back. Upper Division Transfer Applicants. It helps us understand your academic history and relationships the path you've taken. List the high school you graduate from or last attended. back. Finish typing the name of your school and Essay click 'Add.' Answer the questions that follow. back.
If you received a GED or certificate, enter that information in relationships the space provided. Otherwise, leave the biographies, space blank. back. You will need to retrieve this information from UC TAP in order to verify your identity and initiate the import into the application for admission to the University. Relationships! UC TAP accounts and of Vengeance the UC admissions application accounts are NOT directly linked. back. Even though personal and demographic information are contained in UC TAP, only the academic history (school, coursework and UC TAP/TAG information) will be available for islam import into the UC application. back. Make sure you are using the correct UC TAP login ID and UC TAP email. L'oreal Group! back. UC Transfer Admission Planner data are current as of the date noted at the top of the page. If your last import is before that date, you will need to make the same updates here as they will not be reflected in islam the imported data. back.
If the system is unable to make the match between your UC TAP account and irrigation your application, you should manually enter your information. back. When will I find out if I've been granted a scholarship? The campus will inform you after you are admitted. Yes, your eligibility will be confirmed prior to any scholarship being awarded. It is strongly recommended that all U.S. citizens, eligible non-citizens, and undocumented students who meet AB540 requirements apply for financial aid (including grants and loans). The deadline to apply is March 2 of the year you plan to start.
I have one parent/legal guardian. Do I have to fill out both parent sections? Enter only the information that is islam, relevant to a Theoretical Lens your family situation. You may leave the job title and number of years blank. While most students under 24 do not meet the islam, criteria for financial independence, if this accurately describes your situation and shakespeare i compare thee you support yourself solely with your own resources (employment, commercial/institutional loans in your name only, financial aid and savings from earnings,) you should claim independent status.
Your response to relationships this question helps us understand your unique family situation and does not have any bearing on financial aid determinations. It helps us understand your unique family situation. Your response helps us understand your unique family situation and does not have any bearing on financial aid determinations. Estimate the total you earn each year before taxes are taken out. For parent income, that includes money earned by your parents and step-parents who contribute to your support.
If you're married, include your spouse's income. Income can include wages, salary, commissions, income from self-employment; Social Security, dividends or interest, public assistance or welfare payments, unemployment compensation, pensions or annuities, alimony or child support payments, and shakespeare i compare regular contributions from relationships persons not living in the household. Do not include any financial aid you've received. Check the box indicating you are a dependent of and automatic a U.S. service member or veteran. I don't have an email address.
Should I use a different user name? You must provide a valid email address so campuses can quickly contact you to update or clarify any information in your application. If you do not have one, you can easily sign up for a free email account through sites such as Yahoo Mail or Gmail. back. You can reset your password by answering the secret question you have set up. back. This is a question that is easy for islam relationships you to answer but difficult for others to guess. For instance, your question might be, 'What is your grandmother's first name?' or 'What city was Mom born in?' back.
Enter your legal name first. This is the name, for example, that appears on your passport. back. Common suffixes are Jr., II or 3rd. Leave this field blank if you don't have one. back. If you use a name that you wish to shall i compare be known or identified by, and is different from your legal name, you can submit a request for a name change to the campus upon enrollment. back. UC needs a phone number at which we can contact you. Please provide the relationships, number of a friend, neighbor or relative. L'oreal Group! back. Yes, enter the actual address. back. Plus 4 is a four-digit number added to islam a Zip code to provide a more precise location than the Zip code alone. Controlled! If you don't know your Plus 4, leave this field blank. back.
The current address is the address the University will use for mailed (postal mail) correspondence to you regarding the admissions process. Relationships! If you are an international applicant, list your home country mailing address as your permanent address if it is different from your current address. back. We use the biographies, Social Security Number you provide to accurately and reliably merge your application to the official ACT and/or SAT scores we receive from the testing agencies and, if you apply for financial aid, your Free Application for Federal Student Aid. We also report it to the Internal Revenue Service, pursuant to the Taxpayer's Relief Act of 1997. You are required to islam disclose your Social Security Number if you have one.
This notification is provided to you as required by The Social Problem Through a Theoretical Lens Essay, the Federal Privacy Act of 1974. The university's record-keeping systems related to relationships this application were established prior to January 1, 1975, pursuant to the authority granted to the Regents of the University of California under Article IX, Section 9 of the California Constitution. back. If you are using Firefox, you need to upgrade your browser to at least Firefox 3.6. Earlier versions of Firefox won't allow you to enter your full Social Security Number. John! back. If you have a valid Social Security Number (SSN) - for instance, because of islam relationships immigration proceedings - enter it in the application. If you have an SSN for work purposes (usually through DACA), enter that number.
If you don't have a valid SSN or SSN for work purposes, but DO have an Through a Theoretical Lens, Individual Tax Payer Identification Number (ITIN), use the ITIN in place of an SSN. Islam Relationships! If you don't have a valid SSN, SSN for work purposes, or ITIN, leave this item blank. back. Every K-12 student in California public schools is Problem Through a Theoretical Lens, assigned a statewide ID number. The unique 10-digit number enables the islam relationships, state Department of Education to comply with federal data-reporting requirements as students progress from l'oreal group year to year and relationships school to school. Providing this number is john, optional. back.
It helps us understand your unique situation. Islam! To give us a complete picture of who you are, you may wish to discuss your military service and/or foster care experience in one or more of shakespeare shall thee your personal insight question responses. back. The Educational Opportunity Program (EOP) provides assistance through mentorship, academic programs, financial assistance, counseling/advising, and islam relationships other campus support services to irrigation mesopotamia those who are first-generation college students, and/or from low-income and educationally disadvantaged backgrounds. In addition to relationships assisting students through to The Theme of Vengeance in Shakespeare's Essay graduation, EOP helps prepare students for admission to graduate and professional schools. EOP serves students from all ethnic backgrounds, and is open only to California residents and to American Indians from any state. Relationships! back. Providing the LGBT community with the option to self-identify supports the University's priorities of creating an inclusive and welcoming campus environment across the UC system.
As with all other demographic questions on the admission application, providing gender identity and a Theoretical Lens sexual orientation data will be voluntary, optional, and islam relationships as required by law, not impact admission decisions. back. Bisexual- A person whose primary sexual and affectional orientation is toward people of the same and other genders, or toward people regardless of their gender. Gay - A sexual and affectional orientation toward people of the same gender. Heterosexual/Straight - A sexual orientation in which a person feels physically and emotionally attracted to people of a gender other than their own. Lesbian - A woman whose primary sexual and affectional orientation is The Social Lens Essay, toward people of the same gender. Islam! back. Gender Non-Conforming - People who do not subscribe to gender expressions or roles expected of adams biographies them by society. Islam Relationships! Genderqueer - A person whose gender identity and/or gender expression falls outside of the dominant social norm of the The Theme of Vengeance, assigned sex, is beyond genders, or is some combination. Transgender - Used most often as an umbrella term; some commonly held definitions: someone whose gender identity or expression does not fit within dominant group social constructs of assigned sex and gender a gender outside of the man/woman binary having no gender or multiple genders Trans Man/Trans Male - A female-to-male (FTM) transgender person who was assigned female at birth, but whose gender identity is that of a man. Trans Woman/Trans Female - A male-to-female (MTF) transgender person who was assigned male at relationships birth, but whose gender identity is Problem, that of islam a woman. back.
This information is l'oreal group, used for statistical purposes only by UC, government agencies and researchers. Providing this information is optional, and it does not affect your chances of admission. back. Select all categories that apply to you. back. Why is my residency status important? UC has different admission requirements for California and non-California residents. back. No. The three years for a student's 9th through 12th grades need not be consecutive or completed at a single California school. Islam! For example, if a student attended 9th grade at a California middle or high school, left the state to attend 10th grade in another state, and returned to a second California high school to complete 11th and l'oreal group 12th grades, that student would still meet the islam relationships, requirement of three years of john biographies high school attendance in relationships California. back.
We consider any of the three as the equivalent of graduating: a. Mesopotamia! A diploma from a California high school; b. A High School Equivalency Certificate, issued by the California State GED Office; or. c. Islam Relationships! A Certificate of Proficiency, resulting from the California High School Proficiency Examination. back. Select Other and then type in the country name. The Social Through! back. Permanent residency refers to a person's immigration status: The person is islam, legally authorized to live and work in shall i compare thee the country permanently. If you currently hold a foreign visa, you are not a U.S. permanent resident. Relationships! back. The recommended choice for all undocumented applicants is No Selection. This includes undocumented students with Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) status. The Social A Theoretical Essay! This does not automatically afford you benefits of AB540 or the California Dream Act. More information about islam eligibility for The Social Problem Through Essay these benefits can be found here . back.
The information you provide here will be used to relationships assess your legal residence for purposes of university fees and nonresident tuition. Shakespeare! The criteria used for this purpose are different from those used in the admissions process. Providing this information is optional. It will be helpful if you answer these questions now; however, your residence classification for tuition purposes will be determined only after you have been admitted and after you submit your Statement of Legal Residence to the campus residence deputy. Relationships! back. If your parents' state of adams biographies legal residency is unknown, select 'No.' back. For information about UC's residency requirements for purposes of tuition and fees, please see our website. Islam Relationships! back. For the purpose of determining if an applicant must meet California resident versus non-resident admission requirements, the admission office bases the l'oreal group, decision on a U.S. Relationships! citizen/permanent resident student's length of enrollment at a California high school; for The Social Problem Through a Theoretical Lens determining if a student must pay resident versus non-resident tuition, the islam relationships, Registrar's office bases the decision on the residency of the parent(s)/legal guardian(s). back. Can I submit different personal insight responses for each campus I apply to? No.
You can only irrigation, submit one application, including one set of personal insight responses to islam the personal insight questions, and they will be sent to each of The Theme your campus choices. Yes, you can edit your personal insight responses up until you submit your application. Different programs have different methods for counting words. Please edit your personal insight question responses to meet the word limit as set in the application. This Additional Comments area can be used to explain anything that may be unclear in other parts of your application. The Additional Comments area in relationships the Academic History portion of the application can be used to explain circumstances that affected your academic record. The purpose of the Additional Comments areas is NOT to i compare thee answer an additional personal insight question. State of Legal Residence/Parent Contact Information. One of the application steps is shown as incomplete and I can't figure out why.
Review all pages of the step to islam relationships be sure your responses are valid and The Social Problem that you have completed all items and corrected all errors. If you are still having trouble, contact the relationships, Help Desk. back. For transfer applicants, you'll need to delete some of the courses you've entered. Grade point unit is the shall thee, numerical value of a grade multiplied by the number of units for the course. Letter grades are assigned a numeric value as follows: A=4 points, B=3 points, C=2 points and D=1 point, F=0. The grade point unit total is calculated by adding all the relationships, grade point units for each course. An A in a course of l'oreal group 3 semester units will earn 12 semester grade points. If your school is on a semester system, the islam, quarter grade points are derived by l'oreal group, multiplying the islam relationships, calculated semester grade point by 1.5 (e.g., 12 semester grade points is john, equal to islam relationships 18 quarter grade point units). A B in a course of 5 quarter units will earn 15 quarter grade points.
If your school is on i compare a quarter system, the semester grade points are derived by islam relationships, dividing the calculated quarter grade point by 1.5 (15 quarter grade points is equal to mesopotamia 10 semester grade point units). back. Click View Application to islam relationships view and print your entire application. back. You will receive an email shortly after you submit noting that your application was received. Problem Lens! If you're a transfer applicant, you will be asked to log in to your applications and relationships update your academic history. Campuses notify freshman applicants of their admissions decisions by March 31, and transfer applicants by April 30. back.
If your school participates in the ELC program, a note will appear on your My UC Application, Application Status page indicating whether you are in shakespeare shall i compare the top 9 percent of islam your class. back. UC conducts a pre-admissions verification with a random sample of applicants, who are notified in early January that they must submit verification documents in order to be considered for admission. Applicants may be asked to verify an and automatic processing, item from relationships one of the following application sections: Honors and Awards, Extracurricular Activities, Volunteer Work and Community Service, Educational Preparation Programs, Employment, Academic History and the Personal Insight question responses. Falsification is the basis for a denial or revocation of admission to UC. Failure to submit the required documentation by the deadline will result in shakespeare i compare thee applications being withdrawn from islam relationships further consideration at all campuses. back. For information about UC's residency requirements for purposes of irrigation tuition and fees, please see our website. back. For the purpose of islam determining if an applicant must meet California resident versus non-resident admission requirements, the controlled and automatic processing, admission office bases the islam, decision on a U.S. Shakespeare! citizen/permanent resident student's length of enrollment at a California high school; for islam determining if a student must pay resident versus non-resident tuition, the Registrar's office bases the decision on the residency of the parent(s)/legal guardian(s). back. Identify your legal guardian as Parent 1; if you have two guardians, identify the second as Parent 2. back. These questions are optional. In general, if you are over shakespeare, the age of 24, married, have dependents, are financially self-sufficient, or a U.S. military veteran, you do not need to provide parent/guardian information. back.
UC determines residency based on information you provide in relationships the Statement of Legal Residence (SLR) - a form all newly admitted students submit to i compare the campus residence deputy in the Office of the Registrar. You submit this form after committing to a campus by islam, filing your Statement of Through a Theoretical Essay Intent to relationships Register (SIR). Problem A Theoretical! back. This section is optional. By filling out this section, your parent(s)/guardian(s) may receive information about special parent- or family-focused programs and/or events and other information about the University of relationships California. This information will not be shared with parties outside the University of California community. back. The purpose of this section is not to grant permission to discuss your application with your parent(s)/guardian(s). The permissions are granted in the Release Authorizations section of the application where you indicate with whom UC may discuss your application. back. What is the application deadline for this term? We'll help you figure out the correct selection. Apply as a freshman if you are graduating high school next spring and you plan to enroll at UC in the fall. L'oreal Group! You will get credit for relationships the college work you've done, but we consider you a freshman applicant.
Apply as a freshman if you are graduating high school next spring and you plan to enroll at irrigation mesopotamia UC in the fall. You will get credit for the college work you've done, but we consider you a freshman applicant. If your coursework is exclusively from a California community college, apply as a junior. UC limits community college unit credit to a maximum of 70 semester (105 quarter) units, but grants subject credit for coursework beyond that. Please explain the circumstances in the Additional Comments in the Personal Insight section. Yes. Islam! The application center will automatically forward any updates you make to your application.
If your school participates in The Theme of Vengeance in Shakespeare's Essay the ELC program, a note will appear on your My UC Application, Application Status page indicating whether you are in the top 9 percent of your class. Copyright Regents of the University of California.
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42 Resume Dos and Don#39;ts Every Job Seeker Should Know. If things are supposed to get easier over relationships time, why hasn’t the shall task of relationships, resume-writing gotten simpler? Actually, it feels like we’re heading in john biographies the opposite islam relationships direction—every month, we learn about l'oreal group a fresh resume commandment, like “Thou shalt not use a resume objective statement” or “Thou shalt not send a traditional resume to a creative company.” It’s enough to islam, make any professional a little frustrated. Fortunately, we’ve rounded up the ultimate list of mesopotamia, resume dos and relationships, don’ts, from the traditional rules to and automatic, the brand-spanking-new ones. Relationships! Take a look, then pull up your resume and make sure it’s recruiter-ready. 1. Do Highlight Your Most Relevant Experiences. Rule #1 of resume writing is that you should be turning in a different version for each role you apply to, tailored and targeted to the position. After all, your resume should demonstrate you have the specific set of skills, experience, and accomplishments necessary to do the The Theme Hamlet Essay job—not just a set. Make it easy for the hiring manager to see why you’re the islam right fit. 2. Irrigation Mesopotamia! Don’t Freak Out if You Have No Relevant Experience. Whether you’re fresh out of islam relationships, college or switching to a brand-new industry, you can help bolster your lack of shakespeare thee, relevant work experience by listing your transferable skills, related side projects, and relevant coursework.
Read more about how to do this here. 3. Do Optimize for Applicant Tracking Systems. Many large organizations (and even some smaller ones) use applicant tracking systems to weed out unqualified applicants. Islam Relationships! The systems scan your resume for contextual keywords and phrases, mathematically scoring them for relevance and controlled processing, sending only the most qualified ones through for islam human review. As you can guess, this strategy isn’t perfect. To ensure your resume makes it past the shall i compare ATS and into the hands of a human, keep your formatting simple, include the right keywords (but don’t go overboard), and quadruple check for spelling mistakes. Relationships! (More on how to do it right, here.) 4. Don’t Steal the Job Description’s Exact Wording.
That said, you shouldn’t take exact phrases straight from the job description. If a company says it’s looking for candidates who “learn rapidly” and Lens Essay, “have a diverse knowledge of programming languages,” your skills section shouldn’t read “learns rapidly” and “has a diverse knowledge of programming languages.” Instead, find a different way of relationships, saying the same thing—maybe devote a resume bullet to a software you learned in two weeks, or list the seven different programming languages you’re familiar with. You’ve probably heard that recruiters love reading resume bullets with numbers, like “Increased sales in Northern region by mesopotamia, 300%.” And they do! So use them whenever possible. Oh, and relationships, don’t worry if your job doesn’t really involve numbers—with our guide, you can quantify any accomplishment. 6. Don’t Include Anything Confidential. Seems like a no-brainer—but Google’s Head of HR says he sees confidential info on resumes all the Through a Theoretical time. Relationships! When deciding whether to leave something on The Theme, your resume, use the New York Times test. In other words, if you wouldn’t want it published next to islam relationships, your name on the front page of a major national newspaper, take it out.
The “quantifiable accomplishments” technique also works for soft skills. Make sure each bullet point describes a skill the hiring manager is looking for, then use facts and Problem Essay, figures to show—not tell—just what a “skilled manager” or “effective communicator” you are. Check it out: “Developed and islam relationships, independently initiated new mentorship program to alleviate high turnover of new staff members, resulting in the matching of 23 mentor-mentee pairs and Problem Through Lens Essay, a significant reduction in staff turnover.” Sounds like a “skilled manager” to us! Because everyone assumes you know how to islam, use Microsoft Word. And the internet. Use your valuable resume space to highlight skills that actually make you stand out. 9. Do Consider Volunteer or Other Non-Work Experience. Although it’s nontraditional, if volunteer work has taken up a significant chunk of Through Essay, your time or taught you skills applicable to the job you’re applying for, think about putting it on islam, your resume. Side projects, pro bono work, or temp gigs can also be a unique way to bolster your resume and show off other skills.
10. L'oreal Group! Don’t Include Work With Controversial Organizations. Maybe that volunteer work was fundraising for a politician, or answering the phone at a LGBT-resource organization. Some experiences are pretty divisive, so read our tips on whether or not you should put them on your resume. 11. Do Include Personal Accomplishments. If you’ve done something cool in your personal life that either shows off your soft skills or engages your technical skills in islam a new way, you should definitely include it. Maybe you’ve run a couple marathons, demonstrating your adventurous spirit, strong work ethic, and desire to challenge yourself. Or you’ve won some poker tournaments, which shows you’re a quick thinker and good with numbers. Learn more here on how to include these in the right way.
12. Don’t Include Random, Unrelated, or Off-Putting Hobbies. That said, remember that hiring managers probably don’t care if you love basketball, are active in your book club, or are a member of a Dungeons and Dragons group. Eliminate anything that’s not totally transferable to The Social Lens Essay, work-related skills (or a really, really epic conversation starter). 13. Do Think of New Ways to Frame Your Accomplishments. Don’t have the exact experience for the job you’re applying to? You can actually tweak how you frame your accomplishments to show off vastly different things. Career expert Lily Zhang explains with examples here.
Meaning: Don’t oversell your high school babysitting experience. In fact, anything from high school should probably go. 15. Do Show How You Moved Up (or Around) at Past Companies. It can be tempting (and more simple) to combine multiple roles at one company, but you should actually be highlighting your different job titles. After all, it says a lot about you if you were promoted within an organization or were able to transition your role. Learn how to show this off without making your resume look disorganized here.
16. Don’t Use an Objective Statement. There’s only one situation in which you need an objective statement: when you’re making a huge career change. Making the leap from, say, business development to marketing means your resume could definitely use a clear explanation that you’re transitioning roles and have the islam necessary transferable skills. But if you’re a PR rep applying to a PR firm, an objective statement will just waste valuable space. 17.
Do Consider a Summary Statement. John! A summary statement, which consists of a couple lines at the beginning of your resume that give potential employers a broad outline of your skills and experience, is the most ideal if you have years of experience you need to tie together with a common theme. They’re also good if you have a bunch of disparate skills and want to islam, make it clear how they fit together. Here’s more on when you need one and how to put it together. L'oreal Group! While it’s okay to glaze over gaps a little (for example, by just using years to show dates of employments instead of months and years), you should never outright lie about them. Instead, be honest and confident when explaining unemployment periods. Whatever you did while you weren’t working—traveling, running a household, helping your community—it’s almost certain you picked up some skills that would help you in the job for which you’re applying. So mention them! For obvious reasons, anything that’s not 100% true doesn’t belong on your resume.
Because hiring managers are really, really tired of seeing descriptions like hard worker, team player, or detail-oriented on resumes. You should also be careful about any industry or role-specific jargon you use. In many companies, if you want to your resume to islam relationships, land on the hiring manager’s desk, you’ve got to get it past HR first—which means putting everything in terms a layperson can understand. The Theme Of Vengeance! Using unnecessarily big words doesn’t make you sound more intelligent or capable. Not only are hiring managers totally aware of islam relationships, what you’re trying (and failing) to do, but “resume speak” can obscure your real experience. So, instead of “utilized innovative social media technique to boost readership and irrigation mesopotamia, engagement among core demographic” say, “posted on islam relationships, Twitter three times a day and brought follower count from irrigation 1,000 to 3,000.” You should also be careful of using words with negative connotations—even if you’re using them in a positive light. Saying “met aggressive sales goals” or “fixed widespread communication problem ” will subconsciously make recruiters think less of you.
Instead, write “delivered on ambitious number of sales” or “proposed and implemented solution to make company communication easier and more efficient.” Skip the tired and all-too-frequently used “led,” “handled,” and “managed,” and islam, go for verbs like “charted,” “administered,” “consolidated,” or “maximized,” which make you look both confident and competent. We’ve compiled 181 options of unique verbs to use, so no matter what you do, you can find the right word. 24. Don’t Include “References Upon Request” It takes up room you could otherwise use for experience and skills. And, um, it looks presumptuous. Pretty basic, but you’d be surprised how many job seekers put together an amazing resume—and then don’t include enough “here’s where to find me” info. Controlled And Automatic! This section should have your name, email address, phone number, address (or just city), LinkedIn URL, and islam relationships, personal website, if you have one. Also, make sure you’re using your personal contact info, rather than your work. Because that’s a recipe for shakespeare shall disaster.
26. Islam Relationships! Don’t Include Anything That Could Be Discriminated Against. John Adams Biographies! While it’s illegal to discriminate against a job candidate because of islam relationships, his or her age, marital status, gender, religion, race, color, or national origin, it doesn’t mean it doesn’t happen subconsciously. Don’t give recruiters the chance, and just leave these details off. Recruiters read a lot of l'oreal group, resumes, so they don’t want to have to islam relationships, spend a ton of john adams, time looking over yours. Cut it down to islam relationships, the most relevant information and keep it short and a Theoretical Lens, succinct. Laszlo Bock, Google’s senior vice president of people operations, recommends one page of resume for every 10 years of work experience as a good rule of relationships, thumb. That being said, don’t try to squeeze as much information as possible into that one page. The Theme In Shakespeare's Essay! If you manage to pack in more information—but in a size 8 font and with no white space on the page—you might as well have not added that information at all.
Cut it down to an amount of relationships, information you can comfortably fit on the page, in l'oreal group a readable font and islam relationships, with enough white space to make it easy on Lens Essay, the eyes. 29. Islam! Do Consider a Creative or Digital Resume. Resumes that look like infographics, data visualizations, or even videos or multimedia presentations can be a great way to stand out from the crowd. If you think this might be the right route for you, check out some great options here. (Note: This is generally a better option when you’re applying to smaller, more creative shops—traditional companies will still likely want traditional resumes.) 30. Don’t Spend All Your Time on the Design. While making your resume look nice is important, recruiters say job seekers spend far too much time worrying about it (that is, unless you’re working in a design field).
Focus on the content, make sure the right information is a Theoretical Lens Essay, highlighted, and just make sure it looks nice enough to islam, make the information easy to i compare thee, digest. Want your resume to look well designed—without the extra time? We’ve found 41 of the islam best resume templates ever. The Theme In Shakespeare's! They’ll make formatting a breeze. And really, it’s best to stick to one basic font.
Unless you’re a designer and know a lot about islam typography, it’s easy to choose fonts that clash or are distracting. 33. Do Make Sure Your Job Titles or Companies Stand Out. Adams Biographies! Of course, you want to make sure the most important information stands out and islam relationships, is easy to in Shakespeare's Hamlet Essay, skim. Instead of using a different font to relationships, do this, use bold or italic text, a slightly larger font, or your layout to help make sure this information is findable. 34.
Don’t Go Overboard With Text Effects. If every other word is bolded , italicized , or in ALL CAPS, at and automatic, best, your resume will be distracting—at worst, annoying. Use emphasis sparingly, for your most important info. 35. Do Align Your Dates and Locations to relationships, the Right. This small change will make your resume way easier on the eyes. You should be able to make a “column” of irrigation, dates and relationships, locations for controlled processing each job by creating a right tab. 36. Don’t Use More Than Two Lines Per Bullet. Islam! This strategy will make your resume easier to skim (which is good, because most hiring managers will spend less than 20 seconds reading it).
Again, cut it down to the most important information. Of Vengeance Hamlet Essay! Because 4 and 22% take less time to read than “four” and “twenty-two percent.” Plus, using digits saves you space. 38. Don’t Send it as a Word Document. Sending your resume off as a .doc file will most likely result in all of this careful formatting getting messed up when the recruiter opens the file. Save your final version as a PDF to islam, make sure everything stays just as is. 39.
Do Swap Resumes With Colleagues. Look at how they describe their duties and the company. Chances are, you’ll get some inspiration for john adams your own descriptions. Plus, having some fresh eyes look at your resume is relationships, always beneficial. Ask a few friends what about your resume makes an impact and what is boring, confusing, or too vague. If the same things keep popping up, it’s probably time to edit. And proofread.
Multiple times. For help, check out this editor’s guide to Problem Through a Theoretical Lens, perfecting your resume. Remember rule number one on tailoring your resume? Well, creating a master resume that includes every position you’ve ever held will make that task much quicker. Relationships! You’ll never send your master resume to The Social a Theoretical Lens Essay, anyone, so it doesn’t matter how long it is. Just write out islam relationships each and every job experience you’ve ever had.
With all of the possible corresponding bullet points. Then, when it comes time to apply to a job, you can copy and paste the relevant sections of your master resume into a new document. Want to make sure you’re spending enough time on the right things in your resume? Run your resume through a word cloud generator like TagCrowd. Irrigation! This will create an image representing the relationships most frequent words, with the mesopotamia most common ones showing up larger and islam relationships, darker. With a quick glance, you’ll be able to mesopotamia, see what terms employers will most associate with you—and whether you need to do some adjusting to have the right message shine through.
Photo of relationships, typewriter courtesy of Shutterstock. Aja Frost is The Social Essay, a freelance writer specializing in business, tech, career advice, and productivity. Islam Relationships! Check out her website or say hi on Twitter. Hmmm, seems you#39;ve already signed up for this class. And Automatic Processing! While you#39;re here, you may as well check out all the amazing companies that are hiring like crazy right now.
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columbia sc resume New York NY 10025 USA. Adapted for mobile devices 4 April 2015 . Supplement: Grosch Computer: Bit Slices from a Life by Dr. Herb Grosch (2003), 500+ pages, including several chapters on IBM's Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University in the 1940s and relationships 50s. [ Also available in PDF ] Supplement: Brennan The IBM Watson Laboratory at The Social Problem Through a Theoretical Lens, Columbia University - A History by Jean Ford Brennan (1971). 76 pages, 25 photos. The history of IBM-sponsored computing research and laboratories at Columbia University, 1928 though 1970. Supplement: Hankam Homeward Bound , the relationships memoir of computing education pioneer Eric Hankam, including his escape from Nazi Europe, his time at IBM Watson Laboratory at Columbia University, and his continuing adventures. Supplement: Krawitz The Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory by Eleanor Krawitz, Columbia Engineering Quarterly, November 1949. If you came here looking for the history of the Kermit protocol, Kermit software, or the Kermit Project, you can find some of The Theme of Vengeance in Shakespeare's Essay, it below in the 1980-82 timeframe, and a bit more HERE. Plus some 2012 oral history transcripts at the Computer History Museum HERE and HERE. Who am I and why did I write this?
People popped into my office all the time to ask when did such-and-such happen? the first e-mail, the first typesetting, the first networking, the first PC lab, the first hacker breakins, etc -- since I was there for most of islam, it. L'oreal Group! So I took some time and wrote it down, and in so doing became fascinated with the islam earlier history. I was a user of the Columbia Computer Center from 1967 until 1977 in The Social Lens Essay my various jobs and as a Columbia student, and I was on staff from islam relationships 1974 until 2011. Brief bio: After some early programming experience in thee the Army (mid-1960s), the Engineering School and relationships Physics Dept (late 1960s, early 70s), and Mount Sinai Hospital (early 70s), I came to work at the Computer Center Systems Group in 1974, hired by its manager Howard Eskin out of his graduate Computer Science classes. After a year of mesopotamia, OS/360 programming, I was manager of the PDP-11/50 and islam relationships the DEC-20s (first e-mail, early networking, the first campuswide academic timesharing), then manager of Systems Integration (first microcomputers, PCs, Kermit), principal investigator of the Hermit distributed computing research project, then manager of Network Planning for the University and chair of the University-wide Network Planning Group, before retiring to the Kermit Project, which had less (well, zero) meetings and way more fun. I was laid off from Columbia in 2011 but still have access to this website. (Note: the Columbia Kermit Project website was cancelled and its website frozen July 1, 2011; the new Open Source Kermit Project website is HERE.) Obviously this is written from l'oreal group my perspective; others might have different recollections or views. In particular, at islam, least after 1963, this turns out to be more a history of shall i compare, centralized academic computing, rather than all computing, at Columbia, giving short shrift to the departments, administrative computing, the libraries, and the outlying campuses; a more complete history needs these perspectives too. I've made every attempt to check the relationships facts; any remaining errors are mine -- please feel free to point them out. Computers are value-neutral tools that can be used for good or evil, and it is clear that from the very beginning they have been used for shakespeare shall both. This document does not aim to extol the virtues of islam, computers in general, nor of any particular company that makes them, but only to chronicle their use at Columbia University.
Former Columbia Computer Center Directors Ken King (1963-71), Jessica Gordon (1971-73), Bruce Gilchrist (1973-85), Howard Eskin (1985-86), Va#x00e7;e Kundakc#x0131; (1989-2005). Columbia Computer Center (Academic, current and former) Bob Resnikoff, Walter Bourne, Maurice Matiz, Joe Brennan, Rob Cartolano, Joel Rosenblatt, George Giraldi, Christine Gianone, Terry Thompson, Kristine Kavanaugh, Peter Kaiser (1967-69), Mike Radow (1960s), Elliott Frank (1968-70), Andy Koenig (1960s-70s), Janet Asteroff (1980s), Steve Jensen (1980s), Tom De Bellis (1980s). Columbia Computer Center (Administrative/Operations, current and former) Nuala Hallinan, Stew Feuerstein, Joe Sulsona (1957-2001), Raphael Ramirez (1968-199?), Alan Rice (1960s), Peter Humanik, Ben García. US Naval Observatory Kenneth Seidelman (former Director of Astronomy), George Kaplan (former acting chief, Nautical Almanac Office), Brenda G. Corbin (Librarian). IBM Paul Lasewicz and Dawn Stanford (IBM Archive), Peter Capek (CU 1965-69, now at IBM Watson Laboratory), Gary Eheman, Keith Williams. The Parnassus Club Nuala Hallinan plus former residents Barbara L. Bryan and Problem Lens Essay Rosalinde Weiman, plus several others who wish to remain anonymous. And. Simon Rackham for the 1968 computer movie, Ruth Dayhoff (Director of Medical Digital Imaging, US Dept of Veterans Affairs), Ed Reinhart (Formerly of RAND Corp, JPL, and Comsat), Mary Louise McKee (NORC programmer, US Naval Proving Ground Dahlgren VA), George Trimble (Aberdeen Proving Ground, IBM), John C Alrich (Burroughs/ElectroData), Loren Wilton (Burroughs/Unisys), Ellen Alers (Smithsonian Institution), Garry Tee (Dept of Math, University of relationships, Auckland NZ), Allan Olley (University of Toronto), Charlotte Moseley (formerly of the shakespeare County of San Diego Data Processing Center), Pnina Stern (formerly Pnina Grinberg of BASR), Annette Lopes (CU Associate Registrar, then Associate Director of Student Services, now  Executive Director, Human Resources, Finance and relationships Administration); Jocelyn Wilk, Steve Urgola, and irrigation Mae Pan (Columbia University Archives and Columbiana); Bill Santini (CU Student Services).
I was inspired by Bruce Gilchrist's Forty Years of islam relationships, Computing article from 1981  (so that makes it sixty seventy 75 years!) Special thanks to Bruce Gilchrist and Nuala Hallinan, each of whom contributed valuable archive material and considerable time, effort, and miles to biographies this project; to Herb Grosch for his awesome book as well as tons of relationships, new information, corrections, insights, anecdotes, and artifacts; to Eric Hankam for the loan of processing, his personal archive of photos and materials, his autobiography, and a wealth of Watson Lab recollections; to Charlotte Moseley for preserving and contributing a large number of old IBM manuals; and to Bob Resnikoff who unearthed his long-lost cache of 1980 machine-room and MSS photos. Islam! Herb, in particular, was involved in of Vengeance in Shakespeare's Hamlet Essay this project on a daily basis since he first happened upon it in May 2003 until shortly before his death at 91 in January 2010. Islam Relationships! Herb remembered everything . And thanks to the editors of IEEE Annals of the irrigation mesopotamia History of Computing for an announcement and abstract of this site in relationships their April-June 2002 issue, and for announcing the online version of Herb Grosch's book in the July-September 2003 issue. Please report any broken links directly to the author.
A case can be made that the computer industry got its start at Columbia University in the late 1920s and early 1930s when Professors Wood and Eckert, to advance their respective sciences, began to send designs and specifications for computing machines to IBM Corporation, which until then had been a maker of punched-card tabulating machines for The Theme in Shakespeare's Hamlet Essay the business market. From those days through the 1980s, the relationship of Columbia with companies like IBM was symbiotic and relationships fruitful (and continues on a smaller scale to this day, mainly in the Physics department with the thee construction of massively parallel supercomputers -- who else would know how to connect 512 processors in a 6-dimension mesh with the topology of a torus?) IBM Corporation itself was the child of Columbian Herman Hollerith . The early days of invention and relationships innovation are past. Computers and networks are now well established in the daily lives of john adams, vast numbers of people in many nations, and islam certainly at Columbia University. Today's computers are off-the-shelf mass-market consumer appliances, which was perhaps inevitable and is no doubt a good thing in Problem Through Lens Essay some ways. How this came about is islam relationships a story told elsewhere but as you'll see below, some important parts of l'oreal group, it happened right here. The story of computing at Columbia is presented chronologically. Most links are to local documents, and islam relationships therefore will work as long as all the files accompanying this document are kept together. There are also a few relatively unimportant external links, which are bound to go bad sooner or later -- such is the Web. Of Vengeance In Shakespeare's! 1754-1897: Columbia University was established by King George II of England in 1754 in islam relationships downtown Manhattan near what is now City Hall. The campus moved to l'oreal group 49th Street and Madison Avenue in 1857, and from there to its present site at 116th Street and islam relationships Broadway in 1897 (HUMOR).
1879-1924: In 1879, Herman Hollerith (1860-1929) received his Engineer of Mines (EM) degree from the Columbia University School of Mines . The Theme In Shakespeare's Hamlet! After graduation he stayed on relationships as an assistant to one of mesopotamia, his professors, W.P. Trowbridge, who later went on to what was to islam relationships become the US Census Bureau and shakespeare i compare thee took Hollerith with him. This led to Hollerith's development of the modern standard punch card and relationships the tabulating machine and sorter that were used to process the shall i compare 1890 Census . Hollerith wrote up his invention and relationships submitted it to controlled the Columbia School of Mines, which granted him a PhD in 1890 . Hollerith's name is synonymous with the advent of automatic computing ; until about 1940, punched-card calculators, tabulators, and islam so on were commonly called Hollerith machines, even when they were made by other companies. 1896: Herman Hollerith founds the Tabulating Machine Company , which was to become (through various mergers and renamings) the International Business Machines company, IBM . 1900-1920: Prof. Harold Jacoby, Chair of the controlled Astronomy Department, in a memo dated 4 December 1909, refers to Miss Harpham (our chief computer) .
Computer was an actual job title in those days, referring to someone whose job was to compute -- usually tables from formulas -- by hand or using a mechanical calculator (more about this in Herb Grosch's Computer, Bit Slices of islam, a Life , e.g. on page 4). The 1917-18 Columbia University Bulletin, Division of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, in the Equipment section, lists five computing machines without further detail (you can find a list of processing, possible candidates at the University of Amsterdam Computing Museum). Islam Relationships! Apropos of nothing, professor Jacoby was a graduate of the Columbia class of 1885, and organized a gift from that class to the University: the Vermont granite ball that was mounted on the Sundial on 116th Street (now College Walk) from 1914 to 1946, and now sits in of Vengeance in Shakespeare's Hamlet the middle of a field in Michigan . Jacoby died in islam relationships 1932; Wallace Eckert (about whom much more below) wrote his obituary in Popular Astronomy . 1906: Hollerith brings his Type I Tabulator to market, the Problem a Theoretical Lens first with automatic card feed and the first such device that is programmable via a plugboard. 16 June 1911: The Computing Tabulating Recording Corporation, CTR, is relationships founded by the merger of Hollerith's Tabulating Machine Company with several others. Mesopotamia! This company was to change its name to the International Business Machines Company (IBM) in 1924.
