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Securitization Theory and Biological Weapons. The Threat of Biological Weapons: A Justification of vasudeva Biological Weapons Securitization. In 2001, when attacks were carried out in sodium, the United States involving Bacillus anthracis, the bacterial agent that causes anthrax, the threat of biological weapons came into sharper focus for the American government. Vasudeva! These attacks were not the beginning of the biological weapons threat, but rather a point along a continuum of increasing risk. Article 1 of the 1972 Biological Weapons Convention defines biological weapons to include the “microbial or other biological agents, or toxins, whatever their origin or method of production, of types and in Essay St. Thomas as a, quantities that have no justification for prophylactic, protective, or other peaceful purposes” as well as the “weapons, equipment, or means of delivery designed to vasudeva use such agents or toxins for hostile purposes or in Essay St. Thomas Beauty, armed conflict” 1 . The use of biological weapons dates back centuries, but the vasudeva siddhartha fear of biological weapons of about Collection in an mass destruction, here defined as weapons that pose an existential threat to the target, is relatively recent 2 . Much of it is attributable to the rapid advances made in the biological sciences over the past decade, particularly with respect to the field of genomics, where there is a growing ability to manipulate genes 3 . This knowledge has a variety of applications in the field of bioweapons. Additionally, while states use of vasudeva biological weapons was a concern through much of the 20 th century, the possibility that rogue states or non-state groups would use biological weapons was largely ignored until the start of the 21 st century 1 . Therefore, the threat of biological weapons has been framed as a security issue 4 . Essay Method! This essay examines whether, and to vasudeva siddhartha what degree, the threat of a biological weapons attack has been overstated with respect to the government’s response by drawing on ethical securitization theory, which critically evaluates the process through which an issue comes to be viewed through a security framework.

In addition, the essay will also use the precautionary principle, described by the 1998 Wingspread Statement as the notion that “when an activity raises threats of harm to human health or the environment, precautionary measures should be taken even if some cause and effect relationships are not fully established scientifically” 5 . Though more often applied to considerations of environmental risk, in the case of vasudeva siddhartha biological weapons, the principle could be used to justify caution even in the absence of consensus surrounding the probability of an attack, simply due to the severity of the consequences if an attack was to occur. It will be argued that the biological weapons threat has not been overestimated and that the biodefense measures expressed in current policy and funding decisions are warranted. Despite measures such as likelihood-adjusted mortality, which may suggest the U.S. government response is an overreaction, other characteristics of the bioweapons threat justify its securitization and resulting prioritization in the government agenda. Career! To do this, the essay provides a discussion of how the potential consequences of an attack pose an existential threat to siddhartha the United States, how there is an inadequate degree of preparedness for such an event, how the mere possibility of an attack is what is normal sodium level enough to warrant high spending on preventive and preparative programs, and how the response has been appropriately measured given the threat. The focus will be on the United States government because it has taken such a prominent role in bioweapon securitization and biodefense funding. A single country, the US, was chosen as a point of focus to avoid confusion due to differing levels of threat and response across countries. Additionally, any exaggerations that may exist in how the media or the siddhartha public portray and view the biological weapons threat will be ignored; though this could be related to the government’s decision to securitize bioweapons, this is Essay about St. Thomas Aqujnas: Beauty as a a separate issue from government policy decisions in response to vasudeva siddhartha the security threat and is outside the crimean scope of this paper.

2. Securitization Theory and Biological Weapons. Securitization theory is a constructivist approach informing how certain issues become framed through a security lens 6 . Vasudeva Siddhartha! It offers a useful analytical framework for understanding how, why, and what issues come to be viewed as security threats. About St. Thomas Beauty As A! Securitization is an active process wherein a securitizing actor, in vasudeva, this case the American government, presents and addresses an issue as an existential threat to a particular group, or referent object 7 . In these situations, emergency response measures and extensive resource commitments are considered justified 7 . Securitization theory generally promotes desecuritization as preferable because it avoids the negative consequences of securitization, including a heavy-handed state response, reduced democratic accountability, and the narrowing of public choice 8 . However, it also recognizes that securitization is is stem cell ethical sometimes appropriate. Vasudeva! Recent considerations of career theory securitization theory identify three criteria that, if fulfilled, justify securitization: an objective, existential threat, a referent object whose protection promotes human well-being, and a response appropriately measured to vasudeva siddhartha the particular threat 6 . In the case of bioweapons securitization, the second criterion is less controversial, given that the referent object is crimean war battles human population; thus, any harm to vasudeva siddhartha the referent object would directly reduce a human well-being. However, the question of whether securitization of biological weapons meets the other two criteria is more contentious.

Skeptics may point to Colin Powell’s 2003 address to the United Nations as a case where the biological weapons security threat may have been exaggerated and war battles, securitization was promoted for political ends, thereby calling into question the legitimacy of the securitizing actor, the U.S. government. Vasudeva! In his speech, Powell made the case for an invasion of Iraq by claiming Iraq had capabilities to produce biological weapons of mass destruction, including mobile bioweapons labs, a claim that later turned out to be false 9. Critics also target the policies resulting from securitization, arguing that the capacity of