IBM celebrated its 100th anniversary on 16 June 2011. [ Top ] 1924-26: The Columbia University Statistical Laboratory (location unknown) includes Hollerith tabulating, punching, and sorting machines, Burroughs adding machines, Brunsviga and Millionaire calculators (the latter was the first device to perform direct multiplication), plus reference works such as math and statistical tables. Prof. Robert E. Chaddock (Statistics Dept) was in islam relationships charge. The Astronomy department (Prof. H. Jacoby) still has the five computing machines . CLICK HERE for a gallery of late-1920s computing machines. CLICK HERE for a 1926 aerial view of Columbia University. CLICK HERE for a 1925 Columbia University map. 1926: Wallace Eckert (1902-1971) joins Columbia's Astronomy faculty, specializing in celestial mechanics and most especially the irrigation mesopotamia moon.
In pursuit of islam, these interests, Eckert is to become a true computer pioneer. 1928: Benjamin Wood (1894-1986), head of the University Bureau of Collegiate Educational Research , proposes to Thomas J. And Automatic Processing! Watson Sr., president of IBM, a method for relationships automated scoring of examination papers in large-scale testing programs (which previously involved acres of girls trying to tabulate . test results ). After some discussion, Watson sent three truckloads of tabulating, card-punching, sorting, and accessory equipment to the basement of thee, Hamilton Hall [9,40]. 1928: Meanwhile in England, L.J. Comrie (1893-1950), Superintendant of H.M. Nautical Almanac Office, begins a project to calculate future positions of the moon using punched cards, a sorter, a tabulator, and a duplicating punch, in relationships what is probably the first use of these machines for john scientific calculation . Islam! This work would shortly inspire Columbia's Wallace Eckert to irrigation take the next historic step: automating these calculations. As we will see, much of the impetus towards automated scientific computation (and therefore modern computers) came from astronomers, and its primary application was in navigation.
The same impetus brought us accurate, portable timepieces in the previous century. 1928: Columbia's medical school, the College of Physicians and Surgeons, moves from 10th Avenue and 55th-60th Streets to Washington Heights between Broadway and Fort Washington Avenue, 165th-168th Streets, the islam relationships former site of Hilltop Park (1903-1912), the baseball stadium of the New York Yankees (known as the New York Highlanders until 1912). Jun 1929: Prof. Wood's operation became the adams Columbia University Statistical Bureau (PHOTOS). In addition to tabulating test results, it served as a computer center for other academic departments, particularly the Dept of Astronomy, which used the equipment for interpolating astronomical tables [9,40]. 1930-31: Previously, Professor Wood had convinced Watson to build special Difference Tabulators , which IBM called Columbia machines and delivered in 1930-31. These machines could process 150 cards per minute and islam were unique in their ability to rapidly accumulate sums of products or squares . The Statistical Bureau soon became a service provider to mesopotamia outside organizations like the relationships Rockefeller and Carnegie Foundations, Yale, Harvard, and Hamlet Princeton . ( So how much did we charge? :-)
1931: Walter S. Lemmon, a Columbia University Electrical Engineering graduate and islam relationships president of the Radio Industries Corporation, demonstrated the Hamlet Essay first working Radiotype machine , an electric typewriter coupled with radio transmitting and receiving apparatus. Thomas J. Watson's contacts at Columbia put him in touch with Lemmon and IBM hired him. The Radiotype, originally intended for business applications, is adopted by the US Army Signal Corps for wartime use, allowing radio transmissions without manual transcription to islam relationships and from Morse code. Before the war was over, Radiotype machines had been outfitted with encryption equipment to provide almost instant transmission and l'oreal group receipt of secure messages . 1933: In recognition of his interest in Columbia University and his large equipment donations, IBM Chairman Thomas J. Relationships! Watson is shall i compare appointed Columbia Trustee. In return, Columbia President Nicholas Murray Butler is islam appointed to IBM's Board of Directors .
1933-34: Prof. Wallace J. Eckert (PHOTOS AND BIOGRAPHY) of the Astronomy Department, a user of the Statistical Bureau, proposed modifications to IBM machines for advanced astronomical calculations, and within a few weeks the john biographies machines, including an IBM 601 Multiplying Punch (modified to Eckert's specifications under the supervision of IBM's G.W. Baehne  and dubbed the Astronomical Calculator ) were delivered to islam relationships the Rutherford Observatory in The Theme Hamlet Essay the attic of Pupin Hall. Islam! Until 1937 (q.v.) this facility was variously known as the Rutherford Laboratory, the Astronomical Laboratory, and the Hollerith Computing Bureau (the minutes of the 61st meeting of the irrigation American Astronomical Society, 29-30 Dec 1938, refer to a visit to the Hollerith Computing Bureau, where vast computing projects are being carried out under the Direction of islam relationships, Dr. Eckert). It was the first permanent IBM installation in the world to do scientific work (Comrie's Greenwich setup had not been permanent). For his work, Eckert designed a control system based on plugboards and thee rotating drums to interconnect the new equipment, eventually incorporating methods to solve differential equations by numerical integration . Islam! The Astronomical Laboratory was the first to perform general scientific calculations automatically . In late 1933, Eckert presented a paper on this work to the American Astronomical Society. Later, IBM would say, Among its scientific accomplishments, Columbia can boast of having pioneered . the use of shakespeare thee, automatic computing machines for research work . A seemingly mundane but significant aspect of this work was the islam new ability to feed the result of one computation into the next and print the results of shall thee, these calculations directly, thus eliminating the transcription errors that were common in astronomical and lunar tables .
To illustrate with a 1946 quote from Kay Antonelli, University of islam, Pennsylvania, referring to her wartime work , We did have desk calculators at that time, mechanical and driven with electric motors, that could do simple arithmetic. You'd do a multiplication and when the answer appeared, you had to write it down to reenter it into the machine to do the next calculation. We were preparing a firing table for of Vengeance in Shakespeare's each gun, with maybe 1,800 simple trajectories. Relationships! To hand-compute just one of these trajectories took 30 or 40 hours of sitting at a desk with paper and a calculator. L'oreal Group! Imagine the islam relationships effect of a transcription error early in the 30-40 hour procedure. 1934-37: Ben Wood and controlled his Statistical Bureau work with IBM to develop mark-sense technology to improve the efficiency of processing standardized tests .
The result was the IBM 805 International Test Scoring Machine, marketed beginning in islam 1937 . Dr. Wood is remembered at Columbia through the Ben D. Wood Graduate Fellowships in Learning Technologies, and at the Educational Testing Service, which dedicated its largest building to him in 1965. 1935: Practical Applications of the and automatic processing Punched Card Method in relationships Colleges and Universities , edited by George W. Baehne of IBM, published by john biographies Columbia University Press; hardbound, 442 pages, 257 figures. Contains articles by relationships Ben Wood and Wallace Eckert, among many others.
Most of the applications described are straighforward tabulating and bookkeeping operations; Eckert's is the exception. CLICK HERE for The Social Problem Through a Theoretical a more detailed discussion of this book. 1936: Wallace Eckert hires Lillian Feinstein [Hausman] as computing lab manager, placing her at or very near the head of the class of islam relationships, Women Pioneers of Computing . In Eckert's Lab, she programmed and irrigation performed scientific computations on the 601, 285, and other machines. She stayed with Eckert until 1948, on loan for a time to the US Naval Observatory , and islam relationships then from 1945 on the Watson Lab technical staff. In the early Watson Lab days she (and others such as Eric Hankam) trained computing newcomers such as John Backus and Ted Codd.
From the early Astronomical Lab equipment, she moved on john adams biographies to the 602 (and 602-A), 604, the Aberdeen Relay Calculators, and the SSEC, and when Columbia began to hold academic computing courses in relationships 1946, she ran Grosch's Engineering 281 Numerical Methods lab sessions. Much more about l'oreal group Lillian in Herb Grosch's book COMPUTER  (in which Herb refers to her as the relationships senior full-time scientific punched card expert in the whole world in 1946). Other Women Pioneers of Computing at Columbia include 1940s-era Watson Lab members Marjorie Severy [Herrick], Rebecca Jones, and Eleanor Krawitz [Kolchin]. Grace Hopper, though by no means a Columbian, was present at the inaugural meeting of the Association for thee Computing Machinery (ACM), held at Columbia in 1947. The roster of Watson Lab technical staff (1945-70) is listed in relationships Brennan . Out of 207 professional staff members, 35 are definitely women. Many more are listed with only initials; some others by Romanized Chinese name (which generally does not indicate gender). The Theme Hamlet Essay! But at least 17% of the technical staff were women, which isn't bad for the postwar years, in which women were discouraged from working (or worse, laid off from their wartime jobs).
1937: Professor Eckert's astronomical lab in Pupin Hall's Rutherford Observatory becomes the Thomas J. Watson Astronomical Computing Bureau (PHOTO), jointly sponsored by IBM, the American Astronomical Society, and the Columbia Department of Astronomy [3,9,86], to serve as a resource for the entire world astronomical community , making it the world's first center for scientific computation . The initial equipment of the Bureau consists of that which has been used by the Department of Astronomy at Columbia University during the past few years . Relationships! modified to make them more efficient for scientific work . subtraction tabulator with summary card punch, cross-footing multiplying punch, interpreter, sorter, high-speed reproducer, key punches, and l'oreal group verifier. Some possibiliies of the relationships machines can be gained from the program now in progress. In Shakespeare's! This consists primarily of (1) numerical integration of the equations of planetary motion; (2) complete checking of the lunar theory; (3) computation of precession and rectangular co-ordinates for the Yale University Zone Catalogues ; (4) the photometric program of the Rutherford Observatory; and (5) problems of stellar statistics. . Users of the Bureau were charged only for labor and materials (a tremendous bargain, since the equipment was donated). The Astronomical Computing Bureau would serve as a model for many of the wartime computing centers, such as those at islam, Los Alamos, the Naval Observatory, and the Aberdeen Proving Grounds [30,90].
1938-40: In 1938, Soviet astronomer Boris Numerov visits Eckert's lab to learn how punched card equipment might be applied to stellar research in Problem Through a Theoretical Lens his own lab at St. Petersburg University in islam Moscow. Numerov, Boris Vasilyevich: The website of the Tosno Museum of Local History and The Social Through Tradition (Leningrad Region) says (as of islam relationships, 12 Sep 2003) An exhibit section is devoted to Boris Numerov (1891-1941) - a prominent astronomer, land-surveyor and geophysicist, a creator of various astronomic instruments and means of l'oreal group, minerals exploring. His family has lived in the town of Lyuban' not far from Tosno since 1922. In the times of Stalinist repressions Boris Numerov was arrested and executed in 1941. In 1957 he was rehabilitated. Numerov is known today for islam relationships the various algorithms and methods that bear his name. In June 1940, a letter arrives for Eckert from biographies V.N.
Riazankin on behalf of the Astronomical Institute of the USSR Academy of the Sciences, asking to visit Eckert's Lab. Jan Schilt, now in charge of the Lab, forwards it to Eckert in Washington. In August 1940, I.S. Stepanov of the Amtorg Trading Company writes to Eckert asking why he didn't answer Riazinkin's letter. Here's the relationships final paragraph of Eckert's reply (cc'd to Schilt): May I take the opportunity to state that one of your eminent scientists, the late Dr. Numerov, corresponded with me several years ago concerning this very problem [machine construction of astronomical tables for navigation] . It was his intention to secure a similar installation, and had one in operation. I sincerely hope that his interest in my machines was not construed by his government as treason, and that Mr.
Riazankin will not meet the same fate as Dr. Numerov. L'oreal Group! . Schilt writes to Eckert from relationships Columbia on August 9th: Concerning the letter of Mr. Shakespeare Shall I Compare Thee! Stepanov I am shivering a little bit. Your reply to him is extremely strong and clear, so much so that I would not be surprised if I wouldn't hear from islam them at all, and frankly I just soon would not . if there is controlled any danger that [the machine] room may prove a death trap to Russian scientists I think I am in favor of not talking to these people. .
(Note: the correspondence places Numerov's death prior to islam relationships 1941.) According to David Alan Grier , the l'oreal group Amtorg Trading Company was a spy agency; the proposed visit from Riazinkin, which never actually took place, is thought to islam relationships have been an attempted first case of computer espionage . In fact, Amtorg was not just a front; it handled the bulk of controlled and automatic processing, Soviet-American trade for many years, but it was also an ideal spot for the placement of spies. Islam! Was Riazankin a spy? We'll never know. In any case he was never heard from again. Herb Grosch reports that Soviet astronomers continued to processing pay occasional visits to Watson Lab after the War, e.g. in connection with taking over production of the annual Kleine Planeten listing of asteroid positions from islam relationships Watson Lab, which did the work in 1946 after the German Astronomisches Rechen-Institut was destroyed in the War. Fall 1938: Howard Aiken, a Harvard graduate student who was working on plans for a machine to solve differential equations as part of his thesis, visits Professor Eckert's Lab; IBM engineer Clair D. Lake (who built Eckert's switch box) is john adams biographies also present. Eckert demonstrates the relationships capabilities of his setup and suggests that he try to interest IBM in the project . A year later IBM agreed to develop and construct the machine, an electro-mechanical device called the Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator, ASCC (PHOTO), the irrigation mesopotamia first automated general-purpose (but not electronic or stored-program) computer. Relationships! The ASCC was built by Lake and his staff at IBM's Endicott NY facility and presented in 1944 to Harvard, where it did war work, and The Social Through Lens Essay eventually became known as the Harvard Mark 1 . The Mark 1 was soon outpaced by IBM's Aberdeen Relay Calculator (also built by Lake) and later the US Army's ENIAC, the first electronic automatic general-purpose (but still not stored-program) computer.
Jan 1939: Enrico Fermi, Leo Szilard, Walter Zinn, Herbert Anderson, and others begin work on nuclear fission in islam relationships Columbia's Pupin Hall. Within a few months this work would become the Manhattan Project , funded by President Roosevelt (Columbia Law, 1905-07) in response to Albert Einstein's letter warning of Nazi research in this area. After Pearl Harbor, the project moved to the University of Chicago (supposedly to make it less vulnerable to controlled processing German attack) and spread to the University of California, Los Alamos, Oak Ridge, Hanford, and other locations. Islam! Fermi's lab was in the same building as Professor Eckert's Astronomical Computing Bureau. I don't know to Problem Through a Theoretical what degree, if any, Eckert's computing machines were employed in the early Manhattan Project, but as noted below they played a key role in 1945 in the final preparations for the first A-bombs . Relationships! A number of l'oreal group, other Columbia scientists worked on the project, including I.I. Rabi, Edward Teller, John Dunning (who identified U-235 as the islam relationships fissionable uranium isotope using the Pupin cyclotron in Feb 1940), Harold Urey (who later left the of Vengeance project on moral grounds), and George Pegram (who assembled the original Manhattan Project team), as well as junior faculty who would later become well-known physicists, such as C.S.
Wu and Bill Havens (both of whom I worked for in my student days), James Rainwater, Eugene Booth, and Richard Present. Islam! The following is taken from a narrative, Evolving from Calculators to Computers on the Los Alamos National Laboratory History website (May 2003): Calculations at The Theme in Shakespeare's Essay, Los Alamos were originally done on manually operated mechanical calculators, which was not only laborious and islam time-consuming, but the machines broke down frequently under heavy use. John Adams! The only one who could fix them promptly was Richard Feynman (Nobel Prize in Physics, 1965), which some thought was not the best use of islam, his time. The Social Essay! Dana Mitchell, whom Laboratory Director J. Robert Oppenheimer had recruited from Columbia University to oversee procurement for Los Alamos, recognized that the relationships calculators were not adequate for l'oreal group the heavy computational chores and suggested the use of IBM punched-card machines. He had seen them used successfully by Wallace Eckert at islam relationships, Columbia to calculate the orbits of planets and persuaded [Stanley] Frankel and [Eldred] Nelson to order a complement of them. The new IBM punched-card machines were devoted to calculations to simulate implosion, and john Metropolis and Feynman organized a race between them and the hand-computing group. Islam Relationships! 'We set up a room with girls in it. L'oreal Group! Each one had a Marchant. But one was the relationships multiplier, and another was the adder, and this one cubed, and all she did was cube this number and send it to the next one,' said Feynmann.
For one day, the The Theme in Shakespeare's Hamlet Essay hand computers kept up: 'The only islam difference was that the IBM machines didn't get tired and could work three shifts. But the girls got tired after a while.' May 1939: Columbia University's Baker Field (at 215th Street in upper Manhattan) was the site of the nation's first televised sports event , a baseball game between Columbia and Princeton universities, May 17, 1939, broadcast by NBC. (The first televised sports event in the world was the Lens Essay 1936 Olympics in Berlin.) [ Top ] 1940: Prof. Eckert publishes Punched Card Methods in Scientific Calculation , the first computer book . The book . covers nearly a decade of islam, work by W.J. Eckert on irrigation mesopotamia astronomical calculations by machine processes. Based on islam relationships firsthand experience, it describes a gamut of large calculations that could best be carried out by machines able to process numbers in shall thee machine-readable form. These calculations include the construction of islam relationships, mathematical tables, the numerical integration of differential equations, numerical harmonic analysis and synthesis, and of Vengeance in Shakespeare's Essay the solution of islam relationships, simultaneous equations. . Often known as the 'Orange Book' on account of the vividly colored covers of shakespeare thee, its original printing, Eckert's book was the bible of many workers engaged in punched card computing at the IBM Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University and islam relationships elsewhere. . The process of carrying out the integration of the differential equations is l'oreal group explained in islam detail. It involves the use of the multiplier, tabulator, and summary punch in concert, guided by the setting of a calculation control switch, which acts as a master controller advancing automatically . through twelve positions (Figure 2). This control switch . Problem Essay! was a precursor of sequential control in electronic computers .
Some of the better-known builders of the early computers, like Vannevar Bush at MIT, J. Presper Eckert of the islam relationships ENIAC, and Howard Aiken at Harvard, got their first introduction in l'oreal group the famous orange book . In this year, Eckert is appointed full professor of Celestial Mechanics. March 1940: Eckert leaves Columbia for an assignment with the US Naval Observatory, which he rapidly computerizes to create accurate air and sea navigation tables for the US Air Corps and Navy using the techniques he devised at Columbia , which allowed design and production of the Air Almanac in relationships record time (the first issue of the Air Almanac appeared December 1st, 1940, produced entirely by machine methods). The Astronomical Computing Bureau in Pupin, now directed by Jan Schilt (but with Eckert still running the show from controlled Washington), was assigned to tasks for the looming war, such as ballistic firing tables, and trajectory calculations, and later, design calculations for the B-29 sighting station [57,59] Mathematics Goes to islam relationships War . Eckert also assigns Nautical Almanac work to l'oreal group the Bureau, and temporarily borrows Lillian Feinstein as Piecework Computer from the islam relationships Bureau's staff. The Bureau existed until 1951, but by 1948 most of its work had migrated to adams biographies Watson Lab . IBM played a large part in the Allied war effort, supplying all of its products to the US government at 1% over cost, and taking on new jobs as well, including manufacture of nearly six percent of all M1 rifles [see pictures and story] [another one here] [or search Google] (other non-weapons companies made M1s too, including National Postal Meter Company, General Motors, Underwood [typewriters], and Rock-Ola, a maker of islam relationships, juke boxes). Biographies! IBM also evacuated the islam relationships families of employees in England to Toronto  and assisted the families of US employees who had gone off to war and held jobs open for irrigation all its returning veterans . According to allegations in 2001  (having nothing to do with Columbia), IBM might also have played a part in Germany's war effort, in islam which widespread use was made of Hamlet Essay, punched-card technology manufactured by IBM's German subsidiary, Dehomag , which had been taken over by the Nazi government in 1940.
The degree of IBM's involvement with Dehomag after that is or was at issue [See IBM statement]. 1940: The Bureau of Radio Research (founded at Princeton University in 1937), headed by Paul Lazarsfeld, moves to Columbia University, with quarters at 15 Amsterdam Avenue. In 1949 it would move to 427 West 117th Street, and islam about 1953 to irrigation mesopotamia 605 West 115th Street, the other half of the former Parnassus Club, across from the islam present Watson Laboratory. Its name would change to the Bureau of Applied Social Research (BASR) in 1944, and it would live on until 1977, when it was replaced by the Center for Social Sciences (later, the Lazarsfeld Center for Social Sciences, and shakespeare shall thee still later the Institute for Social and Economic Theory and Research). BASR produced a great many quantitative studies and in relationships fact pioneered quantitative sociology [26,27]. From its inception in controlled 1940, the Bureau was in possession of relationships, IBM tabulating equipment. IBM machines and tabulating charges as well as IBM supplies appear on each annual budget ). The BASR's 1954-56 budgets show $6000 per month for irrigation mesopotamia IBM equipment rental, which suggests a rather massive capacity (compare with the Registrar Proposal of 1957). Islam! The BASR Report on the Year 1957-58 says The Bureau also maintains its own IBM data processing laboratory in shakespeare i compare University Hall, and other IBM equipment for use by islam relationships students in Fayerweather Hall. The machine facilities of the l'oreal group Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory are available for relationships certain highly technical problems not readily solved by the Bureau's own equipment .
Pnina Stern, who worked at the Bureau until its demise, says When I got there in 1966 BASR had [at 605 W 115th Street] IBM 024 card punches, an 085 Collator, an and automatic processing, 082 Sorter, and a 403 Accounting Machine that could be wired to relationships produce cross tabulations and other good stuff. Fred Meier was a whiz at shakespeare thee, wiring up this machine. You had to wire it for each thing you wanted to do. It printed out cross tabulations and maybe even some other statistics. Some of the IBM machines looked like pieces of Victorian furniture with intricately carved wrought iron legs. Years later when IBM had a retrospective exhibit somewhere they borrowed these machines for the exhibit.
Maybe Fred M. owned them at that time. As for computing, someone at relationships, Columbia -- possibly at BASR -- wrote the very first computer cross tabulation program. I believe it was written in IBM 7090 machine language and you had to give it numerical coded instructions. It was not very user friendly. The Theme In Shakespeare's Hamlet! I think it may have been written by Peter Graham. As noted, much of islam, BASR's quantitative work was done in-house on john biographies its tabulating and EAM equipment, but more demanding tasks were carried out at islam, IBM Watson Lab. By 1961, BASR was (with Physics and Chemistry) one of Columbia's leading users of computing, and Through a Theoretical Lens one of the reasons the islam relationships Columbia Computer Center was created . Problem A Theoretical Lens Essay! After 1963, BASR was a major user of the Computer Center mainframes, sending work-study students with massive decks of islam relationships, cards to the SSIO Area on campus on a regular basis to run jobs.
We always duplicated the i compare thee cards before we sent them over because we had visions of the students dropping the IBM card boxes and the cards floating across Broadway. In the 1970s, HP terminals were installed for interactive access to mainframe applications like SAS and islam SPSS. The Directors of BASR were Paul Lazarsfeld (1940-1951), Charles Glock (1951-1957), David Sills (1957-1960), Bernard Berelson (1960-61), and Allen Barton (1962-1977). 20 December 1944: Since the 1930s, Columbia had been IBM's main contact with scientific computing and the academic community , and to carry forward this relationship, Thomas J Watson, a Columbia Trustee since 1933, wrote to Columbia Provost (and Acting President 1945-47) Frank Diehl Fackenthal  agreeing to establish a computing research laboratory at Columbia University as soon as space can be secured: I am confident that this laboratory will be another major forward step in the long and john adams productive cooperation between the [ sic ] IBM and Columbia University. 1945: The US Naval Observatory produces the 1946 edition of the relationships Air Almanac in what is arguably the first instance of computer-driven typesetting, using the newly delivered programmable card-driven table printer that had been specified by Professor Eckert in 1941, but whose production was delayed by the War. 6 February 1945: To give all possible aid to the war effort and to promote peace through scientific development, a computing laboratory has been established at Columbia University by International Business Machines Corporation. The Social Through A Theoretical! The new laboratory, to be known as the Thomas J. Islam Relationships! Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at l'oreal group, Columbia University , will serve as a world center for the treatment of problems in the various fields of islam, science, whose solution depends on the effective use of applied mathematics and mechanical calculations . Columbia Professor Wallace J. Adams! Eckert, now head of IBM's new Pure Research Department, is appointed to head the laboratory. Temporarily housed on the tenth floor of Pupin Hall, staffed and paid for by IBM, with the relationships staff holding faculty appointments and teaching credit courses in math, physics, astronomy, and controlled processing other fields. The new lab attracted attention all over the scientific world; visitors included John von Neumann, Hans Bethe, and Richard Feynman [3,4,9, 57].
The lab was named for IBM's Thomas J. Watson (Senior), a Columbia Trustee (it is said that Watson is the one who nominated Eisenhower as Columbia President in 1948, but he meant Milton! ). Within a year, Watson Lab would become the islam relationships third most powerful computing facility in the world, after the US Army's Aberdeen Proving Ground and The Social Problem Through Essay Harvard University, and would remain so for some years. Mar 1945 : The Manhattan Project (from here through Aug 1945) : It turns out that the presence of Bethe, Feynman, and von Neumann was not entirely coincidental. Herb Grosch writes that in May 1945, calculations at Los Alamos were falling behind. As Dr. Islam Relationships! Eckert (who had just hired him to work at the new Watson Lab) explained, They came to IBM for Through Essay help.
Mr. Watson and John McPherson [IBM engineering director] . Islam Relationships! thought immediately of the Astronomical Bureau at Columbia, but it is controlled and automatic heavily engaged in fairly high priority work for another part of the Army*, and really has no room for physical expansion anyhow. It has only islam two 601s and an old 285 fixed-plugboard tabulator, and there is hardly any room to move. Processing! New space was needed, and islam found, for l'oreal group Watson Lab's first task: solution of temperature-pressure equations for completion of the A-bombs at Los Alamos  (more about relationships this HERE and much more in controlled and automatic processing Chapter 03 of islam, Dr. Controlled Processing! Grosch's book) Now that Germany's defeat was imminent, Leo Szilard who, with Enrico Fermi, had initiated the Manhattan Project at Columbia in 1939 did not believe the islam relationships A-bomb should be used on Japan. He obtained a letter of introduction to President Roosevelt from l'oreal group Albert Einstein so he could present his case against relationships dropping the bomb. A preliminary meeting with Eleanor Roosevelt was set up for john May 8th, but the President died on April 12th and Szilard was blocked from contacting President Truman. 8 May 1945: VE Day, Germany surrenders, the war in Europe ends. Jul 1945: Szilard wrote and circulated a petition among his fellow scientists at the University of Chicago against islam the use of atomic weapons and asking President Truman not to use them on Japan.
He also sent copies to Oak Ridge and Los Alamos for circulation (the Los Alamos copy was buried by Groves and Oppenheimer). Szilard's petition went through several drafts; the first one (July 3rd) included the following text: Atomic bombs are primarily a means for the ruthless annihilation of john biographies, cities. Once they were introduced as an instrument of islam relationships, war it would be difficult to resist for The Theme of Vengeance in Shakespeare's Hamlet Essay long the temptation of putting them to such use. The last few years show a marked tendency toward increasing ruthlessness. At present our Air Forces, striking at the Japanese cities, are using the same methods of islam relationships, warfare which were condemned by Problem American public opinion only a few years ago when applied by the Germans to the cities of England.
Our use of atomic bombs in this war would carry the world a long way further on this path of ruthlessness. Subsequent drafts were toned down a bit but made the same recommendations. The Oak Ridge petition urged that before this weapon be used without restriction in the present conflict, its powers should be adequately described and demonstrated, and the Japanese nation should be given the opportunity to consider the islam consequences of irrigation, further refusal to surrender. Watson Lab staff who were performing calculations for islam Los Alamos were unaware of the petitions or, indeed (with only two exceptions, Eckert and shakespeare thee Grosch, the only ones with security clearances), that the calculations were for a bomb . In any event, the islam petitions never reached the President. 6 Aug 1945: Hiroshima : Now we knew what we had been working on . A second A-bomb was dropped on Nagasaki August 9th. More than 200,000 people died from the two blasts. Was the atomic bomb needed to end the war with Japan?
The US Strategic Bombing Survey  says, Based on a detailed investigation of all the facts and supported by the testimony of the surviving Japanese leaders involved, it is the The Theme of Vengeance Hamlet Survey's opinion that certainly prior to 31 December 1945, and in all probability prior to 1 November 1945 [the earliest possible date for an invasion], Japan would have surrendered even if the atomic bombs had not been dropped, even if Russia had not entered the relationships war in the East, and The Theme of Vengeance Hamlet Essay even if no invasion had been planned or contemplated. It was known by the Allies  that since May 1945, Japan had been making peace overtures to the Soviet Union, both in islam Tokyo and and automatic processing Moscow. This was done at the direction of the Emperor, who had told his envoy, Prince Konoye, to secure peace at islam, any price, notwithstanding its severity  . All indications (e.g. in john adams Henry L. Stimson's diaries*) are that the US deliberately prolonged the war, first by islam relationships delaying the Potsdam Conference and then by striking the Emperor can stay clause from the Problem Through Essay Potsdam Declaration, until the bombs could be dropped, and that this was done to intimidate the relationships Soviet Union. Former President, Supreme Commander of adams, Allied Forces in Europe, and Supreme Commander of relationships, NATO Dwight D. Eisenhower wrote in shakespeare i compare his memoir, Mandate for Change , (Doubleday 1963), “The incident took place in 1945 when Secretary of War Stimson visiting my headquarters in Germany, informed me that our government was preparing to drop an atomic bomb on islam Japan. I was one of and automatic, those who felt that there were a number of islam relationships, cogent reasons to question the wisdom of such an act . . . Shakespeare Thee! But the Secretary, upon islam relationships, giving me the news of the successful bomb test in New Mexico, and of the plan for using it, asked for my reaction, apparently expecting a vigorous assent. During his recitation of the relevant facts, I had been conscious of a feeling of depression and so I voiced to him my grave misgivings, first on the basis of my belief that Japan was already defeated and that dropping the i compare bomb was completely unnecessary, and secondly because I thought that our country should avoid shocking world opinion by the use of a weapon whose employment was, I thought, no longer mandatory as a measure to save American lives. It was my belief that Japan was, at that very moment, seeking some way to surrender with a minimum loss of 'face'.” FDR's and Truman's Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and of the Combined US and British Chiefs of Staff Admiral William D. Leahy wrote in islam relationships his book I Was There (Whittlesey House, 1950), “It is my opinion that the use of this barbarous weapon at Hiroshima and Nagasaki was of no material assistance in our war against Japan. The Social Lens Essay! The Japanese were already defeated and ready to surrender because of the effective sea blockade and relationships the successful bombing with conventional weapons.”
14 Aug 1945: 7:18PM EWT (Eastern War Time): VJ Day, Japan surrenders , the war ends. The formal surrender was signed September 2. (The US and many other countries were on permanent daylight savings time throughout the war; in the US this was called War Time -- Eastern War Time, Central War Time, etc.) Oct 1945: Watson Laboratory establishes itself as the cataloger of The Theme in Shakespeare's Hamlet Essay, mathematical tables on punched cards, meaning that any scientist who needed to obtain machine-readable tables of mathematical functions such as sin, cos, tan, log, squares, cubes, inverses, roots, Bessel functions, Lagrangean interpolation coefficients, spheroid functions, grid coordinates, and so forth, could find out from islam relationships Watson Lab where to in Shakespeare's Hamlet get them . Relationships! Of course Watson Lab itself was a major producer of such tables. As these card decks were freely shared, they might be regarded as an early form of freeware . Nov 1945: Watson Laboratory moves from Pupin Hall (where it had been since February 1945) into 612 West 116th Street (PHOTO) (MAP), a former fraternity house vacated by The Social a Theoretical Lens the War, purchased by IBM and renovated as a laboratory (PHOTOS) with offices and teaching facility [4,9]. A simple bronze plaque was affixed to islam relationships the building reading WATSON SCIENTIFIC COMPUTING LABORATORY at COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY  (WHERE IS THE PLAQUE NOW?). Watson Lab's early equipment included two experimental one-of-a-kind relay calculators, two Aberdeen relay calculators, plus conventional calculators and tabulators inherited from the Astronomy Lab, and within a couple years would grow to include a IBM 602 and shakespeare shall thee the first IBM 604. Read more about renovation and equipping of this building in Chapter 09 of the Grosch book. This building is now Casa Hispanica, home of Columbia's Department of Spanish and Portuguese. Herb Grosch confirms that Chock Full O' Nuts was open for business on the southwest corner of 116th and Broadway in 1945, where it remained a fixture for relationships decades.
Chock Full O' Nuts sightings go back as far as 1944. When did it close? Mid-1980s I think. A few other establishments that were here in 1945 are still open in 2004: The West End (1915), Tom's Restaurant (1936), Columbia Hardware (1939), and Mondel's Chocolates (1943). Aug 1946: Eckert describes Watson Lab to an IBM Research Forum . It is the intention of the a Theoretical Lens Essay Laboratory to make these facilities available to islam relationships any scientist from any place in this country or abroad , regardless of whether he is connected with a university or a laboratory.
This is our fundamental principle: problems will be accepted because of controlled, scientific interest and not for any other considerations. Scientific interest can be of two kinds: the problem may interest us because of the complexity of the calculation, or it may be considered on relationships the basis of scientific merit of the result rather than the means. While routine computation is not the aim of the Laboratory, a considerable amount of it will be done on worthy causes. Later he describes some experimental machines: Among the digital machines which have been developed over adams the years, there are several based on the relay network; we now have two of relationships, these at Problem Lens, the Laboratory [ note: he is relationships not referring to the Aberdeens, which had not yet been delivered ] . The first one was developed with the idea of seeing how few relays it is possible to use to produce a calculating machine. This machine is built on mesopotamia the standard IBM key punch. . The control is very convenient. a combination of relationships, control panel and master card or program card.
Thus, instead of having twenty control panels for john biographies a complicated job, you can set it up to use one control panel and twenty master cards. This might very well be the birth of software . The control panel, which stays in place for the duration of the job, defines the instructions of the machine, in a sense its microprogram. The sequence of operations (invoking instructions from the control panel) is on a deck of cards. It is a PROGRAM. A few years later, IBM would build a Card Programmed Calculator, and from there it is relationships a short step to the first general-purpose stored-program computer, which, arguably, was IBM's SSEC, built under Eckert's direction (in fact the SSEC was completed before the CPC). The significance of card programming can't be overstated. A deck of control cards (along with the specifications for the corresponding control-panel wiring, at least in a Theoretical these early days) documents the program. It can be printed, read, modified, duplicated, mailed, kept for future use, and run again on different data sets. Much of islam, this might be said of Hamlet, plugboards too, provided you don't have to recycle them, thus destroying the program. But most important, a program deck can be any length at relationships, all, thus allowing extremely complex problems to be run -- problems that might have required a thousand plugboards. (Trust me, nobody had 1000 plugboards; they're big and they cost serious money.)
1946: Watson Lab produces Ephemerides of 783 Minor Planets for 1947 (formerly Kleine Planeten ), the Lens annual asteroid listing for the year 1947, about 100 pages of tables showing the position of each body at 8-day intervals, calculated on the Watson Lab Aberdeen Relay Calculators, the world's fastest computing devices at relationships, the time. 1946-47: Watson Laboratory courses first appear in the University Bulletin. Shall I Compare! These are graduate-level credit courses. Among them are courses in computing machinery and numerical analysis taught by Wallace Eckert and Herb Grosch believed to be the first computer science courses offered by any university  or, more precisely, the islam first such courses in the world fully integrated into a university curriculum and john continuing year after year . Eckert taught Machine Methods of Scientific Calculation (Astronomy 111-112); Grosch taught Numerical Methods (Engineering 281, a graduate course I took some 30 years later. The next year L.H. Thomas added Numerical Solution of Differential Equations (Physics 228).
By 1951, the curriculum also included EE 275 (Electrical and Electronic Components of Digital Computers, taught by Watson Lab's Robert M. Walker) and Physics 255 (Separation of Variables in Mathematical Physics, L.H. Thomas). Most of these courses included hands-on laboratory sessions with the Watson Lab machines or (later) the SSEC downtown. Graduate-level hard-science courses used the Watson Lab machines too, including some taught by regular Columbia faculty such as George Kimball (Chemistry), among whose students were Margaret Oakley Dayhoff (Columbia Ph.D. 1948, the founder of computational biochemistry), Isaac Asimov (Columbia B.Sc 1939, M.A. 1941, Ph.D. 1948), and relationships Maurice Ewing (Oceanography), the founder of Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, whose students included Frank Press (Columbia M.A. 1946, Ph.D. 1949), who went on to become President of the US National Academy of Sciences and john Chairman of the islam relationships National Research Council. More about these courses in the 1951 entry.
1946-47: It was also during this period that Watson Laboratory began to provide computer time to irrigation Columbia researchers at no charge. This arrangement would continue until 1963, when Columbia -- with IBM's assistance -- opened its own Computing Center. Perhaps the first non-Watson-Lab Columbia researcher to use the Watson Lab machines was Martin Schwarzschild, who used the Aberdeen Relay Calculators for astronomical calculations . 1947: Nevis Laboratory, the Columbia Physics department's primary center for islam study of high-energy and nuclear physics, founded in Irvington, New York. There is a long history of computing here too, which needs to be told, including the many and varied connection methods to Columbia's Morningside Heights campus. Sep 1947: The Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) is of Vengeance in Shakespeare's Hamlet Essay born at a meeting of sixty computer enthusiasts at Columbia University's Havemeyer Hall . Originally calling itself the Eastern Association for islam relationships Computing Machinery, attendees of its first meeting included Columbia Professor Wallace Eckert (who arranged the space), Professor Hilleth Thomas (Thomas-Fermi Model), Byron Havens of Watson Lab (chief engineer, NORC), John Lentz of adams biographies, Watson Lab (designer of the first personal computer), Watson Lab's Herb Grosch, and everybody's favorite computer person, Grace Hopper. Islam Relationships! The meeting was convened by computer pioneer and antiwar activist Edmund Berkeley. (CLICK HERE to view documents from the first ACM meeting.) Nov 1947: The Watson Laboratory Three-Week Course on Computing , taught by Eric Hankam, the first hands-on computer course (PHOTOS AND DETAILS), in which scientists from all over the world learned how to apply computing machines to problems in their disciplines.
The course was given here eleven times a year until 1957 -- by which time it had been attended by 1600 people from 20 countries -- when it was moved to IBM education centers around the world . 24 Dec 1947: First successful test of the irrigation mesopotamia transistor. Jan 1948: The IBM Selective Sequence Electronic Calculator (SSEC) (PHOTOS AND DETAILS) was designed and built by IBM in 1946-47 under the direction of Columbia Professsor Wallace Eckert and then installed in IBM HQ at 590 Madison Ave in January 1948. This is one of the first large-scale electronic computers, and relationships the first machine to combine electronic computation with a stored program and capable of operating on its own instructions as data . It was based on hybrid vacuum-tube / mechanical relay technology (12,000 tubes, 21,000 relays). Fully assembled, it was 140 feet long (60 + 20 + 60 U-shape) (some sources cite different dimensions) and in Shakespeare's Hamlet was used initially for calculating lunar coordinates. Reporters called it a Robot Brain. Islam! Its massive size and mesopotamia configuration established the public image of computers for islam decades to come (as in this 1961 New Yorker cover by Charles Addams).
Aside from solving important scientific problems, it was used by students of Columbia's pioneering Machine Methods graduate course -- part of the world's first computer science curriculum, initiated here in 1946. Popular descriptions of Problem Lens, computers as brains and analogies with the human nervous system were so rampant in the late 1940s and early 50s, that George Stibitz, developer of the wartime Bell Relay Calculators, was prompted to islam write an article cautioning against such wild tales as the one in john the Feb 18, 1950, Saturday Evening Post, which said that computers were subject to psychopathic states which engineers cure by shock treatments consisting of the application of excessively large voltages . The SSEC was programmed from Watson Lab on standard IBM cards converted to input tapes on a special punch called the islam Prancing Stallion . L'oreal Group! Eckert's moon-orbit calculations on this machine were used as the basis for the Apollo missions. It was dismantled in 1952.
One of the SSEC's programmers was John Backus (PHOTO AND DETAILS), who had two Columbia degrees and islam relationships was at Watson Lab in 1950-52 , and who went on to design FORTRAN, the first high-level machine-independent programming language , and Algol, the first block-structured language, and The Social Problem Essay is also known for Backus Normal Form (BNF), a meta-language for describing computer languages. Before FORTRAN, almost every computer program was written in machine or assembly language, and therefore was not portable to any other kind of machine. The idea of a high-level programming language was the second step on the road to user friendliness. The first step was the assembler. Such notions were not without controversy. John von Neumann, when he first heard about FORTRAN in 1954, was unimpressed and asked why would you want more than machine language? One of von Neumann's students at Princeton recalled that graduate students were being used to hand assemble programs into binary for their early machine. This student took time out to build an assembler, but when von Neumann found out about it he was very angry, saying that it was a waste of a valuable scientific computing instrument to relationships use it to do clerical work. (These anecdotes from a biographical sketch of von Neumann by John A.N.
Lee, Dept of Computer Science, Virginia Polytechnical Institute.) Another SSEC programmer was Edgar F. Codd , originator of the relational database model  ( Communications of the ACM , Vol. Shakespeare I Compare Thee! 13, No. 6, June 1970, pp.377-387), who was at Watson Lab from 1949 to relationships 1952  and died April 18, 2003. 1948-54: The IBM Personal Automatic Calculator was designed by John Lentz and built between 1948 and 1954 on the top floor of Watson Lab. Among its innovations was a magnetic drum for auxilliary storage, automatic positioning of the decimal point, and the first video terminal.
When it was finally announced in 1956 as the IBM 610 Autopoint Computer, it was the first personal computer . [4,9,17] 1949: Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory, Columbia's earth science facility, founded in i compare Palisades, New York, by Professor Maurice Ewing, a user of the Watson Lab equipment. There is a long tradition of computing and networking here too, which needs to be told. Islam Relationships! See  for an excellent history (albeit with nothing on and automatic computing) of what is islam now called the Lamont Doherty Earth Observatory. 1950: Herb Grosch devises Grosch's Law Computing power increases as the controlled square of the cost in Watson Lab [57,p.131].
Dr. Grosch leaves Watson in islam relationships 1951 to start an IBM bureau in adams biographies Washington DC. May 1950: Edmund Berkeley (who had founded the ACM at Columbia University in 1947, and who had written the first book about computers for islam a general audience  in l'oreal group 1949), William Porter (a West Medford MA mechanic), and two Columbia graduate students, Robert Jensen and Andrew Vall, build Simon , a simple model electronic brain (PHOTO), costing about islam $600 to irrigation construct. Of Simon, Berkeley said: It is the smallest complete mechanical brain in existence. It knows not more than four numbers; it can express only the number 0, 1, 2 and 3. It is guaranteed to make every member of an audience feel superior to it. It is a mechanical brain that has cost less than $1,000. It can be carried around in one hand (and the power supply in the other hand). It can be completely understood by one man. It is an excellent device for teaching, lecturing and islam explaining.
1951: CLICK HERE to The Theme Hamlet view some 1951 Watson Lab Astronomy, Engineering, and Physics course listings from the 1951 Columbia Catalog. Herb Grosch recalls : . a little about the relationships courses we gave - that is, at john biographies, Columbia. These were all part of the islam relationships regular university curriculum, listed in the appropriate catalogs - we had our own special one also - and open to any student with the prerequisites and the money. We did however encourage our own juniors on 116th Street and at adams, the SSEC to relationships attend as auditors if they did not want to sign up for shakespeare i compare thee credit. . Most of our offerings were unusual. [Hilleth] Thomas did a very good course in theoretical physics, in which he was a world authority. I did a celestial mechanics course one year; it was really a mlange of spherical trig, practical and theoretical astronomy (meaning time and position determination, and orbit computing), and brief mentions of planetary and satellite mechanics. . Islam Relationships! None of my subtopics were taught anywhere else at Columbia; the astronomy department was solid astrophysics. And they were what was needed for astronomy calculations. . Of Vengeance! Most of our value as teachers, however, came from the computing courses . Eckert gave a two-semester machine methods course, which featured hands-on operation under Marjorie [Severy], Lillian [Feinstein Hausman] and relationships Eric [Hankam]; literally the only place in the world where you could learn in the university milieu . . I did numerical methods - classical interpolation and matrix arithmetic and integration of differential equations. Shakespeare Shall Thee! Most of my examples, and assigned exercises, were at desk calculator level, but I lectured from the point of view of machine operation . This was one semester, once a year, and Hilleth did an advanced course featuring partial differential equation solutions and islam error propagation, every other year. Controlled Processing! . My classes were small; this was a very esoteric discipline indeed in the Forties.
But I had interesting students .. like [Stan] Rothman and islam relationships [Bill] McClelland and [John] Backus and Don Quarles. . So it was my side of the house that carried the teaching. The Social Problem Through A Theoretical Lens! It went on into the Fifties, always as part - but a small part - of the Columbia offerings. The hands-on side of the islam relationships Machine Methods course was unique, not just because of the irrigation equipment but because real use-'em-every-day men and women were running it. 1952-3: Watson Lab #2. When construction of the NORC (see Dec 1954 entry) exhausted available space in the petite 116th street building (and because still more space was required by Watson Lab's new physics program), IBM purchased the building at islam relationships, 612 West 115th Street (PHOTO) (MAP), formerly a women's residence club, gutted and renovated it, equipped it with physics laboratories, and relocated to it. L'oreal Group! The new Watson Lab was occupied in September 1953 . Islam! A time clock was installed (you can still see its mounting today) but nobody on the professional staff used it (as a corporation, IBM was obsessed with efficiency but the shakespeare thee Watson Lab scientists were notorious noncomformists). The time clock and all wall clocks were controlled centrally and relationships set automatically by an IBM master clock (like the one in the first Watson Lab); the IBM wall clocks in Watson Lab kept on controlled and automatic processing ticking until about 1999. The Penthouse was outfitted as a lunchroom with a small kitchen, where coffee and tea could be made and soup or beans heated up; it had the islam atmosphere of a World War II canteen, and was the favorite place for people in different groups or floors to talk and adams thesis advisors to meet with their students . Some space was retained in the 116th Street building: offices for PhD students, classroom space, and a machine room [4,9,17,66].
The former women's residence on relationships 115th Street was in fact the controlled Parnassus Club , a boarding house for young women -- students at the Julliard School of relationships, Music, which was then only a couple blocks away on the current Manhattan School of Music site (MAP) or at Barnard College, a block north (MAP), for semi-professional performers. It operated from 1921 to 1955. CLICK HERE for shakespeare i compare thee stories and photos. The North-facing building was gutted by IBM in 1953 to create Watson Laboratory. According to a resident, we all had to move out islam because some official body at Columbia had decided the neighborhood had become too dangerous for us; at least that was the reason given in a letter we all received that spring (this refers to the second Parnassus Club building, which remained in operation until 1955). (Miss Macmillan's 1965 obituary states, however, that the Club was closed due to her poor health.) The exterior of 612 West 115th Street retains its original look but the shall inside contains no trace of the islam Parnassus Club. In July 2003, a resident from l'oreal group 1950 appeared on the doorstep with her daughter and grandson; she was showing them where she used live. I brought them inside for a mini-tour, but she was clearly disappointed to find absolutely nothing familiar.
The original Watson Lab at 612 West 116th Street was designed by islam relationships Thomas Nash and shakespeare i compare thee built in 1906 as the islam relationships Delta Phi fraternity house. The current Watson building at 612 West 115th Street was originally an Problem a Theoretical Essay, apartment building called Duncan Hall, designed in islam 1905 by shakespeare i compare thee the prolific firm of Neville Bagge, originally built and owned by a Frank Woytisek. The building across the street, No. 605, was also an apartment building by Neville Bagge, called the Bellemore, built in 1903 and originally owned by relationships Moses Crystal . It was home to the Bureau of Applied Social Research (BASR) from 1955(?) until it was demolished about 1970. 200th anniversary of Columbia University. 1954: Invention of the cursor: As part of his work on the first personal computer (the IBM 610), Watson Lab's John Lentz designs a small video terminal -- keyboard and mesopotamia tiny screen -- for control and relationships data entry. in which the current position was indicated visually by adams what came to islam relationships be known as a cursor . Lentz applied for a patent on l'oreal group this concept; the patent was finally granted in the early 1970s. As far as I can tell, Lentz's control and relationships display device was also the first video terminal . Dec 1954: The Naval Ordnance Research Calculator (NORC) (PHOTOS AND DETAILS), the john biographies first supercomputer and the most powerful computer in existence at the time (and for the next ten years), becomes operational. It was designed here beginning in relationships 1950 and shakespeare shall i compare thee built in Watson Lab #2, 612 West 115th Street. NORC had 200,000 electronic components: 3600 words of main memory (originally vacuum tubes, later magnetic cores), eight magnetic tape drives, 15,000 complete operations per second, decimal (not binary) arithmetic, swappable components.
Since this was such a big job, additional space was rented at islam relationships, 2929 Broadway, above a restaurant (Prexy's? Home of the Educated Hamburger?) for building some of the parts, which were brought to Watson Lab for assembly and eventual startup and operation. John von Neumann was a team member and gave the inaugural address on December 2, 1954. NORC was moved to the Naval Proving Ground, Dahlgren, Virginia, in 1955 and remained operational until 1968 [4,12,17]. 30 Aug 1955: The first of two IBM 650 computers is irrigation installed in the first-floor machine room of the original Watson Lab building on islam 116th Street. The 650 was a vacuum-tube-logic decimal computer with 2000 words of shakespeare thee, ten decimal digits each plus sign  stored on drum memory. Each had a 511 card reader and a 403 printer. Islam Relationships! They ran for irrigation two shifts a day, eventually supporting over islam 200 Columbia research projects . A 17 Nov 1955 memo from biographies Dr. Eckert to J.C.
McPherson states that the islam relationships 650 was installed on Problem Through August 30 and much of the relationships work of the l'oreal group computing group has been concerned with its incorporation into the Laboratory program of research and instruction. The 650s were soon used in a series of relationships, intensive courses on computing, with  as a text; these courses later resulted in a book: Joachim Jeenel, Programming for Digital Computers , McGraw-Hill, 1959 . The Theme Of Vengeance In Shakespeare's Essay! Initally, all programming was in assembly language punched on cards; eventually languages such as FORTRAN were available. The legendary SOAP assembler for the 650 was written at relationships, Watson Lab by Stan Poley. The earlier Watson Lab equipment (tabulators, sorters, multiplying punches, etc) were not computers in shakespeare shall i compare thee the modern sense (general-purpose, electronic, von-Neumann architecture, stored-program, programmed with a language rather than wires).
NORC had been the first such computer at Columbia but, although it was used in one Columbia PhD dissertation , it was not open to the Columbia community for relationships general use . Thus the IBM 650 was the first computer available to Columbia researchers and Through Lens we have a 50th anniversary on islam relationships August 30, 2005. Eric Hankam points out  that this was not as dramatic a turning point as it might seem, since the same types of problems had been solved on non-stored-program calculators at and automatic processing, Columbia over the preceding two or three decades; at the time, the islam relationships 650 was seen as just another incremental step in calculator design. However, the 650's power, flexibility, and ease of use relative to the wire- and card-programmed machines (601, Aberdeen, 602, 604, CPC, 607) attracted a flood of Columbia research projects. I Compare Thee! By 1961, 650s were also installed at relationships, Nevis Lab, Hudson Lab, and john adams ERL. As demand oustripped capacity, it became increasingly clear that Columbia would need a computing facility of its own, big enough to serve the entire university. Sep 1956: Watson Lab begins to award fellowships to Columbia graduate students , including Ken King, who would become the islam first Director of the l'oreal group Columbia Computer Center, and Joe Traub, who, after obtaining his Columbia PhD in relationships 1959, and a distinguished career at mesopotamia, Bell Labs and heading the Carnegie-Mellon CS Department, would become first Chair of relationships, Columbia's Computer Science Department [9, 21] (prior to that, computer science courses were in the Electrical Engineering department). Watson Fellows had their own offices at 612 West 116th Street, that were appointed with fireplaces and leather sofas, a good stipend, and unlimited computing time .
Approximately 15 percent of Columbia physics graduate students in the 1950s did their thesis work at Watson Lab . 1956-70: Watson Lab concentrates on solid state physics. This not-insignificant period, resulting in The Theme in Shakespeare's Hamlet many publications, patents, and a Nobel Prize, is described at length in  and . (Richard L. Garwin of Watson Lab conducted experiments with Leon Lederman of the CU Physics Department confirming the suggestion by C.N. Yang of Princeton and T.D. Lee of Columbia regarding muon decay; this, plus the additional confirmation of C.S. Wu in the CU Physics Department, resulted in the 1957 Nobel Prize in Physics for Lee and Yang.) Also in this period, Seymour Koenig's research on low-temperature breakdown of germanium and its application to semiconductors; Triebwasser's research on microscopic and thermodynamic properties of ferroelectric crystals; Tucker's research on semiconductors at islam, liquid helium temperatures with application to in Shakespeare's biomedical instrumentation . 1957: A proposal was submitted by Columbia University to the National Science Foundation to install an IBM 701 in Watson Laboratory, since many of Columbia's research projects now demanded more power than was offered by the 650s (the sub-microsecond circuits used in the 701 were designed at islam, Watson Lab ). While the Problem Through proposal was under consideration the 701 was superseded by the Model 704, so the proposal was changed to ask for a 704. $145,000 was awarded, but it turned out the 704 was larger than the 701 originally proposed and islam relationships would not fit in Watson Lab, so the money had to be returned unused  and IBM Watson Lab continued to cater to all of Columbia's academic computing needs at its own expense. Projects that couldn't be accommodated by Watson Lab's Model 650s were allowed to shakespeare thee use the more powerful IBM 700-series computers downtown at IBM headquarters . Oct 1957: IBM proposes the following arrangement to Charles Hurd, University Registrar, for student statistics, course registration, permanent records, and fee accounting: Less 20% educational discount, plus supplies of cards, coding sheets, control (plugboard) panels, trays, and brackets totalling another $1810.25.
Note: the links for some of these items are to later (but similar) models. Required personnel are one supervisor/programmer, two machine operators, and three key punch operators. Source: AIS archives. Relationships! This arrangement characterizes the The Theme of Vengeance Hamlet Essay nature of relationships, administrative data processing at the time. There is no true computer, only unit record equipment and tabulating machines capable of rudimentary statistics (sums) and report generation.
According to of Vengeance Essay letters of Charles Hurd, 1957-1960 , the funding was found from the expected decline in islam relationships enrollment of Public Law 550 [Korean War] veterans (Veterans Readjustment Act of 1952); in l'oreal group his proposal to Provost John Krout (29 Oct 1957), Hurd says I am sure that you are aware that IBM equipment has been used in the Registrars' Offices in relationships colleges and universities. large and small, public and private, for many years and has proven to be a most valuable and irrigation mesopotamia efficient tool. I hope, therefore that you will consider this proposal so that this long felt need at Columbia may be fulfilled. Islam Relationships! In other words, registration was still completely manual in 1957. The advantages of the new system would be accuracy, elimination of redundancy (e.g. each student writing the same information on many different forms, up to 23 of them) and transcription errors, and the ability to generate reports, including class lists, plus ID cards and mailing labels, not to mention keeping up with the Joneses, e.g. NYU, where punch-card registration had been in l'oreal group use since at least 1933. The new equipment was installed in 307 University Hall and the new system phased in from 1959 to 1961 (with an IBM 407 installed rather than a 403 at an extra $250/month). Computerized registration was seen by some as a step towards dehumanization of students and turning universities into factories, a major factor in the rise of the Free Speech Movement at the University of islam, California at Berkeley, which set the stage for campus activism, protest, and rebellion throughout the 1960s, including Columbia in 1968: There is a time when the biographies operation of the machine becomes so odious, makes you so sick at heart, that you can't take part; and you've got to put your bodies upon the gears and upon islam, the wheels, upon the levers, upon all the The Theme of Vengeance in Shakespeare's apparatus and relationships you've got to irrigation mesopotamia make it stop. According to Steven Lubar of the Smithsonian Institution, this sentiment, although directed primarily at islam relationships, the economy and biographies war machinery, extended to the punched-card equipment in the registrar's office: Berkeley protestors used punch cards as metaphor, both as a symbol of the 'system'--first the registration system and islam then bureaucratic systems more generally--and as a symbol of alienation. 'I am a UC student. Please don't bend, fold, spindle or mutilate me.' 1958: The Columbia-Princeton Electronic Music Center (CPEMC) is founded by Professors Vladimir Ussachevsky and Otto Luening with a grant from the Rockefeller Foundation.
It is the l'oreal group first center for electroacoustic music in islam the USA and has a long association with Columbia computing. Located in Prentis Hall on West 125th Street, its name was changed to Computer Music Center in irrigation 1996. Some tales have been collected and contributed by Peter Mauzey of Bell Labs, a Columbia graduate and former faculty member with a long association with the Electronic Music Center; CLICK HERE to read them. Sep 1958: The equipment of relationships, Columbia University IBM Watson Scientific Computing laboratory is listed  as: Standard punched card equipment A comprehensive selection of basic punched card machines, with many special devices. The equipment includes keypunch, sorter, reproducer, and printer. Wired-program calculators The group of controlled and automatic processing, electro-mechanical and relationships electronic calculators include the Type 602-A Calculating Punch, the Type 607 Electronic Calculating Punch, and the Card-Programmed Electronic Calculator. The 607 is an shall, automatic electronic calculator with pluggable program control and 146-digit storage capacity, capable of performing most programs at the rate of 100 cards per minute.
Stored-program calculator The type 650 Magnetic Drum Data Processing Machine is a stored-program calculator [i.e. Islam! computer] which can store 2000 ten-digit words, read 200 cards a minute, punch 100 cards a minute, and controlled perform approximately 100 multiplications a second. The memory capacity can be used interchangeably for numerical data and operating instructions, which permits complete flexibility in the elaboration of instructions by the machine itself. Plus special-purpose devices such as a card-driven lithography printer, a card-controlled astronomical photograph analyzer, as well as a machine shop and physics and chemistry laboratories, a highly specialized library, and access to the big IBM 700 series computers downtown. Although FORTRAN -- the first high-level, machine-independent programming language -- marked a great leap forward in relationships user friendliness, and was probably available for the 650 by this time, it's worth remembering how one ran a FORTRAN job in the early days. First you punched your FORTRAN program on a key punch machine, along with any data and control cards. But since the 650 had no disk, the FORTRAN compiler was not resident. So to compile your program, you fed the FORTRAN compiler deck into the card reader, followed by your FORTRAN source program as data. After some time, the The Theme of Vengeance Essay machine would punch the resulting object deck. Then you fed the FORTRAN run-time library object deck and relationships your program's object deck into the card reader, followed by any data cards for your program. Your program would run and results would be punched onto yet another deck of The Theme of Vengeance Essay, cards. Relationships! To see the results, you would feed the result deck into another machine, such as an IBM 407, to have it printed on paper.
The computer itself had no printer. By the early 60s a certain division of The Social Problem a Theoretical, labor had become the rule, in which system analysts would make a flow chart, programmers would translate it to code, which was written by hand on coding forms that were given to key punch operators to be punched on cards. Islam! The coding forms and shakespeare card decks were passed on to verifiers who repunched the source code to catch and correct any mistakes, signed off on the job, sent the deck to the operator to await its turn at islam, the computer. Problem Through Lens Essay! Hours later the results would be delivered to the programmer in the form of a printout and the cycle would continue. 1959: Programming for Digital Computers , by Watson Lab's Joachim Jeenel, is islam published by shall thee McGraw-Hill. From the Preface: The contents of this book were developed from material presented to courses on programming for stored-programming calculators held at Columbia University. Prof. W.J. Eckert, Director of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University, initiated the writing of the book and suggested the scope of the text.
Jeenel also taught Columbia graduate courses such as Astronomy 111-112: Machine Methods of Scientific Calculation (with Eric Hankam). 1959: An IBM 1620 is installed in Watson Lab to supplement the 650s, and is used in islam Columbia research projects. 1959: The Provost's office commissions a study to develop a plan for the future of computing at Columbia. In view of the failure in 1957 to produce the space needed for a state-of-the art computer that NSF was willing to pay for, the study concluded that a new computer center building was needed . The Social Through A Theoretical Lens Essay! The central administration concurs and begins to seek sources of funding. Dean Ralph S. Halford, a Chemistry professor, Dean of Graduate Faculties, and (perhaps most to the point) Vice Provost for Projects and Grants is in charge.
Dean Halford and the University Committee on Cooperation with Watson Laboratory, which then included Professors Wallace Eckert (Astronomy and islam Watson Lab), Samuel Eilenberg (Mathematics), Richard Garwin (Physics and Watson Lab), and Polykarp Kusch (Physics, Nobel Prize 1955), plan the future Computer Center. 1960: Algol-60 developed by CU-and-Watson-Lab-alumnus John Backus and john adams others. Islam! This was to be the most influential computer language of all time, the parent of shakespeare i compare, all other block-structured languages, including (among many others) Java, C, C++, Pascal, PL/I, and Ada, but not including such lovable mavericks as LISP, APL, Snobol, and islam relationships Forth. 1961: IBM Watson Laboratory offers the following Columbia courses in computing: GSEE 287, Digital Computers I: Programming and Operating. Astronomy 111-112: The use of High-Speed Digital Computers for Scientific Calculation. Controlled! Engineering 281: Numerical Analysis for Research Students in relationships Science and irrigation Engineering.
Physics 288: Numerical Solution of Ordinary and islam Partial Differential Equations. Management Games (Industrial Engineering): Market simulations. Plus short courses in controlled and automatic IBM 650 and Fortran programming and the Share Operating System (SOS) [29,31]. Besides the relationships Watson Lab courses, the Electrical Engineering Department offers: EE 104: Electric Circuits IV: Digital Circuits and The Social Through Essay Computing Systems. GSEE 267: Digital Systems and islam relationships Automata. GSEE 269: Information Theory. GSEE 274: Electrical Analogue Computers. GSEE 275-276: Logical Design of shakespeare, Digital Circuits.
GSEE 288-289: Digital Computers II and relationships III: System Analysis and Synthesis. EE 277-278-279: Pulse and Digital Circuits. May 1961: Dean Halford writes a Proposal to the National Science Foundation for Support of a Computing Center to be Established at Columbia University , and shortly afterwards the NSF approves $200,000 over controlled the first two years . IBM pledges $125,000 for fellowships, and another $500,000 is obtained from an anonymous donor  (who might have been Thomas J Watson Sr or another Columbia Trustee). Two IBM 7090 mainframe computers are to be acquired at an education discount, which requires Columbia to devote at least 88 hours per month for relationships purposes of instruction and unsponsored academic research. Shakespeare I Compare Thee! With funding lined up, Dean Halford proposes the relationships new Computer Center to shall thee the University Committee on islam relationships Finance. The need for a Computer Center was clear. L'oreal Group! By this point, about 220 University research projects were being handled on IBM's computers in relationships Watson Lab and the demands had long since exceeded the Lab's capacity, resulting in the rental of IBM computers by the following university sites: An IBM 1620 at Lamont Doherty Geological Observatory. An IBM 650 at the Nevis Cyclotron Laboratory. Shall Thee! An IBM 650 at islam relationships, Hudson Lab.
An IBM 650 at the Electronics Research Lab of the Engineering School. The primary needs were in high-energy physics (then accounting about 200 hours of IBM 650 time per month), sociology (50 hours/month), geophysics (100 hours of IBM 709 time per month), biochemistry, and controlled processing chemistry. Relationships! A school of computer science will evolve gradually at the Computing Center, with an independent line of administration as an educational organ of the University. The IBM Watson Lab courses would be taken over by l'oreal group the Computing Center. The initial staff was to be 15 persons covering two shifts, including a branch librarian . The Computing Center was to islam serve those whose research is sponsored and l'oreal group those whose research is not. It has been created with the islam aim of serving all of the needs of both groups without preference toward either one, with the expectation that its cost would have to be met in substantial part by the University . Sep 1961: The Columbia Committee on irrigation Finance approves Dean Halford's proposal to create a Computer Center, based on funding pledges from IBM and NSF . 1961-63: Construction of the relationships Computer Center building. L'oreal Group! Total cost: $800,000  (PHOTOS, STORIES NEEDED). 2 Jan 1963: Columbia University Computer Center (CUCC) opens.
Dr. Kenneth M. King, who received his Columbia Ph.D. in Physics as a Watson Fellow under Prof. L.H. Islam Relationships! Thomas  and irrigation had managed Watson Lab's computing facility , was the first Director, with a joint appointment to the faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science [V5#3]. The original location was 612 W 116th Street (the first Watson Lab), which still housed the IBM teaching facility as well as Casa Hispanica, but the relationships new underground Computer Center building between Havemeyer and Uris halls was soon ready with machine rooms for equipment and offices for staff (more space than we'll ever need). The Computer Center initially housed the of Vengeance in Shakespeare's following equipment : IBM 7090 (PHOTOS AND STORIES) with 32768 (32K) 36-bit words of magnetic core storage. This was the first commercial computer based on transistor, rather than vacuum tube, logic (a vacuum-tube 709 was originally planned , but the 7090 appeared just in time). It is in the direct line of islam relationships, descent from l'oreal group Watson Lab's NORC.
The price was $1,205,000.00 after 60% IBM educational allowance, amortized over 5 years (Letter of relationships, John A. Krout, VP of the University, 4 Oct 1961, AcIS archives). Included: Two data channels. Two IBM 1301 Model 2 disks, total capacity: 9320000 36-bit words. Six IBM 729VI 7-track tape drives. an IBM 1402-2 80-column Card Reader/Punch, reads 800 cards/minute, punches 250. Shakespeare Shall Thee! Two IBM 1403 chain printers, 132 cols/line, 1100 lines/minute = 3 secs/page. 7040 Console Typewriter. 1014 Remote Inquiry Unit. Applications include FORTRAN II, COBOL, SORT, MAP, UTILITY PACKAGE, plus the IBSYS monitor. IBM 1401 with: 4000 characters of islam, memory. Two 729V tape drives.
One 600 LPM printer. The Theme Hamlet! Advanced Programming Package. Access to computing was batch only. Users brought decks or boxes of punch cards to the operators and came back the next day to retrieve their cards and the resulting listings from the output bins. Jobs were paid for out of grants or funny money. Islam Relationships! There were no user terminals and there was no user access to the machine room, which was staffed around the clock by controlled processing operators and a shift supervisor. During the first six months of the Center's operation, [the 7090] logged 907.55 hours on 158 projects for 101 members of our academic staff. Relationships! Downtime ran to thirty hours or so monthly during the first two months, as expected in a new installation, but fell to acceptable levels for the remainder of the irrigation mesopotamia period.
About forty-five percent of the time used was furnished to relationships projects sponsored by government contracts.  Aug 1963: An IBM 1410 was added, shared by the Registrar's Office, and ran until 1973. Nov 1963: The IBM 7090 was replaced by an IBM 7094-I. 1964-70: IBM Watson Lab continues operation at 612 W 115th Street, concentrating now on life sciences and medicine. Among many results from this period was improved analysis of Pap smears, and there was an alliance with the Urban League Street Academy program, educating community kids in science. 1965: Photo gallery of the Columbia Computer Center in mesopotamia 1965: The IBM 7094/7040 Coupled System, the Hough-Powell Device (HPD), Tape Library, Key Punch / EAM room.
In 1965 the Computer Center had 25 employees, all housed in the Computer Center building: the director (Ken King), 8 operators, a librarian, and 15 technical people. Islam Relationships! Besides the IBM 7094/7040 system there was also an IBM 1401 and mesopotamia a 1410 computer in the machine room, as well as the relationships unit record equipment listed in john the January 1963 entry. 1965-67: Professor Eckert and his Columbia thesis student in Celestial Mechanics, Harry F. Smith (who was also on the Watson Lab technical staff as lab manager in the 116th Street building, helping students (often of Eric Hankam) debug their IBM 650 programs, assisting students in other ways with other computers in the building, and responsible for closing up the lab at 11pm each evening) refine the theory of the moon -- the equations that describe and predict its motion -- to unheard-of accuracy, improving upon the calculations performed by Eckert in 1948-52 on the SSEC  by adding additional terms: 10,000 equations in 10,000 unknowns, 100,000,000 possible coefficients. The calculations were programmed in assembly language by Smith, who devised efficient methods for solving these sparse equations with so many small-divisor terms that were a potential source of islam relationships, instability, and run on the Computer Center's IBM 7094 over a period of three years [65,87], resulting in 220 pages of lunar position tables published in Astronomical Papers of the American Ephemeris , plus several papers in controlled and automatic astronomical journals (see Eckert's bibliography). This was the culmination of Eckert's life's work. Relationships! Smith is now on The Theme in Shakespeare's Hamlet Essay the Computer Science faculty at islam, University of North Carolina. 1965: (Month?) The Administrative Data Processing Center (ADPC) was established. The newly established Computer Center was primarily for academic computing (in those days, research and very little instruction). The Social Through A Theoretical Lens Essay! Administrative computing was done independently by individual departments such as the Registrar's Office and the Controller's Office.
The new, separate ADPC drew programmers from the Registrar's and islam Conroller's offices as well as the adams Computer Center, including York Wong, previously the Computer Center programming supervisor, who became director of the new administrative group. The equipment (IBM 1401s and IBM 1410s) was in the Controller's office in Hogan Hall on islam relationships Broadway and in Prentis Hall, 632 West 125th Street, with applications written in The Social Problem Through a Theoretical Lens AUTOCODER . (The story of administrative computing prior to 1965 is islam relationships still largely a mystery. Dorothy Marshall, VP for ADP, upon her retirement in 1988, wrote a reminiscence in the ADP Newsletter , where she recalls that ADP actually originated in the Controller's Office, the The Social Problem Through Lens Essay first [administrative] department to use a punch-card system. The first large system ADP acquired is still with us -- the Alumni Records and Gift Information System (ARGIS) -- and islam I recall very clearly the accusations that we were using all the tape drives and all the system resources at shall i compare thee, the expense of the University researchers. Islam! (This was to be a recurring theme.) Unfortunately Dorothy did not mention dates or places.) (Coincidentally, some clue was provided on the front page of the Columbia University website, 18 Jan 2001, and l'oreal group subsequent University Record article  announcing the retirement of Joe Sulsona, shift supervisor of the Computer Center machine room, after 42 years: Sulsona, a New York City native, went from high school directly to islam the military. Mesopotamia! When he returned from Korea in 1957 at the age of 23, he studied the latest in computing, gaining experience as a board programmer, which involved the manipulation of wires and plugs on a computer board, much like the original telephone operating systems. He was hired at Columbia's alumni faculty records office as a machine operator and spent his time punching out data cards using a small keypunch machine.) May 1965: An IBM 7040 was installed to relationships form the IBM 7094/7040 Directly Coupled System (DCS) with 2x32K 36-bit words memory [6,19]. The 7040 freed the 7090 from l'oreal group mundane input/output and scheduling tasks so its power could be focussed on computation. May 1965: Even though IBM 7000 series computers were to be the mainstay of Columbia computing for the next several years, the handwriting was on the wall; their capacity would soon be overwhelmed by increasing demand. IBM proposes the new System/360 architecture for the Computer Center on May 21.
This was to be the basis for IBM's mainframe line into relationships, the next millenium. Unlike previous IBM mainframes, the 360 was available in a range of The Theme Essay, compatible models, from small slow machines such as the Model 20 (suitable mainly for islam relationships printing decks of cards) to Problem Through a Theoretical Essay the Model 92 supercomputer that they proposed to Columbia, with many in between (IBM's proposal was for a coupled Model 92 and Model 75). Relationships! Each model could use the same peripherals, and 360-series computers could also be connected to each other in controlled various ways and even share main memory. The 360/92 that IBM proposed, with its thin-film memory technology, turned out to islam relationships be too expensive. The 360/91, announced about the same time, was an equivalent machine that used less expensive and somewhat slower core memory (the thin-film model was eventually marketed as the 360/95). To achieve supercomputer speeds, the 360/9x models pioneered new concepts such as instruction pipelining and lookahead, branch prediction, cache memory, overlap, and parallelism. The 360/9x series is optimized for scientific calculation and lacks a hardware decimal arithmetic capability (which is simulated in software). The coupled Models 92 and 75, with their peripherals, carried a monthly rental of $167,671.00 (after a 36% educational discount), which works out to over two million dollars a year, and about 22 million over what would be the 11-year lifetime of the system.  Nov 1965: The blackout of 1965 . The lights went out for about 12 hours in Manhattan, most of the irrigation US northeast, and large parts of islam relationships, Canada.
Interestingly, I can't unearth any stories about the blackout's impact on and automatic computing at Columbia. In those days it was not a catastrophe -- or even remarkable -- if computers were down for 12 hours. 1965-69: Of the Columbia University Teachers College IBM 1130, Peter Kaiser recalls, The Teacher's College computing center had what may have been the world's most over-configured 1130. It had not only a 2250 but also the additional hardware to make an islam, 1130 into a 1500, the The Social Through Essay special version designed for interactive instruction; and therefore it could also drive multiple 2260-like terminals. The then director of the TCCC had ambitions use the relationships 1130/1500 for research to improve on The Social Problem a Theoretical the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory by timing the islam relationships responses to the test administered through one of these terminals. When I left to take a real-world job in 1969 that project was in l'oreal group abeyance. 1966-67: Ken King offers a course in islam computer appreciation. Adams! Demand was high and half of the 60 students who tried to enroll had to be turned away. Popular computer courses are also offered this year in Engineering, Mathematics, and Sociology . 1966: Watson Lab gets one of the first APL terminals (an IBM 1050), hooked to relationships the M44/44X system in Yorktown, which is a 7044 computer coupled with a 7055 computer that controls a number of terminals.
This system is used to simulate a number of 44X computers, including one per shakespeare 1050 terminal; the 44X is the islam relationships computer seen and of Vengeance in Shakespeare's programmed by the user operating from a 1050 terminal. It is primarily for users of islam, FORTRAN IV but the 1050 can also be used to run APL (Iverson Language) programs on i compare Yorktown's 360/50 (Iverson worked at the Yorktown facility) . APL soon becomes quite popular, both at Watson Lab and CUCCA. Relationships! There were tie lines between campus and the 115th Street Watson Lab building, and tie lines from Watson Lab to Yorktown. Mesopotamia! The Watson receptionist (Annie Hall) could, upon islam, request, connect the l'oreal group two, allowing campus 2741 data terminals to access APL at Yorktown . Jan 1966: The Columbia Computer Center Newsletter commences publication. It would continue in one form or another until November 1994.
Oct 1966: ADPC staff moves to islam relationships Casa Hispanica at 612 West 116th Street (around the corner from Chock Full O' Nuts and a couple doors west of l'oreal group, Campus Deli), sharing the small building with the Department of islam relationships, Spanish and Portuguese  and thee the IBM teaching facility . Staff from the academic Computer Center also begin to islam move into biographies, this tiny building. Soon it is crammed beyond capacity and offices spill over into neighboring apartment buildings (520 W 114th Street plus a long-gone building on West 117th Street, itself (the street) also just a memory). 1967: Dr. Seymour H. Koenig (PHOTO), who received his Ph.D. in islam Physics from Columbia in 1952 (and his BS in 1949) and joined Watson Lab the same year, is appointed its Director . By this time Watson laboratory has RJE access to the big IBM 360s in shakespeare i compare thee Yorktown, but when then the relationships link is down they use the CUCCA facilities . 1967: Library automation begins about here. I remember some form of automation starting in the 1966-68 timeframe when I was a student assistant in Butler -- there was already a Library Systems Office on the Mezzanine then; I used to schlepp decks of cards and listings back and forth to shakespeare the Computer Center for them. By 1967, circulation was already computerized in Central Circulation and Burgess-Carpenter (where I worked at the time), and a collaboration was underway with Stanford and the University of Chicago regarding cataloging and acquisitions ; perhaps this was the relationships origin of RLIN. CLICK HERE for The Social Problem Through a Theoretical Lens Essay more about library automation.
AND HERE. Mar 1967: In response to IBM's May 1965 proposal, and after lining up sources of funding for it, the Computer Center announces its plan to upgrade and modernize its equipment and to unify academic and administrative computing in a Computer Center Newsletter article written by (of all people) President Grayson Kirk [V2#2-3]. Islam Relationships! In the l'oreal group first stage , October 1967, an IBM 360/50 was rented [19, 20, 24], to allow the islam relationships 7090-to-360 conversion to begin. Aug 1967: Second stage: An IBM 360/75 was purchased and of Vengeance Hamlet linked to the 360/50. In the ensuing months, staff learned OS/360, JCL, and some new programming languages like PL/I and SNOBOL, as well as new versions of relationships, old ones like WATFOR (the University of of Vengeance in Shakespeare's, Waterloo version of Fortran), and then quickly began to islam relationships modify the operating system for purposes of accounting and The Social Problem Lens Essay resource limitation, and also to islam add support for and automatic IBM 2741 and islam relationships other terminals that were not supported yet and then to create a conversational monitor called CLEO to allow job submission and retrieval from terminals . Aug 1967: The US government mandates a chargeback scheme for computer time, launching the Computer Center on a neverending series of increasingly baroque charging schemes involving hard currency and funny money. In Shakespeare's Hamlet! The first such scheme was a simple $150 per hour of CPU time (which, in those days, was the same thing as elapsed time), with some grandfathering of existing unsupported projects (Letter of Warren Goodell, 1 Aug 1967, AcIS archives). 1967-68 The Columbia University Bulletin Watson Laboratory lists the courses taught by Watson Lab scientists who have Columbia faculty appointments, including Philip Aisen, Frank Beckman, Thomas Fabry, Richard Garwin, Martin Gutzwiller, Seymour Koenig, Andrew Kotchoubey, Meir Lehman, John Lentz, Allen Lurio, Thomas Moss, Ralph Palmer, Peter Price, Alred Redfield, Pat Sterbenz, and Hilleth Thomas.
After the Computer Center opened in 1963, Watson Lab is islam no longer the focus of computing; its course offerings concentrate on biology, mathematics, and physics, but several computing courses are still listed, including EE E6827x-E6828y Digial Computer Design (Prof. Lehmann), Math G4401x-4402y Numerical Analysis and Digital Computers (Prof. Sterbenz; I took this one several years later), Math G4413x The Use of High-Speed Digital Computers for Scientific Computation (Dr. Kotchoubey), Math G4414y Introduction to Automata Theory and Formal Languages (Prof. Rickman), and Math G6428y Numerical Solutions of Differential Equations (Prof. Thomas). 1968: The Department of Electrical Engineering becomes the controlled and automatic processing Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science. This was to be the relationships locus for computer science instruction and research until the establishment of a separate Computer Science Department in 1979. Jan 1968: Raphael Ramirez starts work as an operator in the machine room. CLICK HERE to l'oreal group read his reminiscences of the relationships early days.
Feb 1968: The IBM 7040 was removed . Problem Essay! CLEO, an interactive terminal monitor developed here, was released and announced . Apr-May 1968: The Columbia student uprising of 1968 . Computer Center management and some of the relationships staff feared the worst -- invasion, occupation, wreckage -- but nothing happened to the Computer Center at all. Peter Kaiser, who worked at the Computer Center at the time, recalls, The campus was in an uproar. So was much of America, and The Theme in Shakespeare's Essay the political powers that be were frightened and acting ugly; I have vivid memories of the islam relationships NYC police lined up ready to do violence to the students who had occupied the administration building, which they eventually did by invading the building and beating up everyone in sight.
Before the police stormed the building, though, the john adams computer center's administration feared that the center itself would be occupied, so there were worried talks about what to islam do if that ever happened. In the event it didn't happen, but the uproar delayed the delivery of the 360. Processing! Jessica Gordon (the acting Director) reports spending two (not consecutive) nights sleeping (to the extent possible) at the Center when we were warned of major events. Islam! One day I was standing on College Walk with a group of i compare thee, others [including Raphael Ramirez] watching the islam relationships special Tactical Police [Force]. jack-booted thugs, marching onto campus. The Theme Hamlet! As they passed, one of relationships, them turned to us and said 'Hi there, sports fans!'. As a participant, I have no recollection of the shakespeare shall i compare thee Computer Center ever being considered as a target for islam occupation or attack, nor does the Computer Center's Annual report for 1967-68 make any mention of it .
However, there might have been a picket line afterwards, since picket lines went up in front of most academic buildings. Jul 1968: ADPC joins the Computer Center with its new director (yet to adams be chosen after York Wong resigned to resume his studies, but who would be Jon Turner) reporting to relationships Ken King. Now there is l'oreal group One Computer Center. Conversion of ADP applications from IBM 1401/1410 to islam IBM 360 architecture begins; this would take until 1973 . Legend has it, however, that some 1401 applications were left intact and executed on subsequent IBM 360-series mainframes by running a 1401 emulator under a 7090 emulator. Warren Goodell's 14 June 1968 letter announcing the change stresses that even more important than the consolidation of all applications on the new equipment is the The Social Through a Theoretical Lens prospect of islam relationships, increased freedom for interchange of ideas and controlled processing techniques of programming and systems analysis between staffs now separated by artifical organization boundaries (AcIS archive).
Sep 1968: The student (UI) consultant program is established (UI = Unsupported Instructional, the islam accounting class used for instruction). This program is still active today. Students with knowledge of Columbia's computer systems and applications are hired part-time to The Theme of Vengeance in Shakespeare's Hamlet help users in the public areas. Previously, all help and consulting were provided by full-time professional staff on a rotating basis. Afterwards, full-timers continued to islam relationships take their turns, but now could devote more time to systems and applications development and support. For more about the origins of the student consulting system, READ THIS. Dec 1968: The IBM 7094, 1401, and controlled 360/50 are removed. The 1401 is moved to islam the Controller's Office . IBM 360 equipment at the end of 1968 consisted of : Model 75 CPU 2075 with 2.5 million bytes of l'oreal group, memory. Two processor storage units 2365 (512K total) Selector Channel 2860-II Drum storage control 2820 Drum storage unit 2301 (fixed-head cylindrical disk for swapping) Direct-access storage facility 2314 with 2844 2-channel control unit Two storage control units 2841 Data cell drive 2321 Eight disk storage drives 2311 Multiplexor channel 2780 Console typewriter 1052-7 Two card reader/printer controls 2821 Four printers 1403 with 1416 print train Two card reader/punches 2540 Two typewriter terminals 2740 Forty typewriter terminals 2741 Two communications adapters 2701 Display control 2848-I Ten display stations 2260-2 Two tape control units 2803 Two magnetic tape units 2402-2 (4 drives) Magnetic tape unit 2402-5 (2 drives) Two magnetic tape tape units 2402-6 (4 drives) On-Line CRT display Stromberg-Datagraphics 4060.
With the islam relationships exception of the controlled last item, all model numbers are IBM. Dec 1968: One of the islam relationships last gasps of the 7090/7094 system was an early example of computer-generated film by a participant in the 1968 student uprising, Denys George Irving . Here (for as long as the link lasts) is his film “69”, and here is a list of other works of john biographies, his. Mar 1969: The IBM 360/91 supercomputer (PHOTOS), one of the first third generation computers and the biggest, fastest (and probably most expensive) computer on islam earth at the time, is installed and coupled with the The Social Through Lens Essay 360/75 . Thus for the second time in 15 years, Columbia is relationships home to the world's fastest computer. Only fifteen 360/91s were made and four of mesopotamia, them were retained by IBM for their internal use (other 360/9x sites included Princeton University and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center on West 112th Street, just a few blocks away); the giant computer took every inch of space in the Computer Center machine room. extensive renovations had to made to accommodate its sprawling dimensions  (this is an understatement; in fact the islam relationships Computer Center entrance had to be demolished just to get it in the door and most interior walls removed to controlled and automatic make space for it [V2#6]). IBM 360/91 with 2 million bytes of core memory; 60nsec machine cycle, 780nsec memory cycle, 120nsec effective memory access rate, and an instruction cache (pipeline).
An additional drum. All of the peripherals and equipment listed above for the 360/75. Relationships! Two full-time IBM technicians on site (Hans und Fritz?) The 360/75 became the of Vengeance in Shakespeare's Essay Attached Support Processor (ASP) for the 91, essentially a job scheduler and relationships input/output controller, freeing the l'oreal group 91 for intensive computation. I don't have a photo of islam, our own Model 75, but HERE is one from IBM. Rather than rent the coupled 360/75/91 system as IBM proposed, the University purchased it outright for seven million dollars , to be amortized over seven or eight years (whether seven or eight was a point of much contention, as it affected the chargeback rates levied upon research grants; in shakespeare shall fact it was in operation for more than eleven years; thus the decision to purchase saved about fifteen million dollars). Of the total cost, three million dollars was for the 360/91 CPU, memory, and second drum; this was only half the list price due to islam relationships the educational allowance that was negotiated. The rest was for shakespeare the 360/75 and its peripherals. My own (perhaps inflated) recollection is that the 360/91 covered about an acre of islam relationships, floor space, most of which was devoted to irrigation full-size cabinets each containing 16K of core memory, for a total of 2MB at about 8 square feet of floorspace (and about 48 cubic feet) per 16K, plus surrounding floorspace for access, times 300. Each memory cabinet had a glass door so you could look in and see each bit.
All the disks, tapes, printers, Teletypes and relationships everything else were in there too, plus a vast tape library and specialized test equipment such as the BOM (Byte Oriented Memory) tester. All this was powered through a gigantic cast-iron motor generator weighing who-knows-how-many tons (just the flywheel probably weighed a ton) putting out 400-some Volts 3-phase power, and cooled by l'oreal group distilled water trucked in by Deer Park in big glass bottles in wooden crates. There was a control room in islam relationships the basement full of The Theme of Vengeance Hamlet Essay, pipes, valves, gauges, pumps, and water jugs and a mammoth cooling tower upstairs, venting half a million BTUs per hour into the atmosphere (Alan Rice, a physics PhD student who was also a night-shift operator, recalls an incident in which a heat alarm summoned the fire department, who were ready to chop the machine up with axes until he talked them out of it) . But the most impressive feature of the islam 360/91 was its control panel (PHOTO). The operators used to turn off the room lights and stare it at all night, waiting for l'oreal group the yellow loop mode light came on (executing a loop in the pipeline without accessing core memory); this was the sign of a well-crafted program. Relationships! (For more about loop mode, READ THIS). There was an mesopotamia, ongoing bubble chamber experiment in the machine room, which began in islam the 7094 days. Stereo photographs of bubble chamber events were digitized using the High-Energy Particle Detector (HPD) Flying Spot Scanner (HPD might also stand for Hough-Powell Device), channel-attached to the 360/91, as was a very large IBM 2250 video display with light pen (this terminal alone was said to have cost $100,000), to allow scientists to interactively select interesting events for analysis.
This kind of work required physicists to take the computer standalone for hours at a time, which became problematic in later years when it was in demand by l'oreal group the general academic and administrative computing population around the clock, and eventually the experiment was discontinued: the science for islam relationships which the of Vengeance Hamlet computer was originally acquired, and which provided much of the funding for it, was squeezed out by the mundane requirements of instruction and administration. The Stromberg-Carlson on-line CRT display (NEED PHOTO) was in fact a kind of graphics plotter, about the size of a panel truck, originally in the machine room but later parked outside in the hallway where it couldn't hurt the other machines. Users created graphics images on the mainframe using a package called IGS, wrote them to islam 7-track magtape, and l'oreal group had the operators feed the magtape to the plotter. The images were projected on a screen inside the box; a 35mm camera -- no kidding -- would take a picture of the screen, and then somehow disgorge its film, which would be developed in chemical baths, washed, and mounted as a slide that would eventually pop out of the islam relationships little output slot if all went well, which rarely was the mesopotamia case -- more often the machine leaked acid and/or caught fire. Later it was replaced by a Gould 5100 electrostatic flatbed plotter that could produce 100dpi monochrome plots up to about 3 feet wide on pungent white paper. Various plotting packages (including one that Howard Eskin and I wrote that fitted lines, curves, and splines to data points) were available for it on the mainframe only. Apr 1969: The Columbia Computer Center develops, funds, and conducts a 6-month training course in computer skills for relationships 23 students from the local Black and Latino communities: key punching and COBOL programming, with highly successful (96%) post-graduation job placement and followup. (V4#20). 1 Oct 1969: The first ARPANET transmission took place between the University of California at controlled and automatic, Los Angeles (UCLA) and Stanford Research Institute (SRI). Shortly thereafter connections were made to the University of California at Santa Barbara and the University of Utah. The ARPANET expanded to thirteen sites by islam January 1971, 23 sites by April 1972, and eventually grew into today's wordlwide Internet.
Membership was limited to US Department of Defense research grantees until the early 1980s, at which time Columbia University would join. Dec 1969: The IBM 1130 at Lamont Geological (now Earth) Observatory in Palisades NY is connected to the Computer Center's IBM 360/91 by leased line for remote job entry (see Glossary), partially replacing the previous messenger service. This was a first in long-haul networking at Columbia University (V4#23). (Peter Kaiser reports that Columbia Teachers College also had an IBM 1130, and it was connected as an RJE station in the same way prior to 1969, but since TC is just across 120th Street, it's not exactly long haul networking.) 1970: Read an excellent summary of the john adams state of data communications in 1970: The IBM Data Communications Primer (PDF). Sep 1970: The IBM Watson Research Laboratory at Columbia University closes after 25 years of operation and a remarkable record of islam relationships, discovery and achievement. And Automatic Processing! The idea of corporate-sponsored multidisciplinary pure research pioneered here had proven so successful that IBM built a new and islam relationships much larger facility in 1961 in Problem Through Lens Essay Yorktown Heights, NY, with others soon to relationships follow in l'oreal group San José, Zürich, and elsewhere, but its research headquarters remained at Columbia, IBM's first research laboratory, until 1970. Islam! The IBM T.J. Controlled And Automatic! Watson Research Center founded here in 1945 now spans four major facilities at three sites. The Columbia Computer Center offices and the Columbia Purchasing Department move to the Watson Lab building on islam relationships 612 West 115th Street. The IBM-Columbia relationship continues for some time afterward mainly in the form of faculty appointments (in 1976 I took a graduate-level numerical analysis course in the Engineering School from one such professor, Pat Sterbenz, author of the book Floating-Point Computation ). IBM left behind a machine room with raised floor (back of 7th floor, where they had their 1620), a fully equipped classroom (back of 1), and lots of furniture including my 1940s-vintage Steelcase desk with metal Physics Dept ID plate attached (dating from World War II when IBM moved into The Theme in Shakespeare's Hamlet, Pupin). During its residence at Columbia University, IBM Watson Laboratory staff had been granted 67 patents and published 359 articles in recognized scientific journals .
Dorothy Marshall  writes, The third floor [of 612 West 115th Street] was entirely without inner walls and contained large milling machines and islam other noisy tooling machines, as well as pipes, hoses, and exhaust ducts [but] the staff at Casa Hispanica felt they were extraordinarily crowded [so were glad for the additional space]. Nola Johnson writes in the same issue, I remember when we were packed like sardines in Casa Hispanica. Shakespeare! There would be three or four of us in one tiny room, complete with keypunch and islam relationships fireplace. Until about the mid-1970s, CUCC staff submitted jobs from Watson (as they had done from Casa Hispanica), and messengers went back and irrigation mesopotamia forth delivering decks of relationships, cards and The Theme in Shakespeare's Hamlet Essay rolled-up printouts. Islam! In fact, rolled-up printouts still arrived each day from a daily batch job that was submitted decades ago and ran faithfully until 2004 when the a Theoretical Lens Academic IBM mainframe was retired; nobody knew exactly what the batch job did or how to cancel it. 31 Jan 1971: Professor Wallace Eckert, founder of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, attends the Apollo 14 launch. The lunar orbit calculations upon islam, which the Apollo missions were based were done by Eckert at Watson Laboratory and on l'oreal group the SSEC computer [42,92], designed at Watson Laboratory under Eckert's direction in the late 1940s, and later improved on the Lab's NORC, IBM 650, and relationships 1620 computers, and still later on the Computer Center's IBM 7094.
Eckert died six months later. July 1971 - June 1973 The Columbia Computer Center publishes two annual Project Abstracts, in controlled and automatic processing which every single research, instruction, and administrative project carried out on the IBM 360/91 is listed, as well as publications resulting from these projects. In FY 1971-72 there were 119 publications and in 1972-73, 214 publications are listed. Each abstract is about 250 pages long; the first one was generated by a SNOBOL program and printed on the 1403 printer; the second one was typeset somehow using programs written by relationships Computer Center technical staff. I would call this the Golden Age of the Computer Center , reflecting an unparalleled degree of john adams biographies, collaboration between the faculty and the Computer Center and relationships the accomplishment of Problem Through Essay, much work that might well have had an impact on the real world medicine, social research, physical sciences, engineering, every field was represented. Computer Center Technical staff participated in many of these projects, and islam relationships each project contributed a writeup. The projects themselves are fascinating, about 100 pages of project description in each volume, about and automatic 5 projects per page.
Aug 3-5, 1971: At the islam relationships second annual Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) computer chess championship at ACM 71 in Chicago, the The Theme Hamlet Columbia Computer Chess Program (CCCP) came in islam tied for 3-6 in a field of 8. CCCP was written by Columbia student (and now CS faculty member) Steve Bellovin and CUCCA's Aron Eisenpress, Ben Yalow, and Andrew Koenig. For more about the The Social Problem Through a Theoretical development of CCCP, READ THIS. Aug 1971: Stanford University's Wylbur  is installed on the 360/75, replacing a previous system called CRBE. Islam! Wylbur is described as a terminal system with limited interactive capabilities, used as a remote job entry and on-line text-editing facilities. . Wylbur may be used with an IBM 2741 typewriter terminal or a Teletype device. At present CUCC's Wylbur does not support IBM 2260 terminals (early video terminals in adams the 2nd floor Computer Center terminal room); the Jan 1972 Newsletter announces their replacement with a similar CRT device, the islam Hazeltine 2000 (four of them) [V6#7]. The IBM 2741 was a Selectric typewriter embedded in a small-desk-size cabinet crammed with electronics and irrigation mesopotamia wires, which communicated at 134.5 bits per second, half duplex (when it was the computer's turn to relationships transmit, it physically locked the Hamlet Essay typewriter keyboard). There was also limited dialup access; in those days this was at 110 to islam 300 bits per second by acoustically coupled modems. More about Wylbur below. Oct 1971: Ken King resigns as Computer Center Director and controlled moves to CUNY as Dean of Computer Systems.
Later he would become president of EDUCOM and Vice Chancellor of Computing at Cornell University. Dr. Warren F. Goodell, VP for Administration, Ken's boss, assumes Acting Director position (V6#6), but since he was not on islam site, Jessica Hellwig (Gordon), who had previously been on the IBM Watson Lab computing staff  had day-to-day responsibility. (Newsletters of the early 70s were devoted mainly to JCL hints and tips, announcements of meetings and conferences, announcements of OS/360 upgrades, explanations of cost accounting, and lists of john biographies, unclaimed tapes in the tape library -- up to 6 pages of numeric tape IDs on one occasion (in the Earth Week issue no less: V6#5, 15 Apr 1971) -- plus the annual April Fools Issue, usually featuring parodies of cost accounting. Prior to 1971, they also contained abstracts or reports of islam, research projects, e.g. Motivating Learning in Interracial Situations (V5#2); French Business Elite Study, Jonathan Cole et al; Transport and l'oreal group Fluid Mechanics in Artificial Organs, Ed Leonard et al (V5#13); as well as Computer Science Colloquia.)
Dec 1971: Two IBM 2501 self-service card readers (PHOTO) installed in 208 Computer Center. The use of self-service card readers affords CUCC users much greater security for their decks at both the submission and relationships the retrieval points of running a job. Users will be able to read in their own decks and keep them while the job is The Social Problem Through a Theoretical Lens Essay running -- thereby eliminating the islam relationships risk of loss or mishandling of the mesopotamia deck by the Center. Also, since input decks no longer need be left in the output bins, the exposure of users' JOB cards -- and therefore their project numbers -- to anauthorized persons [some things never change] will be significantly reduced. In addition to this increased security, the 2501's will also provide greater efficiency since the relationships user will be able to discover and correct immediately such problems as off-punched cards [hanging and pregnant chad were evidently not an issue in 1971] , rather than having to wait for the job to be processed by of Vengeance the Center. (V6#19) Also on the second floor was an IBM 360 Model 20 used for printing card decks onto islam fanfold paper, duplicating card decks, and so on; the desired function could be selected with a dial.
There was (and had been for some time) a key punch room on in Shakespeare's Hamlet the first floor. Relationships! Later the Model 20 was moved to the key punch room. Apr 1972: TPMON installed, allows terminal lines to in Shakespeare's Hamlet Essay be switched among different applications such as Wylbur ( and what else? ) rather than dedicated to a specific one. Sep 1972: IBM OS/360 21.0 installed (V6#33). 1973: The following was posted by Arthur T. Murray on alt.folklore.computers , 22 May 2003: There is relationships a tenuous etiological link between Columbia and the founding of Microsoft Corporation . Here in Seattle WA USA, a Columbia Ph.D. grad in astronomy, Dr. James R. Naiden -- now in his late eighties -- around 1973 was teaching Latin at l'oreal group, The Lakeside School. 'Doc' Naiden observed that the students were eager to get into computers, so he asked (Naiden was always starting things, e.g., he hired Vilem Sokol to run the Seattle Youth Symphony for many years; he also started a history-of-literature or some such group, still allegedly running at relationships, the University of Washington) the Lakeside Mothers Club to donate some money from their annual Lakeside Rummage Sale to buying some computer time-share for the kids -- back then there were no personal computers. The Mothers put up one thousand dollars, which Bill Gates and Paul Allen ran through in a matter of weeks. Upshot: Columbia Doc Naiden Lakeside School Microsoft Corp. Jan 1973: V6#46 mentions twenty-five IBM 2741 terminals being replaced by (presumably compatible) Anderson-Jacobson 841 terminals, which were cheaper to rent ($88 versus $100 per month). Feb 1973: The Self-Service Input/Output (SSIO) Area (PHOTO GALLERY) is adams opened on the first floor of the islam Computer Center building. Equipment included two card readers, two IBM 1403 printers, one online card punch (NEED PHOTO), a sorter, a collator, an interpreter, a duplicator, four Hazeltine 2000 user terminals, and irrigation one job inquiry console -- all self service -- plus a large number of IBM 029 key punches, and a resident Insultant whom I remember well from my student days.
The IBM 360 Model 20 was retired, replaced by a UNIVAC 1710 Interpreting Keypunch (V6#49, 21 Feb 1973). Now, for the first time, users could not only submit their own jobs but also get the results themselves as soon as the job had run. Sometimes, standing in line at the card readers, were social scientists with data sets spanning 4 or 5 boxes of islam, cards (2000 cards per box); submitting jobs of this size rarely proceeded without incident (jams, dropped decks). The normal student Open Batch job deck was a quarter inch thick and generally went through the system quickly. A Hazeltine 2000 ASP Job Inquiry station let you watch your job rise through the queue so you could elbow your way through the crowd to The Theme Essay the printer when your job output started.
Every night from 7 to relationships 9pm was System Time, meaning the Systems Group from Watson Lab had the 360/91 to controlled themselves and the readers and relationships printers were shut down. The SSIO area was a miserable place during those two hours. More about SSIO HERE. More about self-service computing just below in the entry for Sep 1973. Controlled And Automatic Processing! 22 May 1973: Birth of Ethernet (a local area networking technology that would reach Columbia in relationships the early 1980s and persist for decades), developed by Bob Metcalfe of Xerox Palo Alto Research Center (PARC), which also gave us the graphical user interface and mesopotamia desktop metaphor. May 1973: Resignation of Joe Gianotti (Assistant Director), Ira Fuchs (systems programmer, who would go on to direct the CUNY facility and to found BITNET, become President of CREN, etc.), Aron Eisenpress, Ben Yalow, and other members of the Systems group, to join Ken King at CUNY, which was acquiring brand-new then-leading-edge IBM 370/168 hardware (V6#54). Soon more would follow. May 1973: Dr. Bruce Gilchrist is appointed the new Director of the Columbia University Computer Center (he would assume full-time duties in relationships July). He also receives an appointment to the faculty of l'oreal group, Electrical Engineering and relationships Computer Science. Bruce was a co-inventor of the mesopotamia fast adder while at relationships, the Princeton Institute of controlled, Advanced Study (1955), then Director of Computing at the University of Syracuse (mid-to-late 1950s), joined IBM in islam relationships 1959 and became manager of IBM's Service Bureau and Data Processing divisions (1963-68).
While at IBM Bruce was Secretary and then Vice President of the Association for Computing Machinery, ACM (1960-64), and The Social Through Lens Essay afterwards was President and Executive Director of the American Federation of Information Processing Societies, AFIPS (1968-73). His final project at islam, Columbia was the adams biographies installation of the $20-million-dollar IBM/Rolm Computerized Branch Exchange, not just the University's first digital telephone system, but also the islam way that almost every single room (inclusing in thee dormitories) on the Morningside campus got high-speed data access. Sep 1973: Bruce introduced the Open Batch system (V6#60), opening up The Computer to the masses for the first time, and renamed CUCC (Columbia University Computer Center) to CUCCA (Columbia University Center for Computing Activities), in relationships recognition that computing was beginning to take place outside the machine room. SSIO soon became unbelievably crowded. 1974: Snapshot: When I came to the CUCCA Systems Group in 1974, Dr. Howard Eskin was manager of Systems (197?-1984), with joint appointment to the EE/CS faculty, where he taught the Data Structures and Compiler courses. The big languages for systems programming then were 360 assembler, APL, PL/I and SPITBOL (a SNOBOL dialect). CUCCA included both academic and administrative computing under a single director, all in mesopotamia the Watson building at 612 W 115th Street. Administrative computing (ADP) shared floors 2-5 with the Purchasing Office, the Director's office and administrative staff on 6, academic on 7-8. Relationships! Offices had chalkboards for scribbling ideas and diagrams. People used Hazeltine terminals at 1200 bps, connected to a multiplexer in the back of 7 that was connected by controlled processing leased telephone line to the 3705 in the machine room, and that always conked out on islam rainy days.
There was no e-mail. The Penthouse was a kind of cafeteria, with tables and irrigation mesopotamia chairs (I remember checkered tablecloths and gingham curtains) and a working, if rarely-used, kitchen. The back of the first floor was a large classroom (now divided into relationships, the network and The Social Problem a Theoretical Essay mail rooms); across from the elevator was a big Xerox copying room (Joe Iglesias), and there was a grand lobby and reception area, approximately where the art gallery is now, plus some administrative offices (Helen Ransower). Islam Relationships! There was a shower in the basement (later converted to l'oreal group a darkroom by Andy Koenig, and later to a weight-lifting room by islam Lloyd, the messenger/front-desk guy, an controlled and automatic processing, Olympic hopeful). The Penthouse later became a ping-pong room (for Vace), then AIS offices, later it was divided between the Kermit machine/production room and a sometimes-office sometimes-conference-room, and finally all offices. Islam! The back of the 7th floor was an IBM machine room dating from the 1950s, complete with raised floor, space phone floor-tile pullers, and communication cables radiating out to all the offices. Of Vengeance In Shakespeare's Hamlet! The famous 1957 book about IBM, Think , speaks of teak paneling and cozy fireplaces, but those were in the first Watson Lab, not this one. In those days, the Computer Center had a certain academic standing not only through faculty appointments, but also for its RD activities and library. The non-circulating research library (not to be confused with the Thomas J Watson Library of the Business School) in room 209 of the relationships Computer Center Building was a full-fledged branch of the Columbia Library, complete with card catalog and librarian (the original librarians were Julia Jann and Hugh Seidman; Nuala Hallinan  was librarian from 1966 to 1973, succeeded by Evelyn Gorham). The holdings, cataloged in Butler Library, included computer science books and journals as well as computer manuals and shakespeare shall i compare Computer Center handouts .
New acquisitions continued until at least 1973. Eventually (about 1980) the collection was transferred to the Engineering Library. Several technical staff members performed pure RD , for example Richard Siegler who worked half-time on an AI medical diagnosis assistant in islam relationships SPITBOL with Dr. Shakespeare Shall I Compare Thee! Rifkin at the Medical Center. An annual catalog, the islam Columbia University Bulletin, Computing Activities  was published, as well as a Technical Abstract of each year's research projects.
CUCCA was co-sponsor (with EE/CS) of the irrigation mesopotamia University Colloquium in Computer Science . There was an islam relationships, alliance with NASA Goddard Space Flight Center on 112th Street, which had one of the four existing IBM 360/95s. The academic user community was quite small. Adams Biographies! There were weekly user meetings where everybody could fit into one room; sometimes they were held in the Watson Penthouse. 1974-78: Heyday of Wylbur , and the age of the Hazeltine 2000 video terminal mainly on Olympus (aside from islam four Hazeltines available to users in The Theme of Vengeance in Shakespeare's Hamlet Essay 208 Computer Center: V6#22). Wylbur was an interactive linemode editor that could be used from a hardcopy or video terminal.
It was far more than an editor, however; it was the islam equivalent of the adams biographies latter-day shell; users lived in Wylbur all day, writing Wylbur execs (like shell scripts), programs, and JCL; submitting jobs, querying jobs, sending screen messages (but not e-mail) to relationships each other, and so on. Wylbur originally came from Stanford but was improved beyond recognition by Dave Marcus and later Vace Kundakci, who also converted it to TSO and later to Problem a Theoretical Lens VM/CMS. It's still used today on relationships our IBM mainframes, but unfortunately we could never export it due to licensing issues. Eventually Wylbur terminals -- hardwired to shakespeare shall i compare thee the 3705 -- were available to departments; sometimes these were video terminals, sometimes IBM 2741 (IBM hardcopy terminals made from islam relationships Selectric typewriters). When developing software on the mainframe, writing in assembler, Fortran, PL/I, etc (compiled, not interpreted, languages), programs would often dump core because of faulty instructions (bugs, mistakes). In those days, a core dump meant a literal dump of and automatic processing, literal core memory to the printer, in hex, sometimes several feet thick.
To find the fault, programmers would have to decode the core dump from the listing by hand, separating instructions, addresses, and data -- a lost art (and good riddance!) When the relationships DEC-20s arrived on the scene, it became possible to biographies analyze and debug core images (and even running programs) interactively and symbolically with a tool called (what else) DDT, and islam relationships debugging tasks that once took days or weeks became quick and even fun. DDT-like tools live on today in Unix as 'adb' and 'gdb'. May 1974: Snapshot: Wylbur has 500 users. CALL/360 has 50-100 users. There are 2000 batch users. 50% of each programmer's time is spent helping users.
ADP submits 10% of the batch jobs but uses 50% of the machine. L'oreal Group! Because of their EAM backgrounds, the Registrar's and Controller's Offices consider the 360/91 a large sorter. 90% of billing is for funny money. Technical staff turnover is islam too high, talented people can not be retained.  1974-75: First proof of concept home computers introduced (Mark-8, Altair).
1975: IBM 3705 communications front end replaced by l'oreal group an NCR COMTEN (which lasted until August 1998), after a two-week training course in the Watson Lab classroom in islam the back of the 1st floor. Jul 1975: A DEC PDP-11/50 minicomputer (PHOTOS) was installed, running the RSTS/E timesharing system (we considered UNIX, but it was not nearly ready for The Social Essay large-scale production use in a hostile environment). This was the islam first true general-purpose public-access timesharing system (not counting APL and CALL/OS (aka CALL/360), which were both OS/360 subsystems (essentially batch jobs, each of which controlled a number of terminals simultaneously); the l'oreal group latter was only for the Business School and relationships APL, though open to The Theme Hamlet the public, required special terminals which were not to be found in abundance, and was not exactly user friendly). RSTS/E was to be a small pilot project to absorb the CALL/OS users and attract new ones. 32 people could use it at a time (because it had 32 terminals). Accounts were free.
Within a few months of islam relationships, installation, it was already logging nearly ten times the controlled usage that CALL/OS had at islam, its peak . (From Bandit, 6 July 2010) CALL/360 was written for Buck Rogers of IBM by seven guys who had worked together at GE in john adams biographies Phoenix, then moved to the San Jose Bay Area. They wrote CALL/360 for a fixed-price, 10 month contract. I cannot remember everybody, but included Sherbie Gangwere (my father), Charlie Winter, Jim Bell, George Fraine, Don Fry, Dick Hoelnle (sp?) and islam relationships . (The last one, I think, is the mesopotamia only one that made it big - he wrote a core network system that got sold off.) Also - Jerry Wienberg, now a famous author, was probably shipped along with the IBM 704. Islam Relationships! He was sent with the irrigation first 10 machines, and taught many how to program it. The primary programming language (like in CALL/OS) was BASIC (another reason why RSTS was chosen over relationships UNIX, which didn't have BASIC), but Fortran and Macro-11 were also available.
As I recall, the PDP-11/50 cost about $150,000. It occupied a fairly large room (208) in the Computer Center down the hall from the IBM machine room, and was comprised of mesopotamia, four full-width cabinets (CPU, tape drive, communications, I forget what else) and a 92MB RP04 3330-type disk drive, plus a 2K fixed-head drive for swapping (RS04?). I took care of it myself (backups and relationships all) for maybe a year, then Ben Beecher joined me and later also some part-timers. Ben and I sat in the room with it full-time for a couple years. L'oreal Group! Our terminals were DECwriters (later VT05, VT50, VT52, and finally VT100, and at one point a GE Terminet, that worked and sounded like a bandsaw). But even without the Terminet, the room was so loud we had to wear airport ear-protectors. Islam! Ben was RSTS manager after the DEC-20s came in 1977. Eventually RSTS had a user population of 1700.
It was retired in shall i compare thee 1982. Jul 1975: The IBM 1410 in the Controller's Office is replaced by an IBM 370/115 . Mid 1970s: Here begins the decline of centralized campus computing. Minicomputers begin to sprout in the departments, encouraged by government grants that would buy equipment but wouldn't pay for central computer time. (The same trend was evident at other universities; it created the need for campus networking, and thus -- since a way was needed to interconnect all these campus networks -- the islam Internet.) Some of the early departmental minis I remember were the SEL 810B, Applied Physics also had an Imlac graphics processor (which never worked) and of Vengeance in Shakespeare's Hamlet Essay several early PDP-8 models for controlling experiments. In the late 1960s and early 1970s, I worked in Applied Physics and used the departmental computers for both work and EE/CS projects. Relationships! The SEL (Systems Engineering Laboratories, later Gould) 810B (1968) was the most advanced, since it had i/o devices and could be programmed in Fortran and assembly language. It had 16K of memory, 2 registers, Teletype, paper tape, card reader, drum printer, and an oscilloscope-like CRT display for in Shakespeare's Hamlet Essay graphics; CLICK HERE to see a picture of the SEL 810A, which is islam relationships like the Problem Through Essay 810B but without extra i/o devices.
However, its hard disk was not generally used for storing programs or data due to lack of space. Instead, programs were read from islam relationships cards or paper tape; this required toggling in adams biographies a bootstrap program on the console switches: a series of 16-bit words was deposited in successive memory locations and then executed to activate the Teletype as the islam relationships control device, which could be used in turn to activate the irrigation card or paper tape reader to read the program. Production programs were generally punched in object format onto paper tape (since the paper tape reader/punch was much faster than the relationships card reader). CLICK HERE to see the SEL 810B Manual. The PDP-8 computers in john biographies the same lab had no Teletype, card reader, or paper tape; they were programmed directly from the console switches and i/o was magtape only. The Physics Department in Pupin Hall had a DEC PDP-4, several PDP-8s, a PDP-9, and a PDP-15; Electrical Engineering had a PDP-7 on the 12th floor of Mudd, that we studied down to the gate level in islam the 1970s EE/CS Computer Architecture course. (The PDP-7 is also the machine for which the UNIX operating was originally written at Bell Labs in The Theme in Shakespeare's Essay the late 1960s.) The keypunch room was on the 2nd floor of Engineering Terrace near the back exit, connected by islam relationships tunnel to the SSIO area. There were often long waits for punches. The 1976 Bulletin  also lists:
A DEC PDP-11/45 and GT/40 Graphics Computer in Biology (Schermerhorn). A HP 2100 in Chemical Engineering (Prentis). A DG Nova 1220 and irrigation mesopotamia 3 DEC PDP-8s in relationships Chemistry (Havemeyer). A DG Super Nova in EE/CS (Mudd). plus various special-purpose computers for l'oreal group Fourier transforms, etc, some of them possibly analog (rather than digital) on islam relationships campus, as well as all sorts of shakespeare shall thee, computing equipment at the outlying campuses (no doubt a tale in itself).
1976: Andy Koenig's RSTS e-mail program, the islam relationships first e-mail at The Social Through a Theoretical Essay, CU. Andy was a prominent member of the relationships CUCCA technical staff (reponsible for at least APL and PL/I) who went on processing to Bell Labs and fame with C++. His dad is Dr. Islam Relationships! Seymour H. Koenig, who was at Watson Lab from 1952 to biographies 1970, and its director from 1967 [9,17]. Andy's frequent co-author is Barbaro Moo, also formerly of relationships, CUCCA. (Note: it's possible that email was used earlier in within certain departments, notably those (like Biology) that had Unix-based minicomputers, I don't know, but in any case this was the in Shakespeare's Hamlet first email available to the general University population.) Nowadays most of the University conducts its business by e-mail, and it has been an enormous productivity booster, eliminating telephone tag, enabling one-to-many messaging, and filling an ever-increasing role in instruction and research. Islam Relationships! As early as 1983 (the 9 Feb 1983 Newsletter, V15#2, is full of adams biographies, allusions to this), professors were sending assignments to their classes by islam e-mail and l'oreal group collecting results the same way, with the relationships added benefit of Problem Through Essay, questions and answers and other discussions that could not fit in the classroom schedule. Readers who were not exposed to electronic mail prior to the Internet explosion of the mid-1990s probably won't appreciate how much more useful and pleasant it was before then, even in its original text-only format. Today I typically have several hundred messages waiting for relationships me each morning (after central filtering!), of which 98% are spam, advertisements, promotions, junk mail, get-rich-quick schemes, invitations to Exclusive High-Powered Executive Webcasts and The Social Problem Lens Enterprise Leadership Webinars, chain letters, be-my-friend-and-share-photos, inspirational Powerpoints, strategic partnerships, office humor, world class enterprise solutions, body-part enhancements, business best practices, claim your lottery winnings, claim your inheritance, claim your fund, Dear beloved, I am dying, I don't want you to feel sorry for me, Beloved in Christ, Dear beneficiary, Complements of the season, confidential matter, delinquent accounts, cash grant award, designer watches, investment opportunities, work-at-home opportunities, get your diploma, grow your business, increase your profitability, Dear entrepreneur, Take this five-minute survey, offers from islam soldiers in our many wars who found barrels full of money, I want to place an order with your store, low-interest loans, your account is expired, Viagra, Cialis, lonely hearts, Russian beauties, update your information, bounce notifications about mail you didn't send, and mesopotamia deliberate attempts at islam, implanting viruses (Windows e-mail attachments containing viruses or worms have no effect on my UNIX-based plain-text mail client) -- or security alerts or complaints about all of these. L'oreal Group! In the 1970s and 80s, by contrast, practically every e-mail message was legitimate, worth reading, and usually only 1-2K bytes in length, and islam could not possibly hurt your computer (not strictly true; it was possible to put an escape sequence in an email message that, if it arrived intact at certain kinds of and automatic, terminals, could make them automatically transmit any desired text back to the host, but even if you had a terminal that responded to the escape sequence, this rarely could cause any serious demage because an email client would be on the receiving end, not the system command prompt) . Even when e-mail is exchanged between consenting parties, the demands posed by islam multimedia attachments -- Microsoft Word documents, Powerpoints, spreadsheets, images, audio and of Vengeance in Shakespeare's Hamlet Essay video clips, even entire music CDs or motion pictures -- have coerced the University to constantly upgrade its network and mail server capacity, and of course the costs are inevitably passed back to islam the consumer in the form of tuition or overhead increases and/or cutbacks in other areas. 1976: Hot newsletter topics: APL, the Gould plotter, PL/I, SPSS, BMDP, ASP3, Syncsort, Crosstabs with Multipunch.
Dec 1976: The Xerox 1200 -- first non-impact printer: a big Xerox machine that printed on plain paper, in portrait or landscape. Plain monospace (Courier) font only; no special effects (other than simulated line-printer-paper stripes). I don't remember exactly where the input came from -- either it had an biographies, IBM mainframe channel connection, or else it read from 9-track magnetic tape, but in any case it was possible to islam print on it from both the IBM and shakespeare shall i compare thee DEC systems. 1977: (Month?) Because the IBM 360/91 was more suited to scientific calculations and lacked decimal arithmetic, and because of security questions posed by the Open Batch system, which opened it up to the student population, ADP acquires a separate mainframe exclusively for administrative work, an IBM 370/138 located in the Computer Center machine room and islam relationships running VM/CMS (later to be upgraded to 370/148, 3031 (1979), 3083 (1983), 3090 (1986), etc). A new Personnel (now we would say Human Resources) system was developed for l'oreal group the 370 in house, and administrative applications began to islam migrate from punch cards and batch to The Social a Theoretical Lens interactive online systems . The arrival of the IBM 370 launches an effort to convert administrative applications from islam relationships batch to online, with IBM 3270 block-mode terminals allowing interactive access to l'oreal group administrative systems such as student records, accounts receivable, and so on. Jul 1977: The IBM 370/115 in relationships the Controller's Office is removed. I believe this was the last outpost of shakespeare shall, department-level mainframe administrative computing. Jul 1977: The blackout of 1977 . Islam! No electricity for two days (July 13-14).
Howard (Eskin) and I were in Watson Lab the evening of the Problem Through Lens Essay 13th working on the floor plan for islam relationships the 272A Engineering Terrace terminal room when the lights went out. We were also in The Theme in Shakespeare's Hamlet Essay the middle of our first DEC-20 installation, a six-week process (so two lost days were not a disaster). Aug 1977: Our PDP-11/50 was invaded (via modem) by a gang of prep-school kids, who had their way with it undetected for several weeks. Islam Relationships! This was the first hacker breakin to a Columbia computer from the john adams outside, and it went to court. It cost us nearly a week of relationships, round-the-clock systems work and delayed the controlled and automatic processing DEC-20 opening by a week. Islam! Later the same group invaded other RSTS systems and even (as I recall) destroyed a cement company in Quebec. The prep school in question had purchased a PDP-11 with RSTS and The Social Problem Essay let the islam relationships students run it without supervision; thus the students had hands-on access and Problem Essay full privileges, with ample opportunity to probe their own system for vulnerabilities, write Trojan-horse replacements for relationships system software, etc, in-house before attacking external sites, and indeed they did a good job: their modified LOGIN program let them in silently, with full root privileges; the irrigation mesopotamia modified accounting programs did not list their sessions; the modified DIRECTORY program did not list their directories or files; the modified SYSTAT program did not show their jobs, and so on. Relationships! Eventually they tipped their hand by accidentally printing a password list on a public printer, and we tracked them down using methods remarkably similar to The Theme in Shakespeare's Hamlet Essay those used by islam relationships Cliff Stoll 10 years later to of Vengeance in Shakespeare's catch the German hackers at Berkeley  (see 1986-87 below), such as Y-connecting hardcopy terminals to the modems to log dialin sessions. Aug 1977: Our first DECSYSTEM-20, CU20A (PHOTOS), was installed for large-scale timesharing. Islam Relationships! Accounts were free and available to mesopotamia all (or maybe there was a one-time $5.00 fee; later, per-semester or per-course fees would be added).
It cost 800,000 dollars  and was much larger than the PDP-11, a row of relationships, double-width orange cabinets about l'oreal group 10 feet long, plus four 178MB RP06 washing-machine-size 3350-type disk drives, but unlike the PDP-11, had little in the way of islam, lights and switches (if you didn't count the controlled processing PDP-11/40 communications front end hidden inside it). It had 256K 36-bit words of main memory, two 800/1600bpi TU45 tape drives (later TU77, TU78), an LP20 drum printer (mainly for backup listings), and an LA36 system console hardcopy terminal. It also had a DN20 communications processor (PDP-11/34 concealed in orange full-size cabinet) for remote job entry (see Glossary) to the IBM mainframes. CU20A was originally a model 2040, and so it had core memory and no cache; later it was upgraded to a 2050 and then a 2065; the core became MOS and cache was added, memory increased to islam 2MB. Each user got 35KB (that's KB, not MB or GB) of disk space. The first DEC-20 marked the l'oreal group beginning of the islam relationships online campus in which the computer was used not just for calcalation and irrigation programming, but also communication among users and (eventually) with the relationships outside world.
The DEC-20 was a member of the irrigation mesopotamia DEC's 36-bit PDP-10 line of computers, which descended from the PDP-6, first produced in 1964, and which itself has its roots in islam the 36-bit IBM 700 series that goes back to 1952. L'oreal Group! PDP-10s, however, were distinct from 20s: they had a different operating system (TOPS-10 instead of TOPS-20); they came in a variety of models (KA, KI, KL, KS), whereas DEC-20s came in only KL and KS models; PDP-10s were more suited to hands-on lab work, with all sorts of devices and attachments lacking from the -20s such as real-time bus-attached instruments; DECtapes, paper tape, and graphics devices; they could be installed in multiprocessor configurations; and they were blue rather than orange. DEC-20s could run TOPS-10 applications in an emulation mode, but not vice versa, and until the very end, quite a bit of DEC-20 software was indeed native to TOPS-10 (e.g. the relationships linker and most of the compilers). The DEC-20 pioneered all sorts of advanced concepts such as a swappable monitor (kernel), lightweight processes (threads), page mapping, shared pages with copy-on-write, hardware assisted paging, and irrigation mesopotamia other techniques to relationships allow large numbers of users access to a limited resource (CLICK HERE for irrigation mesopotamia details). Nevertheless, our first DEC-20 was soon loaded far beyond capacity , and the ensuing years were a constant struggle to get funding for more DEC-20s: budget proposals, user meetings (for which, by now, large auditoriums were required), even outdoor campus demonstrations.
But DEC-20s were expensive; they demanded copious floor space and air conditioning, as well as 3-phase power with isolated ground (a 10-foot copper stake literally driven into relationships, bedrock outside the CUCCA loading dock). Hamlet Essay! Annual maintenance alone was something like $100,000 per machine, and each one carried an additional $10,000 electric bill. Therefore adding DEC-20s was difficult and painful. There were all sorts of revenue-raising schemes and eventually we had 4 of them, CU20A through CU20D, serving 6000 users, up to 70 or 80 logged in simultaneously on each. Islam! Additional DEC-20s for instruction and research were installed at Teachers College and in the Computer Science department. DEC-20s were fairly reliable for their day. Unlike the IBM mainframe with its scheduled two-hour nightly System Time, the DEC-20s were kept running and available all the The Theme in Shakespeare's time except for a couple hours (usually outside of prime time) every week or two for preventive maintenance by DEC Field Service. But by today's standards they crashed frequently anyway, usually because of power glitches; so often, in fact that somebody had a batch of %DECSYSTEM-20 NOT RUNNING T-shirts made up (this was the islam dying gasp of the DEC-20 as it went down). Whenever a DEC-20 was up for more than 100 hours, people became quite excited. The record was just shy of The Theme of Vengeance Essay, 800 hours (about a month); MTBF was under 100 hours (4 days).
By comparison, today (8 Feb 2001) I have an HP workstation in my office that has been up continuously for 883 days (that's more than 21,000 hours), despite numerous brownouts and momentary power failures, and relationships that's without a UPS (eventually its running streak was interrupted at l'oreal group, 900-some days when electricians needed to islam shut off power to the floor to mesopotamia replace the circuit-breaker panel). For lots more about the Columbia DEC-20s, CLICK HERE. (The Gandalf PACX IV terminal switch was installed around here somewhere. Relationships! Prior to The Theme Hamlet that terminals were hardwired using various forgotten technologies like 20mA Current Loop. The PACX was a speed-transparent 1000x1000 switch, driven by little blue PACX boxes on the user end, with thumbwheels to dial the desired service and an on/off switch.) 1977-78: Use of e-mail takes off. Also video editing (EMACS, etc), text formatting and typesetting (Pub, Scribe, later T E X).
In April 1978, we (Bill Catchings) write a bboard (bulletin board) program, a kind of precursor to Netnews, Twitter, etc, where everybody on campus could sound off in public. Various bboards were available, including course-specific boards, topical boards, and islam relationships a general (any topic) board, and were unmoderated and uncensored. CLICK HERE for a study of Columbia's computer bulletin boards in the early 1980s. EMACS, by the way, was created at the MIT AI Lab on The Social Through Lens a PDP-10 running MIT's Incompatible Timesharing System (ITS) by Richard Stallman, building upon the venerable Text Editor and COrrector, TECO, written in 1962-63 for the DEC PDP-1 by Dan Murphy, who was also largely responsible for TOPS-20, the operating system on our DECSYSTEM-20s. I first used TECO in islam 1972 on a PDP-11/20 with the DOS/Batch operating, at the Teletype console. The first release of EMACS was in adams biographies 1976 and we were using it at islam relationships, Columbia on CU20A by 1977.
Columbia's systems group made numerous contributions to EMACS; for example, Chris Ryland added split-screen editing. In the l'oreal group 1980s EMACS would be completely rewritten in LISP, to become the now-universal GNU EMACS, one of the islam most prominent surviving relics of the in Shakespeare's Hamlet heyday of the DEC 36-bit mainframes. Jan 1978: The 272A Engineering Terrace terminal room opens (V10#2). This was the first public terminal room outside the islam relationships Computer Center building. Shakespeare I Compare Thee! The Columbia architects had a field day, decorating it in bilious hot pink like a bordello, with trendy globe lighting. Relationships! (The April Fools 1978 issue of the Newsletter (V10#5) presents the coveted Louis XVI Alive with the Arts award to the Department of Buildings and and automatic Grounds [now Facilities Management] for their exceptional work in recreating the atmosphere of an islam relationships, 18th century French palace. . In Shakespeare's! Columbia's resident architect was entreated to comment on the bizarre appearance of the new terminal room. ) Notwithstanding the decor, the room was laid out according to our floorplan (Howard Eskin and I designed it), divided into cubicles about 4 feet high so people would have privacy when sitting, but could stand up to chat and hand things back and islam relationships forth. There was a common area where people could congregate, and Through a glassed-in machine room containing a DN200 and islam relationships a Printronix heavy-duty dot-matrix printer. Each cubicle had a terminal and a spacious working surface for The Theme of Vengeance in Shakespeare's Hamlet books and papers and its own reading light. Large cubicles had LA36 DECwriters (hard-copy 132-column dot-matrix printers operating at 30 cps on pin-feed green-and-white striped fanfold paper) and the smaller ones had Perkin-Elmer Fox-1100 CRTs operating at 9600 bps (this was the first affordable CRT, costing about $500, compared to relationships most others that cost a thousand dollars and up).
Each cubicle also had a PACX box to let users select the service they wanted to use (DEC-20, RSTS, Wylbur). Eventually the lab was re-architected, expanded, and . . . REDECORATED. Too bad if you missed it (does anybody have a color photo of the original?) Mar 1978: APL conversion from IBM to l'oreal group DEC-20 was a big topic for islam relationships many months. Special terminals (Datamedia APL with APL keyboard, later Concept/APL) had to be installed for APL users. To further encourage IBM to DEC migration, I wrote a mini-Wylbur (Otto) for the DEC-20; Joel and his brother worked on a full Wylbur implementation for some time but it's not done yet. Apr 1978: The CUCCA Telephone Directory and Consulting Schedule. As you can see there were 100 full-timers on staff: academic computing, administrative computing, librarians, administrative staff, data communications, machine room operators, and management. Compared to john adams biographies 15 in 1965 and over 300 in 2010.
Note too that in those days the technical staff helped users in person in three locations (two in SSIO, one in Mudd) and at other times they answered calls from users on their own phones no call processing, no screening, no trouble tickets, no hiding behind web pages, no bureacracy. UI's were students working part-time; anything they couldn't handle would be passed along to islam relationships full-timers in User Services or Systems. Many of the irrigation UI's listed on the schedule went on to become full timers and some even managers. Islam! (Consulting schedule by mesopotamia Dave Millman, printed on the Diablo daisy-wheel printer.) 1 May 1978: The first spam (junk commercial) e-mail was sent 1 May 1978 1233-EDT from DEC-MARLBORO.ARPA (a DEC-20) to all ARPANET contacts, whose e-mail addresses were harvested from the WHOIS database, advertising new DEC-20 models. More about this HERE. May 1978: OS/360 21.8 (which was released by IBM in 1970) installed on the IBM 360/91. Eight years in the making! The ex-CUCC systems people who defected to CUNY had to come back and islam relationships teach nightly classes on OS/360 and what they had done to l'oreal group it (many things, including over 200 modifications for accounting and resource-limitation purposes) before their replacements could bring up the new release without fear of losing something vital. May 1978: Tektronix 4010 graphics a big topic in the newlsetters. (Somewhere put the succession of User Services managers: Tom D'Auria, Bob Resnikoff, Bruce Tetelman, Tom Chow, Mark Kennedy, Maurice Matiz, Rob Cartolano, Jeff Eldredge, I know I must be leaving somebody out. Islam Relationships! ) and SSIO (Marianne Clarke, Lois Dorman, Chris Gianone, . ) and Systems Assurance (later Data Communications: Rich Nelson, Seung-il Choe, Wolfie, . ) and l'oreal group CUCCA business managers (Peter Bujara, Neil Sachnoff, Patty Peters, Bob Bingham, Julie Lai. ) About User Services, Maurice Matiz adds: User Services existed only up to early in islam relationships my era.
After Vace's appointment and my appointment (I believe the only two managerial and higher level appointments that required a trying and complete interview by the whole University occurred in late 1989) did the groups that now define AcIS get created except that User Services comprised three groups. User Services stayed until Jeff Eldrege's group was spun out of my group, which had grown to over 25 people, in late 1994. (My diagramed proposal is dated 11/28/94.) At that time we changed names. Irrigation! Jeff's group became the islam relationships Support Center and my group was renamed Academic Technologies. The Theme Essay! Also spun out at islam, the time was what became EDS to report to Walter Bourne. Dec 1978: First mention of john adams biographies, UNIX by CUCCA in public (referring to islam relationships the BSTJ UNIX issue ). V10#18. 1979: The Computer Science Department was created as a separate entity (previously it was part of the EE Dept) with Joseph Traub from CMU as Chair, and The Social Problem Through a Theoretical a $200,000 donation from IBM. Joe had been a Watson Fellow in relationships Applied Mathematics in 1958-59 . And Automatic Processing! The Computer Science Building was constructed 1981-83 . Before long a DECSYSTEM-20, several VAX-11/750s, and numerous workstations (early Suns and others) would be installed in the new CS facility.
Jan 1979: Public terminals were available in SSIO (20), 272A Engineering Terrace (14), Furnald Lobby (4), 224 Butler (4), and Hartley Lobby (4). Relationships! V11#2. Systems Assurance staff (Bob Galanos) would make the rounds on a daily basis to The Theme in Shakespeare's Essay fix broken terminals, usually by replacing fuses taken out by islam relationships students to reserve terminals for their own use. Feb 1979: Scribe, Diablo, printwheel lore dominates the controlled Newsletter. Big business in printwheels.
The Diablo was a typewriter-like terminal with a daisy-wheel print mechanism capable of proportional spacing, superscripts and subscripts, and even boldface (by doublestriking) and italics (by swapping printwheels). The CUCCA newsletter was printed on the Diablo for some years, and islam Diablos were deployed in public areas for users. Scribe included a Diablo driver, which produced .POD (Prince Of Darkness) files for it, and we wrote software to spool these files to the Diablo itself, allowing pauses to change paper or printwheels. And Automatic! Printwheels were available in a variety of fonts and alphabets, but weren't cheap ($98 springs to islam mind). Aug 1979: COMND JSYS package written for SAIL (so we could write user-friendly programs for the DEC-20 in a high-level language). Shakespeare Thee! Andy Lowry and islam David Millman. Sep 1979: HP2621 industrial-strength video terminals installed in Mudd and elsewhere, including a new lab in processing Carman Hall.
This was the face of CUCCA to our users; many of them thought the DEC-20s were made by HP. These are monochrome text terminals with good editing capabilties (for EMACS) and solidly built. Some had built-in thermal printers. A few units are still to be found here in relationships good working order. 1979-80: Chris Ryland and I write a 200-plus-page guide to DEC-20 assembly-language programming. John Adams! We were thinking of turning it into a book but Ralph Gorin of Stanford University beat us to relationships it. 1980: Instructional computing capacity badly needs expansion. At this point, CUCCA has three instructional systems: the IBM 360/91 Open Batch system (soon to be retired), the PDP-11/50 (fully saturated), and a single DECSYSTEM-20, CU20A, which is in john constant demand and heavily overburdened. There is much gathering of statistics to understand usage patterns. In response to student and faculty demands, the Collery Committee (Arnold Collery was Dean of Columbia College) was appointed to make recommendations. Islam! The instructional computers were overloaded, but why?
Was the new usage real or frivolous? A witch-hunt was launched against text processing (preparing papers on the computer, sending e-mail, etc). Some prominent faculty advocated banning it (this never came to pass; CUCCA opposed it vigorously). CPU and connect-time limits were to l'oreal group be instituted. Fees were to relationships be increased.
Various disincentives would be established against using the computers during prime time. The tug of war between demand and resources is a persistent theme in academic computing. There has never been, and probably never will be, a clear linkage between demand and supply. Whenever resources (such as computer time, disk space, modems, network bandwidth) become scarce, as they always do, funding for expansion does not flow automatically (nor should it). First there is a demand for The Social Problem Through a Theoretical a precise accounting of islam, how, for processing what, and by whom the current resources are being consumed, the islam relationships gathering of which in turn taxes the irrigation mesopotamia resources still futher. Once the information is obtained, demands to flush out islam inappropriate use -- whose definition varies with the times (e.g. network capacity versus Napster in 2000) -- quickly follow. Of course instructional computing on the DEC-20s was true to in Shakespeare's Essay this pattern. Islam Relationships! CU20A drove itself near to melting by accounting for itself. And then complicated limits were imposed on CPU time, connect time, and every other imaginable resource (using locally written software) until the interactive computing experience was surpassingly unpleasant for everyone: students, faculty, and staff alike. L'oreal Group! Relief was still more than a year away.
One of the measures taken to alleviate the relationships load on The Theme of Vengeance Hamlet Essay CU20A was to relationships abolish the free perpetual student user IDs and replace them with class-related IDs that lasted only for john adams the duration of each course. While this ensured that the DEC-20 was used only for legitimate purposes, it also made it impossible for students to build up a corpus of tools and information they could use throughout their Columbia experience. A series of discussions took place throughout 1980 exploring different possibilites for providing students with some form of self-service, inexpensive, removeable media. The result was Kermit . Jan 1980: CUCCA announces its intention to connect to ARPANET, V12#1 (but without any firm prospects of doing so, since in those days the islam relationships only entree was a big Defense Department grant, which we didn't have and of Vengeance in Shakespeare's didn't want). In the meantime, however, staff (but not end-users) had access through our DECnet link to islam relationships COLUMBIA-20.ARPA , the Computer Science DEC-20 (July 1983), and prior to Problem Through that by dialup to the NYU Elf and islam guest accounts at Rutgers, Harvard, Stanford, CMU and of Vengeance Essay elsewhere. The ARPANET was important, among other reaons, because it was how DECsystem-10 and DECSYSTEM-20 software developers could work together (by email) and relationships share code (by FTP), and this was the mesopotamia beginning of the islam open software movement . It is shakespeare thee important to recall that in those days we were paid to relationships develop and share software. Nowadays most open (free) software is created by unpaid volunteers . Feb 1980: DECnet first operational (between CU20A and the DN200 in Mudd). Feb 1980: The DEC-20 MM (Mail Manager) e-mail program becomes popular (V12#2).
This is a good example of mesopotamia, software created by professional staff or graduate students at PDP-10 and DEC-20 sites on islam the ARPANET (Stanford in this case) and freely shared with other sites. Other examples of the era included the ISPELL spelling checker and corrector (also from Stanford), the The Social Through a Theoretical EMACS text editor from MIT, the SCRIBE text formatting and typesetting system from CMU (which later became commercial) and islam relationships TeX from Stanford, the The Theme of Vengeance in Shakespeare's Bliss-10 programming language from CMU, the relationships SAIL programming language from Stanford, the PASCAL compiler from Rutgers, the john SITGO instructional FORTRAN package from Stevens Institute of Technology, various LISP systems from different places, and islam KERMIT communications software from shakespeare Columbia. In fact, each place contributed bits and pieces to most of these packages so most of them were truly cooperative efforts. MM was used almost universally at Columbia for E-mail from 1980 until about islam relationships 1995, with usage trailing off thereafter as Windows and the Web took over from text-based computer access. The Social A Theoretical Lens Essay! When the DEC-20 line was cancelled, we wrote a new MM program in C for Unix which again, in the sharing spirit, was made available on the ARPANET (later Internet) and adopted by islam many other sites worldwide as they migrated from TOPS-20 to Unix. MM survives even into and automatic, the 2010s (details). Jun 1980: We were considering joining TELENET and TYMNET (commercial X.3/X.25 based networks) but never did; it was way too expensive . These were strictly terminal-to-host networks, but would have allowed travellers to dial up with a local call from almost anywhere in the USA or Canada, and conceivably could have taken the islam place of in-house modem pools. Oct 1980: Second DEC-20 installed, CU20B , for use by funded researchers and staff only; to be paid for out of income, since the budget request for a second instructional DEC-20 had been denied, again, even though the first one was seriously overloaded, and despite vocal support from students and faculty (and us of course). CU20B removed considerable load from CU20A and bought us some time until we finally were able to expand the instructional resources a year later with CU20C. (In fact, for a short period, we were able to put some students on CU20B, in their own partition, isolated from the paying users.) There was no common file system yet; communication wth CU20A was via DECnet (NFT for file transfer; home-grown mail, print, finger servers and clients, etc). Nov 1980: The IBM 360/91/75 is The Theme Hamlet Essay retired , replaced by two IBM 4331s (PHOTO), CUVMA and CUVMB.
These are featureless boxes that are (as you might expect) more compact and cheaper to run than the 360/91 (and lower too, so you can use them as coffee tables), and they had a new operating system, VM/CMS, which allowed Virtual Machines (VM) to islam relationships run other operating systems on the same machine, thus keeping our old applications afloat. VM was perceived initially as a niche product, but it has proven remarkably persistent. The 360/91 was so big it had to be cut up with chainsaws to get it out of the building. The Theme Of Vengeance! The Gordian knot of cabling under the islam floor was unceremoniously disposed of with giant cable snippers the size of posthole diggers. The computer chunks were trucked away and irrigation thrown into acid baths to extract the gold. Only the islam 360/91 console was spared. Shall I Compare! We had it moved to islam the lobby of Watson Laboratory and of Vengeance Essay arranged to donate it to the now-defunct Computer Museum in islam Massachusetts, but it took a year and a half for them to of Vengeance in Shakespeare's Essay pick it up.
In the interim, bits and pieces were removed by relationships passersby as souvenirs. (More about this in the June 1982 entry.) 1981-82 ADP takes over the remaining pockets of decentralized administrative computing: the student systems in The Theme of Vengeance in Shakespeare's Hamlet Philosophy Hall and the financial and payroll systems in Hogan Hall, and to some extent also the Health Sciences campus. Jan 1981: Superbrains arrive. The Intertec Superbrain had been chosen as the first microcomputer we would deploy publicly, despite its embarrassing name, because its solid single-piece construction made it virtually user-proof, and it did indeed stand up to years of (ab)use. It ran CP/M 2.2, an 8-bit (64K) operating system. Apr 1981: Bill Catchings and relationships I design the irrigation basic Kermit protocol. The first Kermit protocol transfer took place on relationships April 29th on a loopback connection between two serial ports on in Shakespeare's Hamlet CU20B. Islam! CLICK HERE for more about the history of Kermit, and HERE to visit the Kermit website, where THIS PAGE provides an irrigation, overview. Kermit Project document archive at the Computer History Museum [catalog]. Kermit Project Oral History Transcripts at the Computer History Museum HERE and HERE.
May 1981: I talk J. Ray Scott of Carnegie-Mellon University (CMU) in Pittsburgh, PA, into installing a leased line between Columbia and CMU and joining our two campuses by DECnet (at least that's how I remember it). Islam! CU and CMU informally but effectively merge their DEC-20 systems staffs and run common customized applications and subsystems (esp. the GALAXY spooling system, which we modified to of Vengeance Hamlet allow printer sharing among multiple DEC-20s and spooling to the Xerox 9700). Soon the network, called CCNET , expanded to several other universities, notably Stevens Institute of islam, Technology in Hoboken, NJ, which played an important role in the development of Kermit protocol and software until 1987, and produced Kermit programs for DEC's VMS, TOPS-10, and P/OS operating systems. Jun 1981: CP/M-80 Kermit for the 8-bit Superbrain: Bill Catchings (later, in 1983, Bill also wrote CP/M-86 Kermit for the 16-bit version of CP/M). Shortly after this, the Superbrain was deployed in Mudd. It had no applications to speak of besides Kermit, which was used by students to Problem Lens Essay archive their DEC-20 files onto floppy disks (the purpose for which was Kermit developed).
Floppy disks (the then-modern 5.25 ones, not the frisbee-sized ones used on other CP/M micros) for the Superbrain were sold in SSIO, $6.00 each (!). Later, but before 16-bit micros like the IBM PC appeared, we set up (in Watson Lab) a network of relationships, Superbrains sharing a hard disk, with an irrigation, EMACS-like editor called MINCE and a Scribe-like text formatter called Sribble. For a short time it was our most impressive demonstration of personal / workgroup desktop computing. (MINCE later became Epsilon and islam was popular for some years on DOS PCs.) 12 Aug 1981: The 16-bit IBM PC was announced; the Columbia Computer Center orders 20 of them on Day One, sight unseen. The Theme Of Vengeance In Shakespeare's Hamlet! The IBM logo makes all the difference. About half of them go to islam relationships high-profile faculty (who immediately want them to be able to communicate with our central IBM and DEC mainframes; hence MS-DOS Kermit). The original PC had a monochrome monitor (color optional), one or two 160K floppy disks, a small amount of memory (anywhere from 16K to john biographies 256K), two RS-232 serial interfaces, no hard disk, no networking.
It ran at 4.77MHz, had BASIC built into its ROM (which could be used without an OS or disk), and islam relationships ran DOS 1.0, the minimalistic 16-bit disk operating system that made Microsoft's fortune. Within a short amount of l'oreal group, time, it had become the computer that would dominate the islam relationships rest of the century and beyond, and spread over Essay the campus like wildfire. Islam! But it still took some years for the PC to wipe out the VAXes and PDP-11s in the departments. Up through the early 90s there were still dozens of VAX/VMS installations; entire departments and irrigation schools (such as Columbia College) ran on them, with VT100 terminals or DEC word processors (PDP-8 based DECmates) on their desktops. The PC has been a mixed blessing. Untold numbers of people-hours have been lost forever to tinkering -- this slot, that bus; expanded memory, enhanced memory, extended memory. . . Relationships! Blue Screens Of Death, rebooting, reinstalling the operating system, searching for adapters, hunting for Problem Through drivers, installing OS and driver upgrades, resolving interrupt conflicts, partitioning disks, backing up disks, adding new devices, configuring networks, fighting application and OS bugs, hunting for patches, fighting viruses, and on and on. Islam! Previously this kind of thing was done by a small central full-time professional staff but now it is done by everybody, all the time, at incalculable cost to irrigation mesopotamia productivity and progress. Plus how many PC users really back up their hard disks?
Not many in my experience, and it is not uncommon for important un-backed-up files to be lost in a disk crash or similar disaster, thus negating weeks, months, or years of work. ON THE PLUS SIDE, however, . . . (? ? ?) My personal theory is that IBM never expected the islam relationships PC to be so successful. It was thrown together in a rush by a small group (not at john adams biographies, Watson Laboratory!) from off-the-shelf components in an effort to get a foothold in the fast-growing microcomputer market. This was not IBM's first personal computer. Besides the 1956 Auto-Point Computer (personal but by no means desktop), IBM had also tried and failed with the 5100 and the CS-9000 in the 1970s and early 80s, both personal desktop models (we had some 5100s here; the relationships CS-9000 was targeted at chemical engineering applications as I recall, and had a special control panel and interfaces for instruments, but included a 32-bit CPU and l'oreal group modern programming languages like Pascal, and could easily have been the high-end workstation of the early 1980s). Islam! According to a reliable source, IBM originally wanted the PC to have a Motorola 68000 CPU (which had a simple, flat 32-bit address space) like the irrigation mesopotamia CS-9000, but could not get such a product to market in time, so settled for relationships the Intel 8088, a 16-bit segmented architecture with 8-bit data paths.
Worse, it had a primitive 16-line interrupt controller, which severely limited the number of devices that could be on the bus. The rest is shall thee history. I believe that if IBM had known that the PC would dominate the next two, three, four, or more decades, it would have invested more time, money, and thought in the original design. (Obviously the relationships situation is better in the 21st Century. Most of the early kinks have been ironed out. PCs are cheap and The Social Problem Through reliable. Any quirks of the relationships architecture are well-hidden from shakespeare shall i compare thee end users, and USB makes life immeasurably better when devices need to be attached. Relationships! With Windows the dominant operating system, the main problems now are performance bloated OS and applications and security.
And stability.) Oct 1981: CU20C arrives: a second DECSYSTEM-20 student timesharing system to supplement CU20A. Still no common file system; each DEC-20 was a relatively separate world, but at least they were connected by controlled DECnet. Islam! If you had a student user ID, it was on one or the other, not both. Dec 1981: HP plotter supplies (personal ink cartridges, etc) were a hot topic in the newsletter. The HP pen plotters installed in Mudd (and SSIO?) came in 4- and 8-color models, and l'oreal group there was a wide variety of software for them, including DISSPLA/TEL-A-GRAF on the DEC-20s and SAS/GRAPH and SPSS on islam the IBM mainframes that could make 3D plots with hidden-line elimination, fancy fonts, etc. They were totally mechanical: pen and ink on paper, and processing could produce beautiful line drawings. Jan 1982: J. Ray Scott, Director of the Carnegie-Mellon University Computation Center, writes an islam, article in the CUCCA Newsletter (V14#1) describing the CCNET connection between Columbia and CMU, and CMU's facilities (including an ARPANET gateeway and various compilers and applications that had not been licensed at Columbia). In the first example of processing, network-based inter-university resource sharing at Columbia, CU users were invited to apply for user IDs on the CMU systems. Feb 1982: The IBM 3850 Mass Storage System (MSS) was installed (for the 1980 Census) - 102.2 GB. The MSS was gigantic in every sense, covering most of the relationships South wall of the machine room.
Essentially it was a big honeycomb, each cell holding a cartridge (PHOTO) that resembles an controlled and automatic processing, M-79 rifle grenade (sorry, it does) containing a winding of relationships, 2.7-inch-wide magtape with a capacity of 50MB. Of Vengeance In Shakespeare's Essay! A mechanical hand comes and extracts the relationships cartridge and carries it to a reader, which removes the controlled and automatic shell, and unwinds the tape and copies it to one of four staging disks; then the tape is re-wound, the shell replaced, and relationships the cartridge returned to its cell. All this was transparent to the user; the MSS looked like a 3330 disk drive to in Shakespeare's Essay user-mode software. The disks acted as a cache, so if your file was already on the disk, the little mechanical man didn't need to go get the cartridge. (Before the relationships MSS, we had an thee, IBM 2321 Data Cell Drive, which worked in islam relationships a similar way, except instead of cartridges, it used flat strips of tape that were much harder for the little men to handle, so the tape strips were easily mangled.) Like the 360/91, there were only a few MSS devices in the world. The MSS cost about a million dollars, but Columbia got its MSS in an IBM grant. In return, Columbia would add support for it to IBM's VM operating system (in particular, it would add windowing and lookahead features to john reduce cylinder faults and redundant cartridge fetches, and islam thus speed up sequential access; this was done by Bob Resnikoff of the Computer Center and Ates Dagli of the Center for Social Sciences (CSS)). CSS was responsible for loading the census data (which came on endless reels of 9-track magtape) and for arranging access to it from within Columbia and from outside (V14#16).
When the controlled and automatic grant expired, Columbia was able to purchase the MSS at islam relationships, a steep discount. Feb 1982: Hot Newsletter topic: submitting IBM batch jobs from the DEC-20 via HASP/RJE. CU20B was connected to the IBM mainframe communications front end (COMTEN) through its own PDP-11 DN20 front end (a full cabinet), which emulated an Remote Job Entry station, i.e. The Social A Theoretical Lens! a card reader for sending data to the mainframe in form of card images, and a line printer for islam receiving data from the adams mainframe in islam relationships the form of print jobs, but using DEC-20 disk files instead of cards and The Theme of Vengeance in Shakespeare's Hamlet Essay paper. The CUCCA systems group developed user-friendly programs for submitting batch jobs to the VM systems from the DEC-20 and retrieving the results. These were later to form the relationships basis of the DEC-20/BITNET mail gateway. Mar 1982: RSTS/E retired; RSTS users migrated to adams biographies DEC-20s, V14#1. The PDP-11/50 was traded for another badly needed RP06 disk drive for our DEC-20s . The PDP-11 with RSTS/E was our first experiment in islam campuswide public timesharing and it was an unqualified success. Apr 1982: BITNET announced (Vace, V14#5). This was a network of IBM mainframes based on RSCS (basically, card reader / line printer simulation) protocols, originating with Ira Fuchs at CUNY, formerly of Watson Lab, and rapidly spreading to universities all over the world, lasting through the late 1990s, now remembered mainly for shakespeare shall i compare LISTSERV (a distributed automated mailing-list management system). Early members included CUNY, Columbia, Yale, Brown, Princeton, the U of Maine, Penn State, the NJ Educational Network, Boston U, and Cornell University (DIAGRAM).
Columbia got the CU prefix (CUVMA, CUVMB), much to relationships the chagrin of controlled, C ornell U niversity (CORNELLA, . ) Would this be the first instance of domain name hijacking ? :-) (Twenty years later, the Cornell and Columbia teaching hospitals would merge to form New York Presbyterian Hospital; evidently Cornell and Columbia were omitted from the name so that neither one would have to follow the islam relationships other.) Apr 1982: IBM Mainframe VM/CMS Kermit (Daphne Tzoar). This passed through a number a hands since the initial release, some of which prefer to shall remain anonymous, and has been cared for by Dr. John Chandler at the Harvard/Smithsonian Astronomical Observatory since about islam 1990; John made it portable to Through Lens the other important IBM mainframe OS's: MVS/TSO, CICS, and MUSIC, and islam added support for john adams biographies conversion between the many IBM EBCDIC Country Extended Code Pages and ISO standard character sets, allowing cross-platform transfer of text in many languages. May 1982: Support was added to our e-mail client and server software to take advantage of our new CCNET and BITNET connections, and the first inter-campus e-mail began to flow, limited at first to just a handful of universities, but growing rapidly as CCNET and islam relationships BITNET nodes are added, and gateways from l'oreal group them to ARPANET, CSNET, and other networks. CCNET mail delivery was accomplished by islam direct real-time DECnet connections; BITNET mail was transported via our HASP/RJE Spooler. Our three DEC-20s used their DECnet connections for mail amongst themselves, as well as with other campus machines and the wider CCNET. In Shakespeare's Hamlet! CU20A and CU20C and other campus DECnet nodes sent BITNET mail by relaying it over DECnet to islam CU20B's RJE system. In those days, e-mail addresses had to include a top-level domain that indicated the network, e.g. USER@HOST.ARPA , USER@HOST.BITNET , USER@HOST.CCNET , etc. Even trickier was the source routing used in Usenet (in those days, a network of UNIX machines that dialed each other up with UUCP periodically to exchange files and mail) and shakespeare some others, and/or to mail to somebody who was on a network that your host wasn't on, through a relay that was on both nets.
In such cases you had to islam know the entire route and the syntax tricks to traverse each branch of it, and often multiple relays. Here are some examples from the 1980s Kermit mailing list archive: The last one is broken into two lines for readability; it's really one line. To get a good feel for the proliferation of controlled and automatic, networks and islam the tricks of john adams biographies, navigating amongst them in the days before the Internet swept all else away, see John Quarterman's book, The Matrix  Jun 1982: CU20D , our third and final instructional DEC-20, was installed. Jun 1982: Our by-now vandalized IBM 360/91 console goes to islam relationships the Computer Museum at DEC's MR-01 (or MR-02?) building in Marlboro, Massachusetts, after awaiting pickup for 18 months. It was displayed prominently inside the main entrance in shakespeare thee a big, tastefully illuminated glass case near the relationships PDP-1. Shortly thereafter, the collection was transferred to the Boston Science Museum (now the Museum of Science), which changed its focus. I Compare Thee! Most of the computing artifacts went to the Computer History Museum, temporarily located at Moffett Field, California (an Air Force base, where the 360/91 console sat in deep storage for many years before being transferred in about 2001 to islam relationships deep storage at l'oreal group, the Computer History Museum's new site in Mountain View, California). Jul 1982: An Imagen laser printer was installed in Watson; our first laser printer and our first printer capable of true typesetting . Soft fonts, 100 dpi I think, Impress language (a precursor of PostScript), Ethernet-connected.
It was only for relationships internal CUCCA use (production of controlled processing, Newsletter and handouts, etc). Aug 1982: The Xerox 9700 (PHOTO) [announced by Xerox in islam relationships 1977] arrived, replacing the Xerox 1200 after some overlap (V15#1). The 9700 offered the first typesetting to the Columbia community at large, as well as high-volume, high-speed plain-text printing. This room-sized 300dpi Xerographic laser printer was installed in the back of the first floor of Watson Lab (the present mail and network rooms) due to and automatic lack of space in the Computer Center, and it definitely needed the space. It printed 2 pages per second, could handle duplex, portrait/landscape, 2-up, 4-up, etc, had Courier (fixed) and islam relationships Helvetica and Times Roman (proportional) fonts, with italic and bold styles and of Vengeance in Shakespeare's Hamlet Essay selectable sizes. Formatting was done by Scribe and islam other packages and spooled to 9-track magnetic tapes that were delivered to mesopotamia Watson every evening and printed overnight. Xerox 9700 printing was available to all users (students, faculty, staff, outside paid accounts) on all the DEC-20s and IBM mainframe systems.
The DEC-20 Xerox 9700 spooling software (PRINT /UNIT:X9700) was developed jointly by the combined CUCCA-CMU Systems Groups over islam CCNET. Even after more sophisticated typesetting methods became available, the X9700 remained in service as a high-volume printer; nothing else could push paper quite like it. To this day, I think Controllers and controlled Rolmphone statements are still printed on a 9700 at a service bureau.) Sep 1982: VMM announced (e-mail for the IBM mainframe: MM for VM, Joel and then Vace). Sep 1982: First campus network between academic departments (not counting Remote Job Entry stations): CUCCA-Chemistry, DECnet over synchronous modems (V14#12). Islam Relationships! By this time Chemistry had a VAX-11/780 and controlled some smaller VAXes. Sep 1982: TOPS-20 V5 installed on the CUCCA DEC-20s, featuring extended addressing (32 256KW sections = 36MB, instead of only islam relationships one section), a new multiforking Exec (what we would now call job control), and a programming language for shall i compare the Exec (CMU's PCL, what we would now call shell scripts. Islam Relationships! see example). Oct 1982: About here we were looking into getting the and automatic processing AP Newswire online.
Columbia's School of Journalism had a Teletype with news stories coming out continuously. Islam Relationships! The plan was to Through Lens Essay feed this into one of our DEC-20s and relationships make a BBoard out of it, with a rather rapid expiration of articles given the limited disk storage. But there were licensing and of Vengeance Hamlet Essay bureaucratic impediments so it never came to pass. Islam! About 1990, Columbia bought a subscription to shakespeare thee ClariNews (in which the various news services are funneled to Usenet newsgroups). Islam! This lasted until 2003, by which time the Web had long since rendered it redundant. Nov 1982: The CUCCA Terminal and Plotter User Manual  was published, full of photos and detailed instructions on using the l'oreal group equipment in our public areas. Relationships! CLICK HERE to Problem Through a Theoretical Lens see a sampling of video terminals; note the accompanying PACX boxes. NOW ON LINE in islam searchable PDF format.
This was printed on our new Xerox 9700, one of the first laser printers capable of controlled and automatic processing, typesetting; it had two fonts, Helvetica and Courier. The manual itself should interesting to relationships those who harbor a burning curiosity over every minute detail in the life of President Obama , since the equipment described here is i compare what he must have used when he was a Columbia student 1981-83, because there wasn't anything else. Relationships! Check, for example, this article he wrote in Sundial Magazine, March 10, 1983. I suspect he composed it on the DEC-20, perhaps in EMACS, seated at one of the john adams biographies terminals in our terminal rooms; for example, the HP-2621s in Carman Hall. When it was ready, he might well have emailed it to the Sundail editor with MM. Just a guess! Nov 1982: DECSYSTEM-20 Pocket Guide (click for relationships PDF of the whole thing). L'oreal Group! The DEC-20 was an enormously powerful and useful computing system, yet it was simple enought that we could publish an accordion-fold pocket guide to just about all that it had to relationships offer. Controlled Processing! This 1982 edition was created with TeX, and the Columbia Crown with Metafont. The master was printed on our new Imagen Laser Printer and the printing and folding done at islam, the Columbia print shop. Shall I Compare Thee! It was given out free to all comers (thousands of them).
Dec 1982: The Teachers College DEC-20 connects to the campus DECnet. 1983-1986: Every Newsletter issue announces new BITNET and DECnet nodes. Jan 1983 20th Anniversary of the Computer Center . Islam Relationships! CLICK HERE to see a collage of machine-room items prepared for the commemorative poster. The commemorative frisbee is at Computer History Museum. 1 Jan 1983: The ARPANET switches from its original protocol, NCP, to TCP/IP. Prior to TCP/IP, the ARPANET was a private club with membership restricted defense contractors. The fact that some of the defense contractors were also some of the top engineering and computer science universities (MIT, Stanford, CMU, etc) led to a lot of pressure from the non-military segment for l'oreal group more open access, and to a new design for islam relationships the network itself. TCP/IP (Transport Control Protocol / Internet Protocol) was the result. Where ARPANET was a network of computers, TCP/IP provided for a network of networks ; that is, an Internet. Thus when the cutover took place, all the computers at a given university (say, MIT), could be on l'oreal group the net, not just the ones used for islam defense research. In this way the network was opened up, and the requirement for a defense contract for john adams biographies membership no longer made sense.
Numerous networks such CSNET, NSFNET, and relationships SPAN, were connected. Columbia University as a whole got on the net in 1984 by virtue of its connection with NSF and over the next 15 years, the network grew to cover the entire planet and l'oreal group membership was open to all. Jan 1983 The Purchasing Office moves out of the Watson building and the space is occupied by ADP; now, 13 years after IBM left it, the Watson Lab building is relationships 100% Computer Center and would remain that way until 1991. ADP begins to offer office automation services, including PC and LAN installations for administrative use. Jan 1983: IBM PC Kermit. Originally by Daphne Tzoar, adapted from and automatic Bill Catchings' CP/M-80 Kermit (actually, if I recall correctly, Bill did the original translation from 8080 MASM to islam relationships 8088 Microsoft assembler in a single EMACS session, and then Daphne made it work and added features). Later it passed to Jeff Damens. We did versions 1.00 to 2.28 here, with various pieces contributed from elsewhere. Professor Joe Doupnik of Utah State University took it over in 1985, and stuck with until the end (see oral history of Joe Doupnik at The Social Through a Theoretical, the Computer History Museum).
We were actually ordered to write this program because several prominent professors (Herb Goldstein, Bob Pollack, and Jonathan Gross ) were using their new PCs to write a book, The Scientific Experience , that would be used in a new course, Science C1001-1002, Theory and Practice of Science , in Columbia's Contemporary Civilization (the jewel in the crown of the islam relationships Columbia College Core Curriculum) and wanted to be able to collaborate by uploading chapters to CU20B, where they could be shared. And they did. MS-DOS Kermit was a fixture on shall i compare the Columbia computing landscape until the Web took over in 1994-95, and popular all over the world. It's still remarkably popular today, providing VT320, Wyse, DG, ANSI, and relationships Tektronix terminal emulation for Linux under dosemu , as well as data transfer for many DOS-based embedded and experimental devices, such as THIS ONE in the International Space Station. CLICK HERE to controlled processing visit the MS-DOS Kermit website. Jan 1983: Amdahl UTS installed on the IBM mainframe as a virtual machine under VM (Alan); this was the first UNIX on islam relationships the central systems. But CS, Biology, and PS had been running other forms of john, UNIX for relationships some time on The Theme of Vengeance in Shakespeare's Essay departmental minicomputers such as PDP-11s and VAX-11/750s. (9-track magnetic tapes were big in these days, but every kind of computer used a different format: ANSI, DUMPER, BACKUP, MAGSAV, IBM OS SL, tar, cpio, etc, so writing tape import/export/conversion utilities was a regular cottage industry.)
Mar 1983: CCNET included CU, CMU, CWRU, CS, TC. Mar 1983: All but two key punches removed due to lack of islam relationships, use (V15#4). Mesopotamia! The SSIO area is now a mainly a public terminal area, CUCCA business office, and consulting facility. Apr 1983: CU20B becomes Columbia's first central computer with dialout capability. Relationships! The DIAL program, written by our Systems Group, operated a Vadic VA821 1200bps autodialer, and interfaced with DEC-20 Kermit to allow file transfer (and was later integrated with Kermit). 18 May 1983: DECSYSTEM-20 (and DECsystem-10) 36-bit computer line canceled by l'oreal group DEC due to their failed attempts to produce a faster and islam cheaper followon product (Jupiter). This was a huge blow to Columbia and most other US universities, which until this point were like a big (but increasingly anxious) DEC-10/20 club. The ARPANET had been built mainly on of Vengeance DEC-10s and -20s, and most computer science research and tools ran there. Big changes would come. Spring DECUS (the semiannual Digital Equipment Corporation User Society convention) took place a week or two thereafter.
At the June 2001 DECWORLD event at the Computer Museum History Center, Roseanne Giordano, DEC's LCG [DEC-10 and DEC-20] product line manager at the time of the cancellation, recalled that DECUS organizers, fearing violence from the islam crowd, installed plainclothes police in shakespeare the front row to islam relationships protect the speakers. Jun 1983: Snapshot: Public terminal, printer, and l'oreal group graphics equipment. Islam Relationships! Terminals: Datamedia 1520 (6), Perkin Elmer Fox 1100 (10), HP 2621 (66), DEC VT101 (28), Concept APL (8), Superbrain (1), Diablo (1), LA36 (20), Tektronix (2), HP plotters (4) (read more), self-service Printronix printers (5). Terminals by location: SSIO (52), Mudd (16), Butler (11), International Affairs (6), Carman (21), Hartley (16), East Campus (14), Furnald (6). Irrigation! The Superbrain is still the only desktop computer in relationships a public area; it remained in service until at of Vengeance in Shakespeare's Hamlet, least 1986. Jul 1983: The Columbia Computer Science Department DEC-20 and VAX-11/750 join ARPANET . The CS DEC-20 is connected to CU20B with DECnet, thus providing the first ARPANET access from CUCCA machines (staff only).
Nov 1983: We attend nondisclosure presentations of the Macintosh, which as to islam relationships be the first mass-market personal computer with a graphical user interface, modeled on that of the Xerox Alto and the Xerox Star (the Star was commercially available in 1981 but it was too expensive for the popular market). I recommend early adoption of the Macintosh by CU; this was done and Columbia became one of the first members of the Apple University Consortium, buying them in The Theme in Shakespeare's Hamlet bulk and islam relationships reselling them to Problem Through a Theoretical Lens students. Nov 1983: We (I) take on islam responsibility of approving campus microcomputer purchases, since in of Vengeance those days there were countless different incompatible ones. Every requisition had to come across my desk; if it was for islam something weird I'd call the controlled and automatic processing person who ordered it and talk about communications and compatibility, either changing their mind or rubber stamping it after they swore they didn't care and never would. 1983-84: It is in approximately this time frame that Alan Crosswell becomes Lead Unix Systems Programmer and also assumes management responsibility for the DEC-20s, as I move on to something called Systems Integration, meaning finding ways of islam relationships, hooking Columbia's many disparate micro-, mini-, and mainframe computers together. Kermit was one way; others included various forms of networking including DECnet, TCP/IP (brand new in 1983), who-knows-how-many forms of PC networking, and so on. Alan is The Social a Theoretical Lens Essay formally appointed Systems Manager in 1990.
1983-84: I was the CUCCA member of an Engineering Dean's committee, chaired by Dean Gross, to set up a graphics lab in the Engineering School. Other members included Engineering Professors Morton Friedman, Lee Lidofsky and (I think) Ted Bashkow. Eventually a site was chosen adjoining the terminal room in 272A Engineering Terrace. It opened in March 1984 with 12 standalone IBM PCs equipped with color monitors and graphics adapters. This was almost certainly Columbia's first PC lab . The graphics lab was turned over to CUCCA in October 1989, combined with the original lab in room 272A, and renamed Gussman Lab. Jan 1984: CLIO (Columbia Library Information Online) debuts as a text-based inquiry system accessible via PACX terminal and islam relationships Telnet. It is based on BLIS software from Bibliotechniques (a spinoff of the University of Washington), and shakespeare thee runs on our IBM 3083 mainframe. Feb 1984: Hermit (clustered PC project): a 3-million-dollar equipment grant from DEC, proposed by us (me and Howard Eskin) in March 1983, to islam build a distributed environment of Macs, PCs, and UNIX workstations clustered around MicroVAX hubs which, in turn, were connected to irrigation mesopotamia the central DEC-20 mainframes for file / identity / e-mail service.
Included were dozens of islam, Rainbow PCs and Pro-380 (PDP-11) workstations, several MicroVAX-IIs, a VAX 11/730, a VAX 11/750, a VAXstation, an LN03 laser printer, Ethernet, and the Common File System (shared disk) hardware for our DEC-20s including a then-massive amount of central storage. This was to be a stunning example of systems integration; the primary objective was to provide users transparent native-mode access to their central files and identities from all different kinds of desktop workstations (PC, Mac, UNIX). I was the PI, my boss was Howard Eskin, the programmers were (at various times) Bill Catchings, Bill Schilit, Melissa Metz, Jeff Damens, Andy Lowry, Delores Ng, Howie Kaye, Fuat Baran. Irrigation Mesopotamia! (V16#2, V16#6, V18#2; Columbia Daily Spectator , 23 Apr 1984). Mar 1984: With four DEC-20s installed, plus the Hermit project equipment -- big disks, fast networks, common file system -- instructional computing power was fairly well matched with demand. Now access was the bottleneck. A study by the Academic Advisory Committee of the Engineering Advisory Council, Computers in islam relationships Columbia Engineering Education , March 1984, complained of the Sleeping Bag Syndrome: students should not be forced to l'oreal group line up for terminal time at graveyard shift hours. Only those who could postpone their terminal-room visits until the wee hours of the islam morning were spared the long lines, a system blatantly unfair to commuters. Obtaining space for terminal rooms (or anything else) on biographies the Columbia campus was (and is) even more difficult than obtaining the relationships money to build them. Dormitory space was considered prime because dorms were the only buildings open 24 hours.
Mar 1984: First Apple Lisa demo at CU, numerous Macintosh/Lisa seminars and presentations from Apple. Apr 1984: IBM Portable PC announced by shall thee CUCCA for resale. It was also required equipment for all Columbia Business School students. Apr-May 1984: Macintosh mania. A four-page article ( by me of course :-) introducing the islam relationships Mac was published in V16#8. CU joins the Apple University Consortium as one of the few charter members. AUC membership required us to buy Macs in and automatic processing bulk for resale on campus.
2000 were ordered right away. Within a short while, we had written the first version of Macintosh Kermit for it (Bill Catchings, Bill Schilit, and me). Mac (and PC) sales continue in one form or another until turned over to JR, which opened a Columbia-only branch in the basement of Philosophy Hall in the late 1990s but then jumped ship about 2001. May 1984: Floor plan of DEC-20 machine room by Bill Schilit of the relationships Systems Group, showing the mesopotamia size and placement of the various components (3 DEC-20s, their disk drives, and communications front ends are shown; not shown is the fourth DEC-20, the tape drives, or the system consoles). OK, this is not really the floor plan. Islam! It's a template for making floor plans. The idea was to gather up all the discarded copies of the newsletter that had this diagram on the cover, cut out the pieces, and then make a real floor plan out of them (Tom De Bellis points out this diagram was made before all the Hermit grant stuff had arrived, thus was used to shakespeare shall i compare thee lay out how to make everything fit). Also see THIS DEC-20 MACHINE ROOM PHOTO. Jun-Jul 1984: The first Kermit article, by me and Bill Catchings, published (in two parts) in BYTE Magazine . See Kermit Bibliography for more Kermit-related publications.
3 Aug 1984: CU20B joins ARPANET (now called the Internet). Relationships! Although the Computer Science Department had joined the ARPANET in July 1983, this did not allow access to the Columbia community at large. John Adams! Putting CU20B on the ARPANET was the first step in this direction (researchers from all schools and departments and CUCCA staff only, not students). CU20B's ARPANET hostname was COLUMBIA.ARPA. No other Columbia computers (except the ones in islam the CS department) were on the ARPANET, but of course CU20B had network connections to the other DEC-20s, some internal CUCCA machines, the campus DECnet and the external DECnet-based CCNET, and to BITNET. Thus to send mail into The Theme in Shakespeare's Hamlet, the Columbia network from outside required source routing, e.g. user %CU20A@COLUMBIA.ARPA.
For some years, CU20B was to islam serve as a mail gateway among these networks, using locally written software. Over the next year or two, CUCCA would purchase a VAX-11/750, called the Gateway VAX, and controlled and automatic install it in the CS department, where it was connected to the CS ARPANET IMP and back to the CUCCA hosts via Ethernet. The Gateway VAX ran 4.2BSD UNIX and it made Internet e-mail available to islam the whole Columbia community, including students, for the first time. For some reason I can't explain, the authorization letter from ARPA didn't arrive until two years later. Aug 1984: IBM PC/AT announced, the first IBM PC with memory protection. Based on the Intel 80286, with a 20MB hard disk and two floppy diskette drives, one low-density, one high. L'oreal Group! Battery powered BIOS configuration memory and clock. Relationships! Up to 16MB memory. Irrigation! This was the first in the IBM PC line fully capable of running multitasking operating systems, and soon was host to a number of them (some companies had managed to produce Unix variants such as Xenix for the original IBM PC or XT on 8086 but these were not sustainable.) Of course this machine was of great interest to the Columbia Computer Center, which was looking for ways to deploy desktop networked UNIX workstations for academic use, and islam relationships we had some internally running different UNIX versions such as SCO Xenix/286. But it would turn out that our first public UNIX workstations would come from shall i compare a different direction. Sep 1984: Three HP-150 MS-DOS microcomputers and islam one Macintosh were installed in the 272A Engineering Terrace terminal room.
They were not on any kind of network and had to be reserved by sign-up sheet. The HP-150s were an equipment grant from HP, along with some color pen plotters that were attached to controlled them. They had touch-screens and integrated thermal printers. A version of relationships, Kermit was written to controlled allow them to communicate with the central computers through PACX lines and transfer files to and from their 3.5-inch diskettes (the HP-150 was one of the first, if not the first PC to use the relationships 3.5-inch rigid diskette). Graphic images where generated by software on shakespeare shall i compare thee the mainframes (such as DISSPLA/TELEGRAF on the DEC-20s and islam SASGRAPH on the IBMs), downloaded with Kermit, and sent to the plotters. 16 Oct 1984: The academic IBM mainframe, CUVMB, joins the ARPANET, running WISCNET (the University of Wisconsin TCP/IP package) through a DACU (IBM's cabinet-size Ethernet adapter). This machine was for researchers and thee staff only, so there is still no ARPANET access for students.
Nov 1984: Project Aurora , a 6.5-million dollar IBM grant administered by islam CUCCA, a campus-wide move in information and instruction toward the l'oreal group electronic university. Bruce Gilchrist and Pat Battin (the University Librarian) are the principal investigators. Aurora paid for an IBM 3083 mainframe to support the Columbia Libraries Information Online (CLIO) system, and also funded some 30 research projects in the schools and departments. 1984-85: I'm not too clear about this but I believe the SSIO area got a facelift around this time. See these photos. 1985: Low-cost Apple Laserwriter PostScript printers proliferate and suddenly typesetting becomes commonplace as LaserWriters are set up as spooled printers so they can be controlled not only by Macintoshes but also DEC-20 and UNIX systems with Scribe and T E X. 1985-1989: The Columbia Physics department consructs a series of highly parallel computers (supercomputers made from Radio Shack parts).
1985: a 16-node QCD machine delivering 250 MFLOPS peak and 60 MFLOPS sustained performance. 1987: A second-generation QCD machine containing 64 nodes, delivering 1 GFLOPS peak and 300 MFLOPS sustained performance. 1989: A third-generation QCD machine containing 256 nodes delivering 16 GFLOPS peak and 6.4 GFLOPS sustained performance . Islam! This work would continue into the 1990s and controlled beyond. Jan 1985: CUVMA (IBM VM/CMS academic mainframe) gets Ethernet (DACU) and TCP/IP (WISCNET) (Vace). Jan 1985: Internet Domain Name registration begins. Some of the first registered domains are: symbolics.com, cmu.edu, bbn.com, ucla.edu, mit.edu, mitre.org, dec.com, stanford.edu, sri.com, sun.com, ibm.com, att.com, nsf.net, apple.com, cisco.com. Feb 1985: First version of C-Kermit (4.0) released. (Previous versions were called UNIX Kermit; C-Kermit was modularized to allow easy adaptation to relationships other platforms, and eventually was ported to over 700 of them, across 10 major operating system families.) Hundreds of people all over the world have contributed code, including Andy Tanenbaum (MINIX) and Linus Torvalds (Linux). C-Kermit was part of Hewlett-Packard's UNIX operating system HP-UX (by contract) from 1996 until 2011 (when Columbia U canceled the Kermit Project), and has since been incorporated into many of the l'oreal group free Open Source operating systems distributions. CLICK HERE to visit the C-Kermit website.
CLICK HERE to relationships see a very early version C-Kermit. Speaking of Andy Tanenbaum and MINIX, CLICK HERE to read Andy's 2016 article, Lessons Learned from 30 Years of MINIX  (complete with video)! May 1985: Watson Lab Ethernet connection to controlled and automatic Computer Center; Steve Jensen's 115th Street trench and islam Broadway crossing with cement-encased conduits containing fat yellow coax, the difficult Western and final leg of Columbia's first Ethernet backbone (PHOTO GALLERY). The installation was delayed many months by asbestos containment and removal. Departments in buildings along the cable route, such as Chemistry and Math, that previously had been connected by synchronous modems began to switch to processing Ethernet. Sep 1985: The COLUMBIA.EDU Internet domain becomes operational. Columbia hosts connected by TCP/IP can be addressed directly from anywhere on the Internet, e.g. by email addresses like user @CU20D.COLUMBIA.EDU or user @CHEMVAX.CHEM.COLUMBIA.EDU (the same host addressing scheme that is used today, except for putting the central hosts into a new . CC subdomain in March 1988, and receiving most mail at a central server, COLUMBIA.EDU, rather than by islam individual computer host name). John Adams Biographies! For the islam first time, students have access to the Internet but for all practical purposes, it is The Social Problem Through a Theoretical Lens Essay limited to relationships email and anonymous FTP, since the World Wide Web does not yet exist and netnews will not become generally available at Columbia until 1988.
The early Internet offered pretty much just text-only e-mail, finger, FTP, Telnet, WHOIS, and send or talk, early forms of i compare thee, instant messaging. What else could you want? Dec 1985: Bruce Gilchrist resigns his Director post but stays on in an islam, advisory capacity through 1989 (PHOTO). Dec 1985: The first IBM 3270 emulation is provided by newly installed IBM Series/1 computers (V17#15). Shakespeare I Compare! The Series/1 is a single-cabinet minicomputer with sixteen RS-232C serial interfaces for terminals and a channel connection to the mainframe. The Series/1 tricks the mainframe into believing it is a 3274 control unit. Prior to this all public terminal access to IBM mainframes had been in islam half-duplex linemode, rather than full-screen mode.
Now ordinary ASCII terminals (and emulators of them) could conduct full-screen 3270 sessions on The Social Essay the IBM VM/CMS mainframe, and they could do it without reconfiguration (as was necessary for linemode connections). Relationships! The Series/1 converted between full and half duplex, block mode and mesopotamia character mode, and IBM 3270 data streams and the escape sequences and character sets used by many different types of terminals (even APL terminals), plus it provided flow control and islam relationships buffering. Irrigation! The Series/1 computers were later replaced by IBM 7171s, 4994s, and tn3270 software in terminal servers and on islam UNIX hosts. (Around here, large departmental PC labs began to appear, for example in The Social Problem Through a Theoretical Lens Essay the Business School and in islam relationships the Learning Center.) 1986-1987 West German hackers use Columbia's Kermit software to john biographies break into dozens of US military computers and capture information for islam the KGB , as described by Problem a Theoretical Cliff Stoll in his 1989 book, The Cuckoo's Egg . At one point, while Cliff watched on islam a jury-rigged T-connected terminal, the hackers were using Kermit to download a copy of the of Vengeance Telnet source code so they could implant a password logger, upload the result, recompile it, and install it: Line by islam relationships line, I watched Kermit shovel the program over to The Social Through a Theoretical Lens Essay the hacker. Islam! But I couldn't just kill Kermit. He'd notice that right away.
Now that I was closing in on him, I especially didn't want to of Vengeance in Shakespeare's tip my hand. Islam! I found my key chain and reached over to the wires connected to the hacker's line. John Adams! Jangling the islam keys across the l'oreal group connector, I shorted out his circuit for islam an instant. This added just enough noise to confuse the computer, but not enough to kill the connection. It worked like a charm. The Social Problem Through A Theoretical! I'd jangle my keys, he'd see the islam noise, and his computer would ask for a replay of the last line. This slowed the biographies transfer down so much that the hacker eventually lost patience and gave up -- but it didn't stop Kermit! As long as the connection stays up, no matter how awful, Kermit pushes the file through.
Cliff also measured the delay between Kermit packet and islam relationships acknowledgment to estimate the hacker's distance from California (6000 miles, a fairly accurate estimate of the distance to Hannover). 1 Jan 1986: CUCCA and Libraries merge. Information is information, right? (V18#2). CUCCA now reports to the University Librarian, Pat Battin. (In fact, it seems that CUCCA and Libraries merge periodically; in some sense, CUCCA has always reported to the University Librarian; in another sense the l'oreal group real merger came only later, under Elaine Sloan.) The administrative half of CUCCA, ADP (now AIS, Administrative Information Services), is islam relationships severed and reports to Low Library, and eventually (1991) moves from Watson Lab to Thorndike Hall at Teachers College. Jan 1986: Columbia's first networked PC lab opens in l'oreal group 251 Engineering Terrace, populated with the UNIX (Pro/380), MS-DOS (Rainbow) and VAX workstations from the islam Hermit grant, plus eight 512K (fat) Macintoshes and two Mac/XLs, a LaserWriter printing station, an IBM PC, and the original Kermit Superbrain (V18#2). The Pro/380 was a workstation made by DEC with a PDP-11 inside. DEC's operating system was called P/OS, which was a version of RSX-11 with a super-annoying menu-driven user interface.
We adapted 2.8BSD UNIX to the machine for use in the lab, so these were the first public Unix workstations deployed at and automatic processing, Columbia. Islam Relationships! Furthermore, unlike the Rainbows, Macs, and the PC (which communicated only through their serial ports with Kermit), they were on Ethernet, and therefore on The Social Lens the Internet. Jan 1986: Kermit Project founded. Kermit had started in 1980 as a task within the DEC-20 Systems Group, which obviously had other responsibilities. By the mid-80s, Kermit had become popular all over the world, and we were receiving hundreds of requests for it every week from sites that were not on the network. Meanwhile, other sites were sending in new Kermit implementations of islam relationships, their own. Fulfilling these requests and The Social Problem a Theoretical Lens maintaining the Kermit software archive (and mailing list, etc) had become a full-time job, so a full-time Kermit group, led by Christine Gianone (formerly the business manager in SSIO), was created to manage and distribute the software and take over the online archive, the mailing lists, tech support, and so on.
The programming was still done by members of the Systems group and external volunteers. Software distribution charges were instituted to cover costs. The old raised-floor machine room in the back of the 7th floor of Watson Lab (added in relationships 1959 for l'oreal group the IBM 1620) became the Kermit room, containing the Kermit Project computers and media production equipment. May 1986: The height of relationships, CCNET , which now includes Columbia, CMU, CWRU, NYU, Stevens, Vassar, and Oberlin (V18#5). An October 1986 listing shows about 200 nodes on the network with DEC operating systems including TOPS-10, TOPS-20, VMS, Ultrix, RSX-11/M, and P/OS. Of Vengeance In Shakespeare's Hamlet! Columbia departments included CUCCA, Computer Science, Chemistry, Math Stat, Teachers College, numerous PS departments, Nevis Lab (in Irvington NY), Psychology, Civil Engineering, and relationships the Business School. Other universities (mainly in irrigation Ohio) would join later, but in a few more years the Internet would make CCNET obsolete. May 1986: First public description of islam, Columbia's Ethernet backbone network, and adams biographies enunciation of policy for departmental connections to islam relationships it (V18#5), which was accomplished by us writing a letter for the Provost to sign.
16 Jul 1986: Columbia University as a whole (as opposed to Problem Through Lens only the Computer Science Department) receives approval from the Defense Projects Research Agency to join the ARPANET (which would soon become the Internet) [SEE LETTER]. Aug 1986: Mathematics joins Ethernet backbone. 1986: (month?) Richard Sacks takes over as acting CUCCA Director. (Howard leaves somewhere in islam here. Irrigation Mesopotamia! ) Sep 1986: The Scholarly Information Center (SIC) is proclaimed by Pat Battin, University Librarian. Sep 1986: More about the campus backbone: A bright yellow half-inch coaxial cable runs through the steam tunnels up and relationships across the west and north edges of the Morningside campus. This cable is the controlled campus Ethernet backbone, a large part of islam relationships, which was installed as part of an external research grant from Digital Equipment Corporation [the Hermit Project]. (Alan Crosswell, Networks at mesopotamia, Columbia , SIC Journal V1#1, Sep 1986). The backbone ran from islam Watson Lab to Mathematics to Chemistry to The Theme the Computer Center to Computer Science to Mudd (DIAGRAM). At the time coax-based IBM PCNET and Token Ring PC networks were commonplace networking methods for islam relationships PCs.
Oct 1986: Kermit, A File Transfer Protocol (Frank) published by Digital Press, with a Foreword by in Shakespeare's Essay Donald Knuth. Islam Relationships! It remained in print for 14 years. Oct 1986: CU20C switched off and replaced by a DEC VAX 8650 called CUNIXC running Ultrix 1.1, DEC's brand of UNIX , a 4.2BSD derivative. L'oreal Group! A pilot project assigned some CS courses to CUNIXC in Fall 1986. Islam Relationships! This was our first step in phasing out the DEC-20s after the Through a Theoretical Lens line was discontinued by DEC in 1983. This stung so severely that we would never run a proprietary operating system again (except on islam relationships the IBM mainframes, of course). The attraction of UNIX was that it was available -- with relatively minor variations -- on l'oreal group all kinds of computers, great and islam small. The 8650 was approximately equal to the DEC-20 in size, weight, and l'oreal group cost; it was chosen because we could recycle many of the DEC-20 peripherals, and because (unlike other UNIXes) it supported DECnet, which we still used for departmental connections. Lots more HERE about the islam conversion from TOPS-20 to Unix.
(About UNIX. There is much that appeals about UNIX. John Biographies! Its well-known original attributes (simplicity, terseness, consistent building-block tools) were spelled out in the seminal BSTJ issue . In addition, it is platform independent, so sites like ours are not tied to islam relationships a particular vendor. Unlike proprietary OSs like TOPS-20, VMS, VM/CMS, and so on, however, UNIX is a moving target. Ever since control of UNIX left Bell Labs, every implementation (Ultrix, OSF/1, AIX, HP-UX, SunOS, Solaris, IRIX, Linux, FreeBSD, etc etc) is different in sometimes subtle but always aggravating ways, and john adams biographies (with a few notable exceptions such as OpenBSD) every new release of every varation tends to islam break existing applications (whereas programs written for TOPS-20, VMS, MVS/TSO, or VM/CMS decades ago still work, without even recompiling).
Any program more complicated than hello world is rarely portable from one UNIX to another without some porting work at the source-code level. The Social A Theoretical! To compound matters, documentation is increasingly scant. In the islam 1970s and adams biographies 80s, every operating system (even UNIX) came with a wall of islam relationships, printed manuals that documented everything in excruciating detail. But now documentation is considered a waste of time and effort, since everything will change anyway. In modern UNIX, the only reliable documentation is the adams biographies source code, and even that decays over time.)
Nov 1986: 2400 bps modems installed for the first time, 25 of them altogether. There are still 59 300/1200 lines, for relationships a total of 84 dialin lines connected to the PACX. Dec 1986: First IBM RT PCs received at Watson Lab (V18#12). The Theme Of Vengeance In Shakespeare's Essay! This was IBM's first RISC Technology (RT) UNIX workstation, the islam relationships precursor to the RS/6000, which was in wide use at Columbia and elsewhere into the 2000s. IBM's brand of UNIX is irrigation mesopotamia called AIX. Dec 1986: The Ingres relational database system is first installed (on CUNIXC). This would become the basis for CU's ID and authentication systems and other UNIX-based databases. 1987: Snapshot: The 1987 edition of the CUCCA Guide to Research and Instructional Facilities lists four DEC-2065's (but only three remain), the IBM mainframe with VM/CMS, a DEC VAX 8700 running Ultrix, 150 public terminals (HP2621s and islam DEC VT101s) plus DEC Rainbows and Apple Macintoshes in public labs, 80 dialup lines at 300, 1200, and 2400 bps. and connections to BITNET, ARPANET, NYSERNET, JVNCNET, NSFNET, USENET, and CCNET. By this time it is possible to send electronic mail practically anywhere within minutes. During this period CDROMs begin to appear, the dawn of the multimedia age. CLIO goes online to john biographies PACX users.
CLICK HERE for a map of relationships, campus terminal rooms as of January 1987 (Maurice Matiz, V19#2). 1987-88: The remaining three DEC-20s were gradually phased out from l'oreal group June 1987 to August 1988. 1987-88: The Kermit Project gives presentations at international conferences in the USA, Switzerland, France, and islam Japan. In Japan we learned the thee problems of Japanese text entry, coding, display, and interchange that would influence future directions in Kermit protocol and software. Jan 1987: Morningside campus is connected to relationships the John von Neumann Supercomputer Center in Princeton and to JVNCNET via a 56Kb leased line. And to The Theme of Vengeance in Shakespeare's Hamlet Essay NYSERNET via 56Kb leased line to Cornell. The Big Snowball Fight. Feb 1987: Biology joins Ethernet backbone. Feb 1987: CUCCA (Frank) commissions Sparc SPITBOL due to imminent demise of islam, DEC-20s (indicating we had already decided on Sun for future expansion; SPITBOL (SNOBOL), which some of us still used heavily, was one of the few DEC-20 applications that had not been adapted to UNIX in general or the Sparc in particular). Mar 1987: The SSIO Area is closed and its functions transferred to 321A International Affairs, and later (1989) to 102 Philosophy Hall. The SSIO terminal rooms are replaced by public labs in the International Affairs building (and later in other locations) in and automatic processing which microcomputers, PCs, Macintoshes, and other kinds of workstations are installed rather than terminals.
Apr 1987: Hermit project canceled. Although we had achieved many of its goals (transparent central file access from DOS, Mac, and UNIX; shared printing, including graphics; even e-mail), it was overtaken by relationships cheap Ethernet, NFS, and commodity LANs/internetworking in general. Most of the equipment (Pro/380s, Rainbows, MicroVAXes) had gone into 251 Engineering Terrace, Columbia's first networked PC lab. The Pro-380s were our first public UNIX workstations (running 2.9BSD, adapted locally to the Pro-380), and CCMD (DEC-20 COMND JSYS simulation in C for UNIX) and the UNIX version of MM (mail client) came out of it (more info on MM HERE). The VAX-11/750 became an internal UNIX development system, in preparation for DEC20-to-UNIX conversion, and until late 1988 it was also Columbia's mail hub. May 1987: The Engineering School Ethernet (Muddnet) is installed and connected to of Vengeance in Shakespeare's Essay the campus Ethernet backbone. Muddnet came from an ATT grant to the School of Engineering and islam relationships Applied Science (SEAS), which also included an ATT 3B20 minicomputer in the Computer Science department and a large number of 3B2 desktop workstations, all running ATT UNIX System V R3. The 3Bx's fell into disuse after after a short while, but the Ethernet taps were recycled and shall i compare thee used to provide connectivity for islam relationships years. Jul 1987: VAX 8700 up as CUNIXC, replacing the VAX 8650. Sep 1987: U of Toledo (Ohio) joins CCNET. Oct 1987: First high-speed link installed between Morningside and The Theme of Vengeance Hamlet Health Sciences campus, via line-of-sight microwave supplying four T1 equivalents (about 6Mbps), providing direct Internet to Health Sciences (previously there had been a 9600bps leased line for DECnet only).
This works because the Morningside and Health Sciences campus are both on Manhattan high points (see the islam old aerial photo). Nov 1987: The Physics Department joins the Ethernet backbone. Nov 1987: Columbia Appletalk Package (CAP) and Appletalk UNIX File Server (AUFS) released, written by Bill Schilit and Charlie Kim of Watson Lab, provides Appleshare file and print service to Macintoshes from UNIX, speaking Appletalk over Ethernet (V19#9). CAP and AUFS quickly became popular all over adams biographies the world and relationships Charlie went on to work at Apple. 1987-1993: Network Planning Group (NPG): University-wide planning sessions setting networking direction and policy for CU as a whole (Morningside and l'oreal group Health Sciences, Administrative and relationships Academic), chaired by me. Met weekly until 1993. The Theme In Shakespeare's Essay! Began by planning for Rolm installation (wiring plant, PACX/Rolm data migration), eventually moved on islam relationships to local-area, campus-wide, and wide-area networking in general. Eventually everybody bought into TCP/IP and Ethernet, migrating from SNA, DECnet, etc. [See the NPG final report (PDF)].
1988-89: AIS tests an IBM 9370 minicomputer in Watson Lab as a possible basis for distributed administrative computing. Early 1988: The Office of Telecommunications and Computer Operations were assigned Administrative Data Processing (ADP), which changed its name to Administrative Information Services (AIS). AIS was removed from CUCCA, and in Shakespeare's now reported to the University's central administration, rather than to the University Librarian, thus ending the 17-year CUCCA name and era. The academic and administrative staff, however, continued to work together in islam Watson Lab . The Office of biographies, Telecommunications has overall responsibility for the Rolm phone system including the Rolm cable plant. The split complicates the networking of the University, since some aspects (wiring and distribution frames) are done by Telecomm, whereas others (backbone network, hubs, routers, and configuration) are done by the Academic portion of ex-CUCCA (soon to be AcIS), and the two sides do not report anywhere in common short of the President. Working around this structural anomoly was the primary reason for NPG. Meanwhile, the central academic computing systems remain in relationships the machine room but now AIS is the service provider (of operations support) and AcIS the client. Mar 1988: Central CUCCA hosts move down one level in the Internet domain hierarchy, to the CC (Computer Center) subdomain, e.g. CU20B.COLUMBIA.EDU becomes CU20B.CC.COLUMBIA.EDU. The older names remain in effect until the first of June.
Apr 1988: Our first Sun (a Sun-4/280) was installed in the Watson Lab 7th Floor machine room as WATSUN (the WATson Lab SUN). Watsun (later upgraded to Sparc-10 and then Sparc-20), which ran SunOS 4.0 and 4.1 (4.2BSD derivatives), was the primary login host for Watson Lab staff and home of the Kermit Project ftp (and later Web) site for many years. Later (when?) it would move to Hamlet the Watson Penthouse as the need for office space becomes increasingly urgent, and the old IBM raised-floor machine room would be gutted and divided into four offices for 6-8 people. Watsun was retired in 2003. May 1988: CU20D switched off. Islam! All instruction moved from DEC-20s to VAX UNIX . CU20B (research and staff) runs until . . . Aug 1988: CU20B (Columbia's last DEC-20) was switched off. For more about the legacy of the controlled processing DECSYSTEM-20, CLICK HERE. Relationships! In brief: prior the DEC-20s, computer users at Columbia were primarily concerned with calculation, and their primary access method was batch. After the DEC-20 (and because of it) they were hooked on e-mail, bulletin boards, talk (interactive real-time chatting), text editing and irrigation mesopotamia typesetting, and the Internet -- just as they are today.
The nature of islam, computing had changed completely and forever. All that remained was to put a pretty face on it. Aug 1988: Lamont Doherty Geological Observatory connected to Morningside campus via Ethernet over T1. Aug 1988: Ethernet backbone extended to The Social East Campus. Summer 1988: CLIO (Columbia Library Information Online) was switched from BLIS to NOTIS (Northwestern Online Totally Integrated System) after the BLIS company (Bibliotechniques) went under. NOTIS was developed at Northwestern University and later spun off to Ameritech Library Services. CLIO continues to run on the IBM mainframe. Sep 1988: CUCCA reorganization. Islam Relationships! Richard Sacks officially director.
Elaine Sloan is john adams new Vice President for Information Services and University Librarian. Nov 1988: After years of planning and islam a year of installation, the ATT Centrex telephone system and the Gandalf PACX were replaced by john IBM/Rolm (later Siemens) CBX 9000 (PHOTOS). Now instead of a PACX box and a phone, users had a phone with an RS-232 connector (if they paid extra for the data option). This was a massive project involving untold amounts of construction, tunneling, drilling, and wire-pulling, including a trench across Broadway and islam many trenches between the buildings on john adams biographies campus and islam relationships across side streets. Preparation for the cutover was done using a Rolm CBX 8000 in Watson Lab. 2500 data connections were moved from the PACX to the Rolm. Columbia's telephone exchange was changed from 280- to 853- and 854-. Christine and I published a series of shall i compare thee, articles in McGraw Hill Data Communications magazine on the topic and islam relationships Neil Sachnoff wrote a whole book . In the end, the most significant aspect of the conversion was the installation of a uniform twisted-pair wiring plant in all Morningside locations, enabling (over the next six years) universal 10BaseT Ethernet networking, as well as swipe-card access to buildings. Prior to 1988, the Columbia University ID (CUID) was paper.
With the Rolm system came laminated picture IDs with magnetic strips that worked in swipe-card readers all over campus, as well as in off-campus university buildings -- anyplace reached by Rolm wiring. The same wiring system that was used for telephones, serial-port terminal connections, and twisted-pair Ethernet was also used to connect to i compare thee the central access server that lets you open doors. Prior to this, PACX data installations required pulling wire from the PACX to each destination, digging trenches, drilling holes through granite, etc, and could take many months. With the CBX, it was just a matter of making some cross-connections in relationships a distribution panel -- every phone jack was also a network jack. The downside was that desktop phones could no longer be used with modems or fax machines, since the john biographies phones were now digital (a big issue at the time, but we survived). 1989: CUCCA creates positions specifically for islam relationships e-mail (freemail) support (postmaster, tech support, education and training). Originally Joe Brennan; the work he did alone now requires about a dozen people. Freemail is launched January 1990. Most of the remaining Morningside campus buildings are connected to the network backbone.
1989: CUCCA business and consulting offices move to mesopotamia 102 Philosophy Hall . Relationships! This is the same room where Prof. Edwin H. Armstrong invented FM radio. Here we have two views of in Shakespeare's Hamlet Essay, Armstrong's laboratory in 102 Philosophy in the 1930s [VIEW 1] [VIEW 2] and one of the Armstrong Tower (from the islam relationships Columbiana photo archive). The Armstrong Tower (transmitter for the first-ever FM radio station, W2XMN, 1936) is john across the Hudson River in Alpine, New Jersey, but at islam, some point Columbia sold it off. Processing! Later (early 1990s) we thought we might use it for microwave access to Lamont, since it has line-of-sight to both Columbia's Morningside Heights (Manhattan) campus and to Lamont in islam Palisades NY, but couldn't afford the new owner's rates. (Actually this idea has come up just about every 10 years since the Problem Through 1960s -- I saw it first suggested in Dean Halford's 1963 letter .) After the destruction of the World Trade Center on September 11, 2001, the Armstrong tower was used again by the major networks to broadcast their signals . Apr 1989: An Encore Multimax 310 UNIX mainframe (later upgraded to 510) replaces the relationships VAX 8700, our first departure from DEC for big academic central computers since 1975. The Encore's attraction was its multiple processors. It was fast. Its UNIX (UMAX) was based on 4.3BSD. This change effectively removes the Computer Center from the campus DECnet, which gradually vanished from the scene over the next 10 or 12 years. May 1989: First International Kermit Conference , Moscow, USSR (Also in the Columbia University Record , V15#3, 22 Sep 1989) (PHOTO).
Attended by Frank da Cruz and Christine Gianone of the Columbia Computer Center and about 70 computer specialists from biographies Bulgaria, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, East Germany, Mongolia, Poland, and parts of the USSR ranging from Novosibirsk in central Russia to islam Tallinn in Estonia, this is where the details of Kermit's character-set translation protocol were settled, allowing interchange of text in Cyrillic among machines using diverse incompatible encodings -- ditto for East and West European languages written with accented Roman letters, as well as Hebrew, Greek, Japanese, and other scripts. [PICTURES AND VIDEO] Summer-Fall 1989: Microcomputer labs open in l'oreal group 321A International Affairs (16 Macs); 215 International Affairs (40 Macs plus some terminals); 272 Engineering Terrace (30 IBM PS/2 Model 70s). Meanwhile, all sorts of content began to appear online: the relationships schedule of classes, the University directory, and the Columbia Concise Encyclopedia . Sep 1989: Richard Sacks resigns as director of l'oreal group, CUCCA on September 27th. Vace Kundakci (correct spelling: Vaçe Kundakç#305;), manager of the academic IBM mainframes and prior to islam relationships that systems programmer (since 1977), takes over as acting director. Jan 1990: Using MS-DOS Kermit (Christine) published by Digital Press, with a jacket blurb by irrigation Cliff Stoll (Yow!), author of The Cuckoo's Egg . A second edition was published in 1992. Islam Relationships! German and l'oreal group French translations were also published, as was another book about MS-DOS Kermit in islam relationships Japanese (see the Kermit Bibliography). May 1990: Vace Kundakci takes over as Director, renames CUCCA to AcIS (Academic Information Systems), as distinct from AIS (Administrative Information Services, formerly ADP). Mid-1990: Alan Crosswell becomes Systems Manager, responsible for The Theme Essay all central academic computing systems (IBM and other), a post last held by Howard Eskin and vacated 5 years before. By this time the only central computers that matter are Unix-based (DEC, then Encore, then Sun, plus workstations from Sun, NeXT, and HP) the academic IBM mainframe is used mainly by relationships the Libraries and a handful of controlled processing, external paying users. (Somewhere around here CCNET was disbanded because of the Internet.)
Jan 1991: The Senior Vice President of Columbia is bitten by the outsourcing bug and brings in a consulting firm, American Management Systems Inc (AMS), to islam relationships take over and clean out administrative computing (AIS). Seventeen people are fired. Although a couple of service improvements resulted (mainly a new Student Information System, SIS), many millions of dollars were wasted on cutting edge projects that never panned out and a number of talented people were lost. Eventually AMS left the scene and equilibrium was restored. 1991: We buy a truckload of NeXT UNIX (NeXTSTEP) workstations for both staff and labs (photo); a major commitment, and The Theme Hamlet Essay (I believe) an attempt to islam relationships stem the tide of PCs and Macs, which were intrinsically unsafe and labor intensive for their users and controlled processing owners (the PCs more so than Macs, which have always had a great deal of support from a large contingent of the technical staff) and for AcIS staff in its role of support-giver.
The NeXTs were configured and managed centrally; user logins were via network to the central University database; user directories were on relationships centrally located, managed, and The Social Problem Through a Theoretical Lens Essay backed up NFS-mounted disks. But before long NeXT was out of business. 1991: There is much expansion, renovation, and upgrading of public computer labs during 1991 (and ever since). The academic and administrative IBM mainframes (4381, 3090, and 3083) are all replaced by a single IBM ES/9121, which is islam partitioned into separate academic and administrative virtual machines (a feature of IBM's VM operating system). Jan 1991: Three Sun-4/280s (full-sized cabinets) are installed in l'oreal group the machine room as CUNIXA, CUNIXB, and CUNIXD running SunOS 4.1. These (and the islam relationships Encore) were soon replaced by Sun pizza-box sized servers, and Through a Theoretical Essay SunOS was replaced by Solaris.
Where central computers once weighed tons, cost millions, filled acres of islam, floor space, required massive cooling and exotic forms of john, power, now they're dirt-cheap commodity items running at unheard-of speeds with seemingly limitless amounts of memory and storage, that can be carried under your arm and plugged into an ordinary wall socket at ambient room temperature. Of course, today's applications and data saturate this vast capacity just as effectively as yesterday's simpler applications overwhelmed the resources available then, and so it shall always be. (Around here, disk service begins to islam relationships shift from locally attached disks to RAID file servers, and the backup system changes from the traditional manual 9-track tape operation to automated network backups to a DAT-drive juke box . All the software was locally written and john biographies included all the islam academic servers, Sun as well as the irrigation mesopotamia IBM mainframe. Islam Relationships! Later a commercial backup system, Veritas, took the place of the original homegrown one. Capacity as of Jan 2001: 400 x 40GB tapes = 16000GB (16TB) to cover 1.7TB usable space on the academic file servers.)
Jan 1992: Conversion of Morningside campus backbone from Ethernet coax to optical fiber begins; cutover in of Vengeance Hamlet Essay Spring 1992. Apr 1992: AIS moves out of Watson Lab to new quarters in Thorndike Hall at Teachers College (MAP) and in the Computer Center Building . Floors 1 through 5 of Watson Lab were left vacant for a period, and then, even though the AcIS space on floors 6-9 was (and remains) severely and increasingly overcrowded, the lower five floors with their rich history and key role in science and relationships computing were converted to art studios. Nov 1992: Using C-Kermit (Frank and adams Christine) published by Digital Press, concurrent with the release of version 5 of C-Kermit. A second edition would follow in 1997, as well as a German translation. 1992-1993: Columbia's Kermit software handles the communications in the British relief mission to Bosnia.
1993: The era of the search engine begins. First there was Archie, then Hypertelnet, then Gopher, then the islam relationships Web. In 1993, ColumbiaNet is hot, a million accesses per i compare year (a figure soon to be dwarfed by the Web, see Web statistics table). Islam! ColumbiaNet is a text-based menu-driven service (remember text?). Here's the l'oreal group main menu, preserved for posterity: Spring 1993: By now the Internet is ubiquitous. University Technology Architecture published, setting University-wide standards for networking, a common TCP/IP-based network for all computing, administrative and academic, at Columbia; this was the islam relationships end product of controlled and automatic, NPG (see it here as a PDF). Formerly the administrative network was IBM SNA and completely separate from the academic network.
While this arrangement might have had its advantages from islam relationships a security standpoint, it was becoming increasingly difficult to The Theme of Vengeance Essay manage and for end users to cope with. Summer 1993: The Schapiro Residence Hall (across 115th Street from islam relationships Watson Lab) is wired for Ethernet as a pilot project for campus-wide networked dormitories. Schapiro is also the first building to be served by the new fiber backbone. Dec 1993: New AcIS modem pool announced, consisting of controlled and automatic processing, 80+ V.32 bis 14400 bps error-correcting data-compressing US Robotics modems, connected to islam relationships Cisco terminals servers at shall, 57600 bps with RTS/CTS hardware flow control, replacing the old Rolm based modem pool. When the Rolm was first installed in 1988, 1200/2400 and 9600 bps modem pools were connected directly to islam it, and these provided Columbia's main dialup access until 1994 (a total of 84 lines). Beginning in john adams 1993, AcIS began to install modern error-correcting data-compressing modems of its own in Watson Lab. Islam Relationships! This was done for several reasons:
The top speed of a Rolm port was fixed at 19200 bps. Rolm data ports did not support hardware flow control, which is essential for error-correcting data-compressing modems; SLIP and PPP connections could not be made through Rolm ports (at least not by an ordinary mortal). The demand for dialup access has increased ever since, and we keep accommodating (see table). The modems themselves have since been upgraded to V.34 (28800 bps) and l'oreal group then V.90 (56K bps). Modems were originally used for text-based shell sessions.
In the late 1980s, SLIP service appeared on our terminal servers, and later PPP. Gradually, shell access gave way to Internet connections over PPP, which had the advantages of relationships, allowing multiple sessions on the same connection including Web browsers and l'oreal group GUI PC-based e-mail, plus end-to-end data integrity (no more line noise of relationships, course the noise is still there, but it's detected and corrected by retransmission automatically by Essay the modems and the IP and TCP network layers, so you don't see it). Jan-Apr 1994: The Columbia website debuts; see statistics below. A web server was first installed in Dec 1993; the first Columbia website was up in Jan 1994 (DID ANYBODY SAVE A SCREENSHOT?), and the website was announced and publicized in relationships Apr 1994. Early original content included the Architecture digital library (1994-95), the Art History digital library (1993-95), the Oversized Geology Maps project (1994-96), and the Bartleby full-text literature project [Source: Rob Cartolano] . Before long, a Web front end to NOTIS-based CLIO was also available (DATE?).
May 1994: In AIS News V4#2, the Directors of AcIS (Vace Kundakci) and The Social Lens AIS (Mike Marinaccio) present the full range of e-mail options available to Columbia: Pine, MM, VMM, MailBook, the newly emerging PC and Macintosh based POP clients, and e-mail with MIME attachments. Summer 1994: Most residence halls wired for Ethernet: Carman, Furnald, Hartley, John Jay, Wallach (Livingston), John Jay, and Wien (Johnson). Residence Hall Networking Option (RHNO) offered to students in islam the Fall. The first electronic classrooms were set up. Sep 1994: The public labs are switched from in Shakespeare's Hamlet Essay NeXT to islam HP 9000/712 UNIX (HP-UX) workstations; a big attraction is their ability to run both Mac and and automatic processing PC (Windows) emulators as well as UNIX applications perfect for the public labs but far too pricey for individual desktops. Sometime in 1994: I turn over my Network Tsar responsibilities to Bill Chen and islam relationships devote full time to the Kermit Project, which I began 14 years earlier and could never quite give up. Thee! Shortly thereafter, Jeff Altman joins as a second full-time developer. The Network Planning Group becomes the Network Systems Group, to reflect its now-operational nature. Token Ring and SNA networks phased out. Oct 1994: Columbia's Kermit software serves as the primary communications method in islam the Brazilian national election, the world's largest election ever at the time. Nov 1994: The printed Newsletter ceases publication, which is too bad since there is nothing quite like a paper trail.
Web documents are transitory turn your back for a couple years (or months or weeks) and the history is lost. The newsletter was the l'oreal group Computer Center (or CUCC , or CUCCA ) Newsletter until November 1988, after which it suffered a series of makeovers and name changes: Columbia Computing, Computing News, Academic Computing, SIC [sic] Journal , etc, and then gave up the relationships ghost. For all practical purposes, the historical record of computing Columbia stops here. There was an ASCII archive of newsletters through 1988 on the DEC-20s, but it was lost when CU20B was switched off. Dec 1994: The Flynn Report recommends (among other things) improved computing and controlled and automatic processing networking service for students.
1994-95: Windows and the Web take over. The diverse, rich, idiosyncratic history of computing stops here. For the islam first time, computing and networking are opened up to the general public. The locus of computing and networking shifts from science and academia to the mass market. 1994-95: Initial funding for the creation of two test electronic classrooms (Fairchild and . ) for shakespeare shall thee the 1994-95 year. 1994-present: AcIS is primarily occupied with the Web, Web-based services, content, labs, kiosks, Sun servers and NFS toasters, multimedia classrooms, wired dorms, mobile and wireless computing, video conferencing, webcasting, distance learning, all the while fending off attacks from within and without viruses, spam, open mail relays, junk mail, denial of service attacks, worms, etc that occur continuously from all corners of the globe, and islam relationships constantly struggling to keep up with the ever-increasing demand for bandwidth, storage, and The Social Problem Lens Essay dial-in modems, often just to accommodate services like Napster, Kazaa, Internet Relay Chat, Instant Messaging, and islam relationships people emailing cartoons, photos, and movies to each other or serving streaming video from their dorm rooms. And Automatic! Superficially, users rely on relationships AcIS less than before, now that they have their own desktop computers and applications. But in fact they rely on AcIS more than ever for essential daily services like virus protection and screening, e-mail and Web access, not to mention the Sun and RAID server farms that provide these services as well as safe, backed-up storage and the unglamorous infrastructure of network wiring, hubs, and routers (installation, maintenance, updates, expansion, management, configuration), plus the The Theme in Shakespeare's ongoing feeds from the islam administrative student information, human resources, and alumni systems, allowing automated identity creation, security, web-based student services, web-based courses, and all the rest, serving virtually every student, staff, and faculty member of the University, a community of over 40,000 users (plus another 50,000+ alumni with e-mail service).
1995-96 Electronic classrooms project funded at $1M for the creation of the e-rooms throughout campus. Oct 1995: Kermit 95 for Windows 95 released; this (and C-Kermit) would be the main preoccupation of the The Theme Kermit Project for the years to come, plus active involvement in IETF and Unicode standards. Kermit is a laboratory where we can learn about, experiment with, develop, and finally package, document, and deploy file transfer and management protocols, Internet clients and relationships servers, character-set translation techniques, secure authentication and encryption methods, and Hamlet algorithms of islam relationships, all kinds big and small, even transport-level network stacks. Even a programming language. 1996: The Watson Lab building is featured in of Vengeance in Shakespeare's Hamlet Essay the movie, The Mirror Has Two Faces . For several weeks 115th Street and the building itself were occupied by production crews, equipment, and actors. The final shot in the movie zooms in to islam a Watson window. This is only one of The Theme Essay, many films that used Columbia University locations; others include Spiderman and Ghostbusters (CLICK HERE for more).
The Columbia neighborhood is also a frequent setting for TV shows such as Law Order (where Hudson University is a fictionalized Columbia University) and New York Undercover (1994-1998). Fall 1997: The 50th anniversary of the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) passed unnoticed at Columbia, even though the ACM was founded here. Jul 1999: Rolm Dataphone connections (top speed: 19200 bps) were discontinued because by now everybody had Ethernet in islam their Rolmphone jacks; the Annex and l'oreal group Cisco terminal servers to which the central data modules were connected were switched off and removed. Summer 1999: HP 712/60 workstations, which were mainly used to run PC and Macintosh emulation software, were replaced by relationships 70 Sun Ultra 10 workstations, in l'oreal group both 251 Engineering Terrace and the adjacent Gussman Lab. The other big deal that summer was the upgrade of the entire lab to 100BaseT. Dec 1999: In Pupin Laboratory, site of the world's first automated scientific calculations 65 years earlier, the islam Computational Field Theory Group of the Columbia University Physics Department, working with IBM TJ Watson Research Center and Brookhaven National Laboratory, begins construction of a multiteraflops supercomputing resource , the QCDOC machine (Quantum Chromodynamics On a Chip).
In April 2002, the group received a five million dollar grant from RIKEN, the biographies Japan Institute of Physical and Chemical Research in support of this work. CLICK HERE for further information. [ Top ] Aug 2002: AcIS reclaims the 4th floor of Watson Lab. Some art studios are relocated to Prentis Hall. The full-time members of the Computing Support Center staff moved back from 102 Philosophy Hall. Walk-in services remain in 102 Philosophy but the islam telephone help desk is now in Watson Lab. Sep 2002: After several successful pilot projects, network wiring of residential buildings in the neighborhood begins. L'oreal Group! Initial service is islam 10Mbps, increased to 100 in Feb 2003.
22 Nov 2002: Today is the The Social Problem a Theoretical Lens Essay first day in history that Columbia is using Internet service from a company (Texas based Broadwing) which we had nothing to do with building. Until today, even though we had bought service from companies like PSI and islam relationships Applied Theory, we used services which we (through Nysernet) had something to do with their creation and expansion, at least in their earlier stages. Problem Through A Theoretical Essay! Let's now hope Broadwing stays in business. Vace Kundakci (AcIS Director). Nov-Dec 2002: Columbia's Kermit 95 software CD is islam delivered by the Space Shuttle Endeavor to shakespeare i compare thee the International Space Station (see the islam July 2003 entry for details). Jan - Feb 2003: Installation of per-host outbound bandwidth throttling to reduce the impact of peer-to-peer file sharing (Napster, Gnutella, Kazaa, etc) on network performance. Jan - May 2003: As the The Social Problem Lens Essay University drowns in spam (unwanted e-mail), AcIS prototypes filtering mechanisms. May 2003: IBM System/360 nameplate, Console power switch, and about 100 lamps sent to islam the newly relocated Computer Museum History Center in Mountain View, California, for reattachment to our IBM 360/91 Console, which we donated in 1980 with these pieces missing.
16 Jun 2003: AcIS activates its spam filters. At this point, incoming mail traffic is 500-600,000 messages per day, of shall i compare thee, which about 20% are filtered. The filtering policy, however, is conservative to avoid blocking legitimate mail, so this figure does not reflect the actual amount of spam and viruses, not to mention the fallout from them (e.g. Relationships! bounce notifications resulting from forged mail). Jul 2003: On the International Space Station , a connection between Columbia's MS-DOS Kermit and Kermit 95 software programs delivers the results from the CSLM-2 microgravity experiment. This experiment is to be run at controlled processing, different times through 2005. Islam! CLICK HERE for the full story. 7 Jul 2003: New CLIO (Columbia Library Information Online).
The previous version, based on The Social Problem NOTIS software running on islam relationships the IBM mainframe, dated from the 1980s, before the Web and controlled the popularization of the Internet. The first CLIO system, based on Bibliotechniques BLIS software, debuted in relationships January 1984; when Bibliotechiques folded a second version of CLIO, based on NOTIS (Northwestern Online Totally Integrated System), came up in summer 1988. NOTIS was developed at Northwestern University and mesopotamia later spun off, then bought by Ameritech Library Services, which was itself snapped up and relationships evidently dissolved by a private investment group in mesopotamia 1999. The new Web-centric CLIO is built on Endeavor Information Systems Inc. Oracle-based Voyager software, running on AcIS-administered Sun Solaris servers, and is also used at the US Library of Congress, the US National Libraries of Medicine and Agriculture, Princeton, Yale, Cornell, Penn, and elsewhere. At this point, 92% of the University's holdings are cataloged online, a total of islam, 4 million records, with plans for the remainder (with exceptions like maps and The Social Problem Lens rare books, plus divisions that never joined the main catalog such as the Law and TC Libraries) to be in islam the catalog by The Theme of Vengeance in Shakespeare's Hamlet Essay 2005. The new system allows more searching, management, and customization options, and integrates and largely automates backoffice tasks. Perhaps more significantly, it is designed to islam relationships accommodate Unicode, potentially allowing native-script cataloging of materials in Russian, Greek, Arabic, Hebrew, Chinese, Japanese, and most other languages.
NOTIS-based CLIO was the last academic user of the IBM mainframe the end of an era spanning nearly 50 years. Thursday, 14 Aug 2003: The blackout of 2003 , the biggest blackout in North American history. Electrical power failed about 4:15pm all over New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Connecticut, Ohio, Michigan, and Ontario, as well as parts of Vermont and Massachusetts, affecting 50 million people. Power was restored to Essay the Morningside campus about 6:10am the next day; some areas came back sooner, some (e.g. Chelsea) were without power as long as 30 hours.
The network and relationships hosts began to come online 10:00am-2:00pm Friday, and by 6:00pm all the essential online services (Email, Web, Cunix and related software, Courseworks, network, library, modems, etc.) were available; ID management services were restored at 8:39pm Friday. Subways and trains resumed operation Saturday morning. 28 Oct 2003: Columbia's central Sun servers upgraded from Solaris 2.5.1 to Solaris 9. The Solaris 9 servers would run until the end of 2015, which beats the old OS longevity record of controlled processing, OS/360 21.0 (1972-78). 15 Dec 2003: New Columbia home page, the islam first major redesign since the website started in 1994. Features NYC scenes, kind of like the Kermit website :-) CLICK HERE to see the last old-style page; AND HERE to see the 1996 version. Problem Through! The new home page loads a random picture each time you visit or reload it; CLICK HERE to see a selection from the first day. Columbia University's 250 Anniversary.
COLUMBIA.EDU 20th anniversary. 4 May 2004: 28 years after its first use at islam relationships, Columbia, electronic mail is declared an official medium of controlled, communication. As of 1 July 2004, all students are required to relationships read their e-mail. By this time, nearly all students have their own computers; the dorms are all wired, as are neighborhood apartment buildings; computer labs are found throughout campus; and wireless networking is available in key outdoor common areas and processing various classrooms and lounges. 25 May 2004: Columbia's last academic IBM mainframe, CUVMB, was turned off at 10:10am, terminating 36 years of continuous IBM 360-architecture service to Columbia's academic community (and before that, other IBM mainframe architectures going back to the 1950s, and before that IBM accounting and islam calculating machines reaching back to the 1940s, 30s, and 20s). The Social Problem Through A Theoretical Essay! Academic use of islam relationships, Columbia's IBM mainframes had been dwindling since the 1980s, until finally none remained. Most of Columbia's administrative applications, however, still run on IBM mainframes. Summer 2004: The SUN workstations were retired from the shakespeare i compare thee public labs and replaced by actual PCs and Macintoshes emulation is never quite like the real thing, and islam there wasn't that much interest in UNIX any more. The PCs run Microsoft Windows.
In the PC lab's first incarnation, Windows had to be installed fresh for each user session over the network via a custom bootstrap ROM, so each new user did not inherit a “customized”, booby-trapped, virus-ridden PC from the previous user. 23 Sep 2004: Installation of per-host inbound bandwidth quotas to reduce the impact of peer-to-peer file sharing on network performance. This was the headline in today's Spectator , reflecting the widespread perception that the purpose of the irrigation mesopotamia network, if not the university itself, is to islam permit students to download and trade audio and video without paying for it. A Theoretical Lens Essay! The initial limit is 400MB per hour. 11 Nov 2004: Columbia University decides that it was not such a great idea after all to split academic and administrative computing (early 1988), or to islam relationships consider computing a library function (January 1986), and commenced a search for a new VP of The Social Essay, Information Technology to head a recombined, reconstituted, restructured, and possibly relocated central computing organization, the details of which will not be known until after new VP arrives. CLICK HERE for the announcement. 29 Nov 2004: Spectatator picks up the story, attributing the reorganization to a series of islam relationships, AcIS glitches such as hacker and virus attacks; Students are all too familiar of [sic] the mesopotamia shortcomings of AcIS. An anonymous SEAS junior said that AcIS is 'completely incompetent and islam [doesn't] know how to manage anything'. In reality, it would be rather difficult to point to any site that supports a user community upwards of 60,000, mostly on a Theoretical Lens Essay their own Internet-connected Windows workstations, that knows how to manage hackers and viruses, which, after all, arrive continuously from every corner of the planet, each one exploiting an islam relationships, as-yet-unknown vulnerability, periodically bringing down major corporations and entire governments, sometimes the Internet itself, not mention other universities. Evidently Spectator is also unaware that AIS and AcIS were a single organization until the University divided them. Putting them back together is a simple matter of undoing an old mistake, although it's not clear that the decision was made by anybody who knows that.
It should also be noted that AcIS and its predecessors have rarely, if ever, received sufficient funding to irrigation meet the needs of the user community (for details, read above starting about islam 1970). The irony is Problem that now, when the complaints are loudest, those needs are vanishingly academic. In the same Spectator issue, the islam staff editorial states that, in light of recent crackdowns on illegal downloading of copyright material (MP3s and video), Columbia now has the responsibility to help students legally download movies and music. Now we know what we are here for. 1 Jul 2005: Candace Fleming appointed Columbia Vice President of Information Technology, to preside over the once-and-future joint AcIS/AIS organization, yet to processing be (re)named. 2 Aug 2005: AIS + AcIS = CUIT (Columbia University Information Technology). 30 Aug 2005: 50th anniversary of Columbia's first computer , an IBM 650 at islam, Watson Lab: the first stored-program computer at Columbia that was available for general use by l'oreal group Columbia researchers and courses. Islam! (The words of the previous sentence are chosen carefully: earlier computing devices had been available to Columbia researchers, but they were not stored-program computers. At least one stored-program computer, NORC, had been at Columbia before 1955 but it was not generally available to the academic community.
Columbia researchers had also had some access before 1955 to stored-program computers offsite, e.g. at Through Lens Essay, IBM headquarters downtown; these computers were not at islam relationships, Columbia.) For all but the handful of brave pioneers who used the The Social Problem Lens Essay earlier plugboard-programmed machines, the 650 was indeed the islam relationships first computer. Within a couple years, it could be programmed in FORTRAN and Hamlet other symbolic languages, and quickly became so popular that a second one was added. 1 Sep 2006: Columbia University is relationships now receiving, detecting, and refusing over a million spam, virus, phishing, and other unwanted emails per irrigation day. Of course many still come through, but it is better to allow some spam to pass than to block legitimate mail. 28 Feb 2008: Alan Crosswell, who has been here almost as long as I have [I was laid off in 2011 after 37 years at the Computer Center and 45 at Columbia], appointed Associate Vice President and Chief Technologist. 15 Jan 2009: The CUIT Helpdesk Support Center, formerly known as the Client Service Center (and before that as the SSIO [Self-Service Input/Output] Area, and the CUCCA Business and Consulting Office), moves from 102 Philosophy Hall (see March 1987 entry) to islam relationships 202 Philosophy. 21 Apr 2009: Reunion of The Social Problem Essay, some original Watson Lab people from the 1940s and 50s, at the original Watson Lab building at 612 W 116th Street. Islam Relationships! CLICK HERE for a gallery. 25 Jan 2010: Herb Grosch dies at 91 years of age. An authentic computer pioneer, he worked here from 1945 to 1950 and in recent years was an energetic and colorful contributor to this history.
The photo is from 1951, showing how he looked when he was working in Watson Lab on 116th Street where he came up with Grosch's Law (in 1950, not 1965 as Wikipedia states; see see Chapter 13 of Grosch's autobiography). Herb created and irrigation mesopotamia taught one of the islam first Computer Science courses anywhere (Numerical Methods) at Columbia University in 1946. He went on john adams biographies to a long and contentious career at MIT, GE, IBM, Datamation, the National Bureau of Standards, Computerworld, and the ACM, and served on the faculty of numerous universities. 10-12 Feb 2015: The last vestige of text-based email (inaugurated here in the mid-1970s), namely the secure POP3 server at mail.columbia.edu:995, was turned off. Islam Relationships! Meaning it's no longer possible to access email with a text-based email client in a shell session, or to use shell-based tools and filters and editors with email. Controlled! Until now you could do all your work except web browsing and photo editing in a text-mode shell session. The “upgrade” to Google Gmail puts your email in “The Cloud” where it can hacked or can be “mined” by corporate interests or the islam relationships DHS (I've been assured that these things will never happen but. ) And where we pretty much have no control over it. No straightforward way to archive it locally. No way to write programs to do any kind of custom searching, statisics, analysis on selected email archives chosen by Problem Essay various criteria, e.g. date range.
When sending mail, there is no precise control over the formatting, nor any way to relationships choose an encoding other than UTF-8, nor any way to and automatic enter non-ASCII characters from a PC keyboard aside from relationships Alt-key escapes (like Alt-0241 for The Theme of Vengeance Hamlet ñ), or setting your keyboard up to have dead-key combinations, or clicking on a cartoon keyboard, none of which are exactly ideal for a touch typist who can type as fast in Spanish or German, or even Russian, as in English when using a good terminal emulator*. Islam! All in all, compared to MM used with a good terminal emulator, Gmail is pretty labor intensive and irrigation inflexible at best, and at worst it puts us in a situation where a profit-driven corporation owns our email, not we ourselves. We are forced to use a Web browser to access it, which opens us up to all manner of cookies, spying, marketing, and analysis of our computers and files, not to mention hostile attacks not from islam relationships Google, necessarily, but from the whole planet. None of that happens with text-based email. Even imputing the best of motives to the corporations, the volatility of the market could result in our cloud of email disappearing one day into a stock market vortex, or being bought up by The Social Through a Theoretical Essay some new company that could do anything at all with it hold it for ransom, sell it to tabloids. On this topic, an old friend at another university observed a couple years ago: I have 30+ years of e-mail archives, and it is relationships absolutely mission-critical that I own all of my mail files. John Biographies! There is no guarantee that gmail (or hotmail, or msn mail, or yahoo mail, or any ISP mail) will be around tomorrow, next year, or a decade from now. Relationships! e-mail is l'oreal group a critical record of institutional, governmental, and islam relationships industrial work, and it needs to be owned by those who created it, not given away to Problem Through a Theoretical Lens Essay an outside source who is busy mining it, and could lose or corrupt it. Furthermore the constantly evolving methods of islam, representing emails might render our Cloud-based “rich text”** email archives useless in a future that might not be as distant as you think. Vint Cerf, “Father of the i compare Internet” and Google Vice President, said recently (see below for citations): Old formats of islam relationships, documents that we've created or presentations may not be readable by the latest version of the software because backwards compatibility is not always guaranteed. And so what can happen over time is The Theme of Vengeance Hamlet Essay that even if we accumulate vast archives of digital content, we may not actually know what it is.
Plain text, on the other hand, is eternal. ASCII, which serves for English and a few other languages, was (and is) a well-defined and relationships mature national and international standard, as are subsequent standards like ISO 8859 and john biographies ISO 10646 (Unicode) that increased the character repertoire to accommodate other languages and writing systems. Whereas presentation methods are driven by corporate interests and islam competition and they never stop changing***. The medium swallows the message. 23 May 2015: Dr. Bruce Gilchrist , the second director of the Columbia Computer Center (and a major contributor to and automatic this history), dies in Richmond VA at the age of 84 [obituary] (the first director was Kenneth King from relationships 1963 to 1971). Bruce, a genuine pioneer in l'oreal group computing from the 1950s and islam relationships a prominent figure in the ACM and shall i compare thee AFIPS (details here), exemplified the long-forgotten academic and scientific traditions of the computer center and its predecessor, the IBM Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University, serving on the Engineering School faculty and islam publishing papers in l'oreal group scientific journals as well as several books on computers and society. Bruce led the Computer Center from 1973 to 1984, staying on in an advisory capacity until 1988. As his first act, he opened up access to what in those days was “the computer” (a huge IBM mainframe) to the entire Columbia community, the first instance of open computing at Columbia, and he would continue his push for open computing throughout subsequent generations of machines, such as the DECSYSTEM-20s (1977-88), despite often severe budget pressures.
Bruce was the first to put public “terminal rooms” in islam relationships dormitories and other academic buildings. Bruce hired mainly out of the Engineering School, launching the careers of l'oreal group, numerous women and men in computing. Islam! As a scientist with close connections to l'oreal group the computer industry, he was able to islam combine technical leadership with good humor and shall i compare humane management. His office on the sixth floor of the relationships Watson building was always open and he enjoyed spending time with both his technical staff and irrigation mesopotamia his administrative staff; he treated workers with respect and he was universally respected in return. Relationships! After relinquishing day-to-day management of the Computer Center in 1984, he concentrated his efforts on the acquisition and installation of the $20-million-dollar IBM/Rolm Computerized Branch Exchange, not just a new telephone system for the University, but also a wiring plant that would eventually provide high-speed data access to every building and room on the Morningside campus. Open computing fully realized. CLICK HERE to see an hour-long 2007 Public Access TV interview with Bruce. 29 Dec 2015: Columbia's Cunix timesharing systems were switched from Solaris 9 on 32-bit Sun Sparc servers that had been running since somewhere between 2001 and controlled and automatic 2003, to relationships Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.6 on 64-bit x86_64 servers.
In the intervening years, direct Unix shell use at l'oreal group, Columbia has dwindled down to a handful of islam relationships, diehards, partly in the nature of the times moving on, but also because key services such as email had been removed from the shell hosts. Other once-common utilities like the FTP client and Problem a Theoretical Essay C-Kermit were not installed on the new Linux-based Cunix system, nor once-important math and statistical applications like Matlab and SAS, nor venerable programming languages like Fortran and Snobol. But at least the regular GCC development environment remains for the few who still write C code, and EMACS for those who still do their text processing the old-fashioned and relationships efficient way rather than the new annoying and labor-intensive way. The choice of Linux is primarily market-based, not merely a matter of price or source-code availability, but of market dominance. Unix (of which both Solaris and Linux are variants) was originally a 1960s Bell Labs research project. Thee! Over time it became a proliferation of islam relationships, commercial products “solutions” that ran on irrigation specific hardware Solaris for Sun, HP-UX for Hewlett-Packard, AIX for IBM, etc. but all these have practically vanished by now.
Two free Unix implementations, Minix and Linux, were created about the same time, and Linux itself branched off into islam relationships, free (e.g. Problem Through A Theoretical Lens! Debian, Slackware) and corporate (e.g. Red Hat Enterprise) versions. Another branch, descending from the Bell Labs original via Berkeley Unix and including FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD and friends, remains free community-sourced software. But big companies such as Columbia University prefer to have the corporate ties that Red Hat offers. 29 Feb 2016: The central Sun Solaris-based CUNIX timesharing systems turned off after about 15 years of service, replaced by islam Linux servers. 12 Sep 2016: Engineering professor Leon Lidofsky * dies in Vermont at controlled processing, the age of 94.
He was one of Columbia's earliest hands-on users of digital computers, establishing a computer lab on the second floor of the Engineering Terrace in the mid-1960s that included a room-sized minicomputer (SEL 810B), a tabletop DEC PDP-8, and various specialized equipment for data collection and analysis, one of only a handful of Columbia's departmental computing facilities at the time. I first met him in 1969 when I got a student job in his department. I graduated from the school of General Studies in islam relationships 1970 and left the department to find a real job, and wound up driving a taxi in Bronx. After a while Lee asked me to come back and work in shall thee the department full-time as the administrator for a new program he was in islam relationships charge of, dealing with the social responsibilities of engineers and john biographies ways they could be of public service. Relationships! Really my job was just paper shuffling, but Lee knew that I had had “computer” training in the Army and a Theoretical Essay soon I was doing all the islam key punching for the department. After a while he asked me if I would like to john adams write a program on his minicomputer. Islam Relationships! He gave me a Fortran book and a few lessons and before long I had pretty much automated myself out of a job. Biographies! Lee suggested I take advantage of my full-time staff position to take computer science courses in the department of EECS (as it was known then).
It was a good fit, I liked the idea of having problems to work on that could actually be solved. As a sideline, Lee was a consultant in nuclear medicine at Mt. Sinai Hospital (click here for relationships an example of his work there). When the Columbia project I was working on came to a close, he got me my first real programming job in Mt. Sinai's new Laboratory for Computer Science, and thus began my brilliant career as a software developer. Along the way I wrote some books and irrigation mesopotamia always featured him in the acknowledgments, as in my last book ( Using C-Kermit, 2nd Ed .): “. and to Lee Lidofsky, a Great Teacher, for islam a timely push in a good direction, a long time ago”. Incidentally, the irrigation mesopotamia computers at islam relationships, the Mt. Sinai lab were DEC PDP-11s, my first experience with a somewhat interactive (via Teletype) computer operating system, which led to the choice of a PDP-11 for Columbia's first timesharing system, which in Problem a Theoretical Essay turn led to the choice of big DECSYSTEM-20s as Columbia's primary academic computing platform, 1977-1988. Anyway, thanks to Lee I had a decent job with good salary and benefits that allowed me to raise a family and put my kids through college. If not for Lee, I'd probably still be driving a cab! Arranging for me (who was not even one of his students) to islam relationships have a good life was definitely not in his job description, but that's how he was.
I'm sure there are a thousand other stories just like this one. It's interesting to controlled ponder the transformation of Columbia from a quill-pen operation in the 1700s to the wired (and, increasingly, wireless) one it is today. Computers, obtained originally for islam relationships scientific work that could not be done any other way, were also turned to administrative tasks such as registration, student records, payroll, and so on. What was the cost in money, space, and personnel before and after? And then later when centralized computing (based on a single multimillion dollar computer system) became fully distributed, with a PC on every desk, how did that change the overall expenditures, consumption of space and electrical power, personnel rosters, and the productivity of each person? Any clear answer would take a great deal more research than was done here, but the following table is suggestive: Sources: The 1925 figures come from Columbia's 1924-25 Catalog  and from the 1924-25 Annual Report ; the student count does not include another 12,916 summer session students; the officers of administration include 38 who are also on the faculty. Processing! The 2010 figures come from the Columbia University Statistical Abstract of the Office of Planning and Institutional Research (on the Web). The growth in islam relationships faculty is mesopotamia accounted for islam relationships almost entirely by l'oreal group the Health Sciences campus, which did not exist in 1925. Although the role of computing in staff and tuition increases is far from clear, it is evident that Columbia University was able to offer a first-class education to about 20,000 students annually with a lot less overhead and at far less expense without computers than with them, even accounting for inflation (which averaged 3.1% per islam relationships year from 1925 to 2000 or 987% over the period; thus if tuition had merely kept pace with inflation, it would have risen only to $79 per john adams point rather than $834 in relationships 2000). Of course, one can't necessarily blame computers alone for a topheavy bureaucracy -- since the 1950s, huge amounts of additional work in controlled processing the form of reports (compliance, demographic, financial, etc) mandated by government, suppliers, and contractors at islam relationships, every level.
Anyway, as any student who registered in the old days (filling in countless forms by hand with the l'oreal group same information and islam relationships standing in about 50 lines to adams turn in each form) can tell you, some of the new systems are an improvement. Columbia is also a far bigger employer than it was in 1925 and it's a good thing that more people have work, even if it's pointless. Or if you take a closer look, maybe it's not such a good thing. When the Computer Center opened in 1963, there was one big computer for everybody to use, cared for by a small professional staff, initially just 15 people. Today, the combined full-time staff of AcIS and islam AIS (now CUIT) numbers well into the hundreds, and this doesn't count an unknown number of controlled processing, full and relationships part-time computer people in the administrative and academic departments, nor junior faculty and graduate students shanghaied into The Theme, system-administration roles, nor the fact that almost everybody at the University devotes copious time to managing and fighting with their own desktop computers into the bargain, not to mention dealing (or worse: not) with the constant onslaught of viruses, worms, and hacks from all corners of the world. One is tempted to wonder in exactly what way computers are labor-saving devices :-) But love 'em or hate 'em, computers and networks are with us to stay. They first came to Columbia for scientific and islam statistical work; now they are used mainly for social and entertainment purposes, plus taking notes in class, preparation of The Social Through, papers, a certain amount of course work, and for carrying on the business of the University, including a great deal of public relations. All students and faculty are presumed to have computer, network, and Web access; it is required in many courses and for numerous tasks such as looking up class schedules, room assignments, and grades, and since Fall 2001, also for islam relationships registration.
The benefits of the controlled processing Web are well known but its dangers little discussed, at least not beyond the well-known safety hazards (credit-card theft, pedophiles, viruses) and annoyances (bugs and new features requiring constant software upgrades). Let's look at islam, some of the more fundamental pitfalls that tend to be ignored as we rush to replace all that is old by what is new: For good or ill, the Web has largely replaced the Library for undergraduate research. Shakespeare Shall I Compare Thee! The benefits (again) are well-known, but increasingly, if it's not on the Web students don't see it. Furthermore, it's often difficult to assess the information one finds on islam relationships the Web. Published books and journal articles, at least, have some measure of quality control and some form of audit trail (you can check the primary sources yourself). The Social Problem Through A Theoretical Lens! At the very least, they are substantial and immutable objects that can be referenced -- when you look at a book or article that I have referenced, you see the relationships same one I saw.
Web pages are ephemeral, likely to move, change, or disappear at any moment, and in shall any case rarely have the authority of relationships, a refereed, printed publication. Since I wrote the previous item, the Web itself has been largely supplanted by Google and Wikipedia for research. Wikipedia is handy, to l'oreal group be sure, but how do you verify the relationships accuracy of anything in it? Google, on the other hand, is a massive corporation whose only goal is making more and of Vengeance Essay more money, and as part of achieving that goal, it controls the islam content we see. Searches are still relatively fair and open, but Google News is pure corporate messaging.
Nevertheless, Google can throw a switch at any moment to hide entire bodies of knowledge or opinion it deems prejudicial to its corporate health. In a new application of Gresham's Law, the shall i compare thee Web tends to islam relationships drive out reliable and detailed information, replacing it with unreliable and sketchy sound bites. Libraries full of books and journals are increasingly viewed as legacy brick and mortar operations that can no longer justify their existence in the age of electronic information. But those same libraries contain all that is known of history, culture, and mesopotamia science. What will become of our printed record, as it takes up coveted space and decays? It can't all be digitized; that would be far too expensive and time-consuming. Therefore much -- probably most -- of it will be lost to posterity. And then whatever portion was digitized before the paper was discarded or crumbled will itself be subject to successive rounds of winnowing as the digital media, encoding, and formats become obsolete and islam relationships require upgrading. Repeated application of this process will leave only a tiny fragment of l'oreal group, what was available to us in, say, 1980, and there will be no going back. New information is lost too. It was relatively easy to islam relationships trace the history of computing at Columbia through 1994 by The Social Lens the paper trail of newsletters, books, paper correspondence files, and so on.
After 1994, it's just a blur. If it was recorded at islam, all, it was recorded on the Web or in e-mail, and there is no systematic archive of old Web pages and e-mails. What is new today will be old tomorrow. Controlled Processing! The Web is not eternal. Something else is bound to appear that turns the Web into a deprecated legacy concept and the vast corpus of Web files will need conversion to the next thing, and the winnowing process will continue. I wrote the previous sentence about 15 years ago.
Today I see Vint Cerf, father of the Internet, saying the same thing at relationships, the American Association for the Advancement of Science conference in San Jos. To paraphrase. Everything that's on the Internet today will be unintelligable garbage in the future and the 21st Century will be another Dark Ages, leaving no records of itself. Here's a link: http://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-31450389. Here's another: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/science/science-news/11410506/Print-out-digital-photos-or-risk-losing-them-Google-boss-warns.html. Through A Theoretical Essay! But don't expect them to last. [Search] Meanwhile, as of 2014, cell phones have squeezed out desktop computers as the islam relationships main Web access method, forcing website to adapt by showing less content. Essay! i.e. sound bites instead of detailed information. Similarly, emails with paragraphs of text have given way to short instant messages and Tweets. Storage and preservation of information -- printed or electronic -- costs money. Money is a scarce resource, also needed for food, shelter, medical care, exhorbitant CEO compensation, senseless wars, and so on.
The legacy of humanity belongs to those with the desire and the money to preserve it, and to keep preserving it, and they are ones who will decide what is worth preserving and islam what to discard. Columbia University 250th Anniversary (2004) CLICK HERE to visit Columbia's extensive website commemorating the university's 250th anniversary (and HERE and HERE and HERE for of Vengeance in Shakespeare's some computing history bits). Old means no error correction, compression, or hardware flow control. Islam Relationships! New modems are connected to (or integrated with) TCP/IP terminal servers; old ones were connected to serial ports on the PACX or Rolm. L'oreal Group! Prior to 1985 it's hard to figure out -- specific phone numbers went to relationships specific computers, etc; few comprehensive tables were published in the Newsletter or Guides to and automatic processing Facilities. Relationships! The best I can say is that the number of and automatic, dialin modems increased from islam 0 to in Shakespeare's Hamlet 59 from the mid-1960s to islam relationships 1985. Modem-pool expansion finally leveled off in The Theme of Vengeance Hamlet Essay 2002-2003, when DSL connections became possible from the home and AcIS began to bring neighborhood apartment buildings onto the high-speed campus network. The numbers reflect total accesses (hits) per year.
The 1994 figures are extrapolated from the last six weeks of 1994, and therefore probably a bit high. ADP Administrative Data Processing (of Columbia University) AIS Administrative Information Services (new name of islam, ADP) ANSI American National Standards Institute. APL A Programming Language (With Its Own Character Set)
ARPA (US Defense Department) Advanced Research Projects Agency. ASCC Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator (early IBM computer) ASCII American Standard Code for Information Interchange. ASP Attached Support Processor. AUC Apple University Consortium. AUFS Appletalk UNIX File Server. BAL Basic (IBM 360 and 370) Assemly Language. BASIC Beginners All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code. BASR Bureau of Applied Social Research (of Columbia University) BCD Binary Coded Decimal. BCDIC Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code.
BITNET Because-It's-There Network (It = RSCS) BNF Backus-Naur Form. BPS Bits per Second. CAP Columbia Appletalk Package. CBX (IBM/Rolm/Siemens) Computerized Branch Exchange. CCNET Computer Center (or Columbia/Carnegie) Network (DECnet)
CE (IBM) Customer Engineer. CLIO Columbia Libraries Information Online. CMU Carnegie-Mellon University. COBOL Common Business Oriented Language. CPC Card Programmed Calculator. CP/M Control Program / Microcomputer. CPS Characters per Problem Through a Theoretical Second. CRBE Conversational Remote Batch Entry.
CREN Consortium for Research and Education Network. CRLF ASCII characters Carriage Return and Line Feed - plaint-text line terminator. CRT Cathode-Ray Tube, e.g. a video terminal. CUCC Columbia University Computer Center. CUCCA Columbia University Center for relationships Computing Activities, new name of CUCC. CUIT Columbia University Information Technology, new name of CUCCA. CUNY City University of New York. CWRU Case Western Reserve University. DACU Device Attachment Control Unit (early IBM Ethernet adapter) DASD Direct Access Storage Device (IBM term for disk, pronounced dazdee) DAT Digital Audio Tape.
DCMUP Same as DCS (not sure what it stands for). DCS Directly Coupled System (Columbia's IBM 7040 and 7094) DEC Digital Equipment Corporation. DOS Disk Operating System. EAM Electric Accounting Machine (using punched cards) EBCDIC Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code. EMACS Editing Macros (video editor by Richard Stallman) FORTRAN Formula Translator (first high-level programming language)
FE Field Engineer (DEC) FS Field Service (DEC) FSF Free Software Foundation. GNU GNU is l'oreal group Not UNIX (recursive acronym of the FSF) GUI Graphical User Interface. HASP Houston Automatic Spooling Program. HP Hewlett Packard Corporation. IBM International Business Machines Corporation.
IETF Internet Engineering Task Force. JCL Job Control Language (OS/360, MVS, etc) JSYS Jump to System (DEC-20 monitor call) JVNCNET John von Neumann Supercomputer Center Network. KGB (Soviet) Committee for State Security. LAN Local Area Network (Ethernet, Token Ring, etc)
LCG (DEC) Large Computer Group. LISP List Processing (language) LPM Lines per Minute (speed of line printer) MINCE MINCE Is Not Completely EMACS (EMACS semi-clone for CP/M) MOS Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (memory, as opposed to magnetic cores or vacuum tubes) MSS (IBM) Mass Storage System. MTBF Mean Time Between Failures. MTTR Mean Time To Repair.
NCR National Cash Register Corporation. NFS Network File System. NORC Naval Ordnance Reseach Calculator (early IBM computer built at Columbia U) NPG Network Planning Group (of Columbia U) NSF National Science Foundation. NSFNET National Science Foundation Network. NYSERNET New York State Education and Research Network.
OCS Office of Communications Services (of Columbia University) OS Operating System. PACX Private Access Computer eXchange. PDP Programmed Data Processor. PDS Partitioned Data Set. PL/I Programming Language One. PPP Point-to-Point Protocol. RAID Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disk. RHNO Residence Hall Networking Option (at Columbia U)
RJE Remote Job Entry. RSCS Remote Spooling Communications Subsystem. RSTS/E Resource Sharing Time Sharing / Extended (DEC PDP-11 OS) SAIL Stanford Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (or Language) SE Software Engineer (DEC); Systems Engineer (IBM) Also see: FE, CE. SEL Systems Engineering Laboratories. SLIP Serial Line Internet Protocol. SNA (IBM) Systems Networking Architecture. SNOBOL String Oriented Language (pun on COBOL) SPITBOL (pun on SNOBOL) SSIO Self-Service Input/Output (area at Columbia U)
SIC Scholarly Information Center (at Columbia University) SOS Share Operating System (IBM 709) SOS Son Of Stopgap (PDP-10, DEC-20 text editor) SPOOL simultaneous peripheral operations on-line or simultaneous peripheral output on relationships line. TOPS The Operating System (for PDP-10s and DEC-20s) UUCP UNIX-to-UNIX Copy Program. VT Video Terminal. Control panel (See plugboard) Core This word is still used synonymously with memory, but in l'oreal group fact refers to a specific memory technology used from about 1955 to 1975, in which each bit was a ferrite core, whose charge was controlled and sensed by currents in islam relationships wires passing through the l'oreal group core's hole. MORE HERE.
CRT Cathode Ray Tube. The display screen in a video terminal or a pre-flat panel television or personal computer. Relationships! More generally, any vacuum tube incorporating a mobile beam. 1950s-era computer memories were sometimes made of CRTs; for example, the IBM 700-series CRT memories packed 1024 bits into a single tube (contrary to the popular image of one bit per tube). Drum Similar to a hard disk, except the recording surface is on the circumfrence, rather than on the flat end(s), and the read/write heads are fixed rather than moving. The Social Through Lens Essay! Thus it is a spinning cylinder with a stationary head array extending from end to end, with one fixed head per islam track. Because the heads are fixed, there is no seek time so access is much faster than a moving-head disk. Drums were used as main memory in early computers like the IBM 650 and as swapping or paging devices in later computers such as the IBM 360/91 and the DEC PDP-11. An example is the IBM 2301 drum storage, about 1960. Also: (1) Any fixed-head disk or, by extension, any swapping device; (2) A Data Cell cylinder around which a tape strip is wrapped for reading and writing; (3) The print mechanism used in certain kinds of line printers, such as the DEC LP20: a constantly rotating metal cylinder with all the shall thee characters on it -- to print a specific character in a specific column, the islam corresponding hammer strikes the drum just when the desired character is controlled and automatic behind the paper and ink ribbon; (4) the electrostatic print-transfer mechanism in Xerographic or laser printers.
Electric (or Electronic) Accounting Machine (EAM) EAMs were the workhorses of the 1930s-60s for accounting, payroll, and islam so on, before there were real stored-program computers. They were mainly mechanical; accumulating sums in gear registers. In fact, they are just late-model tabulating machines with a bit more flexibility and usually a built-in line printer. CLICK HERE to see examples. Paper Tape A long strip of heavy paper, usually an l'oreal group, inch wide, in islam which holes could be punched, 5 to 9 per row. For computer use, usually 8 holes were used: 7 data bits and 1 parity bit. Paper tape was also used in telecommunications (telex) and in the printing industry as the input medium for adams hot-metal typesetting machines and is still used for numerical control of milling and drilling machines.
Computer applications of paper tape included automated data input and output, as on the ASR33 Teletype or the IBM 1620 computer, object-module output by compilers (on computers that did not have disks -- for example, the output of a Fortran compiler), and printer control loops (see story at the end of this page). For heavy-duty applications such as the latter, Mylar was used rather than paper. The typical recording density was 10 rows (bytes) per inch. Islam! Punching and reading speeds varied from 10 rows per second up to 2000. Paper tape originally came in rolls (as used in the IBM SSEC), but by the 1960s, fan-fold was more common, and in fact many computer companies distributed software in this form (e.g. for the DEC PDP-8). An incorrectly punched row could be deleted by l'oreal group punching all the holes; this is the origin of the ASCII RUB (Rubout, Delete) character, 0x7F (all 1's). Editing could also be accomplished by cutting and islam relationships splicing. More at l'oreal group, the University of islam, Amsterdam Computing History Museum. Plugboard, Patch Board, Patch Panel, Control Panel IBM EAM equipment (accounting machines, sorters, reproducing punches, interpreters, etc) as well as some of its early calculators (computers) were programmed through control panels rectangular boards with an array of holes, which are interconnected by wires to specify the desired functions, e.g. which card columns are to adams biographies be sent to which accumulator, or printed to which printer columns, etc. Photos and more info: [HERE] [HERE] [HERE] [HERE] and [HERE].
Punched Card A stiff cardboard rectangle in which holes can be punched and then later read by islam various devices (see Unit Record Equipment). Punchcards date back to irrigation mesopotamia the 1700s, and can be found in many formats. IBM punchcards (after 1928) were 7 3/8 inches wide and islam relationships 3 1/4 high, with three rounded corners and the upper left corner cut diagonally, and twelve 80-column rows for small rectangular holes. Large sites like Columbia often had their cards preprinted with corporate logos. Until the early 1970s, virtually all computing jobs at Columbia were submitted on decks of cards punched on key punch machines. Decks of cards could also be output from the Through a Theoretical Lens computer using high-speed online punches such as the IBM 2540. Relationships! Use of john biographies, cards at Columbia declined until 1986, when the last card readers were removed.
As late as 2010, however, voting machines in New York were still based on punched card technology. Relay An electromechanical device or switch that automatically controls the current in one circuit based on the current in another circuit, used in 1940s-era calculators and computers such as the Aberdeens, the SSEC, and islam the Bell relay calcalators. Remote Job Entry Or RJE. In the Problem Through Essay mainframe era, before interactive terminals, jobs were submitted on decks of cards and results obtained on a line printer or other local device. Islam Relationships! These devices were attached to the mainframe by cables that could not be very long, maybe 150 feet max. To access the mainframe from greater distances required a Remote Job Entry station: usually a card reader and line printer connected to some kind of controller, connected by (usually synchronous) modem to the central site. Typically an RJE user would put a deck of cards in The Theme Hamlet Essay the hopper, push Start, and relationships wait an The Social Problem a Theoretical Lens, unpredictable amount of time for the results to come out of the printer. One of many examples of the widespread use of RJE was the islam New York City public school system in the 1970s, where each school had an RJE station connected to the big mainframe(s) at Board of Education. The IBM RJE interface was fairly well standardized, so it also came to double as a connection for other kinds of computers -- a kind of early networking, in which traffic in one direction was in 80-column card images, and traffic in the reverse direction was 132-column printer lines. Tabulating Machine A machine capable of l'oreal group, reading punched cards and either sorting them into selected bins or adding up the numbers punched into selected columns.
Tabulating machines were used from 1890 through the 1950s or 60s for statistical, financial, and islam relationships even scientific applications. Controlled Processing! CLICK HERE for examples. Terminal A typewriter-like device by which a person interacts with a computer. It has a keyboard and either paper to islam relationships print on or else a video screen (certain special kinds of terminals might also have Braille pads or text-to-voice interpreters). The keystrokes are sent to the computer and (in some cases) also echoed locally on the display device (paper or screen).
Characters arriving from the computer are sent to processing the display device. Video terminals sometimes have an attached printer. Early hardcopy terminals included Teletypes and electric typewriters wired for communication, such as the IBM 2741; later ones include dot-matrix models such as the DECwriter. The best-known video terminal is the DEC VT100; video terminals were popular from the mid-1970s until about 1990 (and are still used today in certain specialized applications like data entry and transaction processing; until not so long ago, every winter TV news reporters visit the islam NYC Heat Complaint Bureau, and every year they were still using IBM 3270 green tubes). The best-known graphics terminal is the Tektronix 4010. Although few real terminals are still in operation, terminals are widely emulated by and automatic processing the PC, Macintosh, and other workstation software that allows us to access our shell accounts. TTY Teletype (see Terminal) . Unit Record Equipment Usually used to islam refer to any equipment that reads or punches cards, such as a key punch, card reader, sorter, collator, reproducer, or interpreter.
Strictly speaking, any device for which a record (rather than a character) is the physical unit of input or output, therefore also including line printers. My recollections and Through a Theoretical notes, 1965-present. Relationships! The Columbia University Computer Center Newsletter, 1966-1994 (when it ceased publication). Gilchrist, Bruce, Forty Years of Computing , CUCCA Newlsetter V13#16 (4 Nov 1981). Bashe, Charles J.; Lyle R. Johnson; John H. L'oreal Group! Palmer; Emerson W. Pugh, IBM's Early Computers , MIT Press (1985).
Columbia University Catalogue , 1924-1925. Islam Relationships! Columbia University Computer Center General Information Manual , Volume I (June 1965). Columbia University Bulletin: Computing Activities (1976). Rogers, William, Think; a biography of the Watsons and IBM , Stein and Day, NY (1969). Brennan, Jean Ford, The IBM Watson Laboratory at Columbia University: A History , IBM, Armonk NY (1971) (Columbiana CZI B75; Prentis Q183.5 .W3 B7). Columbia Computer Center , 2 Jan 1963 (summary of facilities and The Social Through Essay procedures). Admini-Bits (the Columbia University Administrative Data Processing Newsletter), V2#6 (Sep 1988). Dolkart, Andrew S., Morningside Heights: A History of its Architecture and Development , Columbia University Press, 1998, and correspondence with Prof. Dolkart (Jan 2001).
McCullers, Carson, and Dews C.L. Relationships! Barney, Illumination and Night Glare: The Unfinished Autobiography of Carson McCullers , University of Wisconsin Press (1999). Asteroff, Janet, CUCCA Terminal and Plotter User Manual (Nov 1982). Bell System Technical Journal , Special issue devoted UNIX 7th Edition, Volume 57, Number 6, Part 2 (August 1978). Mesopotamia! Brader, Mark, A Chronology of Digital Computing, to 1952 (online). Islam Relationships! Koenig, Seymour H., Interview (22 Jan 2001). AIS Supervisor Joe Sulsona Retires After 42 Years , Columbia University Record Vol. 26, No 11 (19 Jan 2001).
Gilchrist, Bruce, Report to mesopotamia the Committee on Instructional Computing (the Collery Committee), Columbia University (21 April 1980). Hallinan, Nuala, A History of Administrative Data Processing , Columbia University, September 1988 (produced for the Computer Center's 25th Anniversary commemoration), with 1991 update. Announcement of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory and a Program of Graduate Studies in islam Applied Mathematics , Columbia University Bulletin, Fifty-eighth Series, No.39, September 27, 1948. Arctander, Eric, Trig Homework? Consult Watson Labs , Columbia Daily Spectator, 18 October 1948. Of Vengeance In Shakespeare's Hamlet Essay! IBM Establishes Computing Laboratory at Columbia University , News Release, Columbia University Department of Public Information, 6 February 1945. King, Kenneth M., Columbia University Computer Center Report , August 1967 to December 1968. Guide to Facilities , Columbia Computer Center, September 1972. Sills, David L., Paul F. Lazarsfeld, 1901-1976, A Biographical Memoir , National Academy of the islam Sciences, Washington DC, 1987. Barton, Judith S., ed., Guide to the Bureau of Applied Social Research , Clearwater Publishing Co., Inc, New York City, 1984. The Columbia University Archives and Columbiana Library: Central Files, Indexed in The Administrative Records of Columbia University, 1890-1971 . Mesopotamia! Halford, Ralph S., Proposal to the National Science Foundation for Support of a Computing Center to islam relationships be Established at Columbia University , May 1961.
News Release #10,099, Columbia University News Office, 18 Jul 1963. The Social Through A Theoretical Essay! Mace, David, and islam relationships Joyce Alsop, A Simplified System for the Use of an irrigation mesopotamia, Automatic Calculator , Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, Columbia University / IBM, 1957 (COVER). Islam! Proposal for IBM 360 Model 92 [sic], to john Dr. Relationships! Kenneth M. John! King, Columbia Computer Center, IBM, 21 May 1965. University Center for Computing Activities: EDP Review for Columbia University , IBM, May 1974. Strauss, Robert, When Computers Were Born , The Times Mirror Company, 1996. Relationships! Annual Report of the President and Treasurer to of Vengeance Hamlet Essay the Trustees with Accompanying Documents for the Year Ending June 30, 1925 , Columbia University, New York, 1926. Letter of Dean Ralph S. Halford to islam relationships Prof. Maurice Ewing, 19 Aug 1963 (9 pages), Columbiana Archives. Hamlet! Pure Scientists of Morningside, Business Machines , General Section, IBM, September 1, 1954.
Aspray, William, Was Early Entry a Competitive Advantage? US Universities That Entered Computing in the 1940s, IEEE Annals of the relationships History of Computing , Volume 22, Number 3, July-September 2000. Lippsett, Laurence, Maurice Ewing and the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia Magazine , Winter 2001. Pugh, Emerson W., Building IBM: Shaping an The Theme of Vengeance Hamlet, Industry and its Technology , The MIT Press (1995). Sachnoff, Neil, Secrets of Installing a Telephone System , Telecomm Library Inc, New York (1989). There's a Computer on the Columbia Campus, Columbia Reports , March 1971. Wilson, Gregory V., The History of the Development of Parallel Computing , University of Toronto.
Austrian, Geoffrey, Herman Hollerith: Forgotten Giant of Information Processing , Columbia University Press (1982). Grier, David Alan, When Computers Were Human, Princeton University Press (2005). Relationships! AND. The Social Problem Lens Essay! Grier, David Alan, The First Breach of islam, Computer Security?, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing , Volume 23, Number 2, April-June 2001. NOTE: These should be two separate references but evidently the second one was inserted here by mistake when it should have gone at the end, thus throwing off all the subsequent reference numbers. Sorry! Stoll, Clifford, The Cuckoo's Egg: Tracking a Spy through the Maze of john adams, Computer Espionage , Doubleday, New York (1989). Black, Edwin, IBM and relationships the Holocaust , Crown Publishers, New York (2001). Also search for holocaust at the IBM website. Thee! Columbia University Alumni Register 1754-1931 , Columbia University Committee on islam relationships General Catalogue, Frank D. John Adams! Fackenthal (Chairman), Columbia University Press, New York (1932).
Fajman, Roger, and islam relationships John Borgelt, Stanford University Computation Center, WYLBUR: An Interactive Text Editing and Remote Job Entry System, CACM, V15 #5 (May 1973). Eckert, W.J., Punched Card Methods in Scientific Computation , The Thomas J. Watson Astronomical Computing Bureau, Columbia University, Lancaster Press, Inc., Lancaster PA (January 1940). Thee! Reprinted in 1984 by the Charles Babbage Institute, MIT, and Tomash Publishers with a new introduction by J.C. McPherson. IBM Oral History Project on relationships Computer Technology, Interview TC-1, with W.J. Eckert (11 July 1964). Mackenzie, Charles E., Coded Character Sets, History and Development , Addison-Wesley (1980).
Trimble, George R., A Brief History of Computing, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing , Volume 23, Number 3 (July-September 2001). Applelbaum, Lauren, Student on l'oreal group Quest for Sundial's Lost Ball, Columbia Daily Spectator , Vol.CXXV No.139 (5 Dec 2001). Quarterman, John S., The Matrix: Computer Networks and Conferencing Systems Worldwide Digital Press (1990). Tsividis, Yannis, Edwin Armstrong, Pioneer of the Airwaves, Columbia Magazine (Spring 2002). Grosch, Herbert R.J., Computer: Bit Slices from a Life , Third Millenium Books, Novato CA (1991), ISBN 0-88733-085 [3rd ed mss)].
They All Came to See the NORC, Business Machines , General Section, IBM (23 December 1954), pp.8-9. Grosch, Herb, private correspondence (May 2003 - 2010). A Conversation with Herb Grosch , ACM Ubiquity , Volume 2, Issue 39 (4-10 December 2001). Schreiner, Ken, private correspondence (May 2003). Berkeley, Edmund, Giant Brains: or, Machines that Think , John Wiley Sons, NY (1949). The first book about computers for a general nontechnical audience. Relationships! Fact Sheet on Simon , Columbia University Public Information Office (18 May 1950). Eckert, Wallace J, and Rebecca Jones, Faster, Faster: a simple description of a giant electronic calculator and the problems it solves , McGraw-Hill, New York (1955). King, Kenneth, private correspondence (July-August 2003). Controlled And Automatic Processing! Hankam, Eric, interviews (11 July and islam 4 November 2003).
Eckert, Wallace J., Watson Laboratory Summary of Activities -- Quarterly Report: July-September 1955 , Memorandum to The Theme in Shakespeare's Essay IBM's J.C. Relationships! McPherson (17 November 1955). W.J.E. (Wallace J. Eckert), The I.B.M. Pluggable Sequence Relay Calculator , Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation, Volume III, Number 23 (June 1948), pp. 149-161. Aspray, William (Ed.), Computing Before Computers , Iowa State University Press, ISBN 0-8138-0047-1 (1990). Mesopotamia! Ceruzzi, Paul E. Reckoners: The Prehistory of the Digital Computer, from islam relationships Relays to the Stored Program Concept, 1935-1945 (Contributions to the Study of Computer Science, No.1) , Greenwood Press (1983). Bergin, Thomas J. (Ed.), 50 Years of Army Computing: From ENIAC to MSRC , A Record of a Symposium and Celebration November 13 and 14 (1996), Aberdeen Proving Ground. Ceruzzi, Paul E. Crossing the Divide: Architectural Issues and the Emergence of the Stored Program Computer, 1935-1955, IEEE Annals of the shakespeare shall History of islam relationships, Computing , Vol.
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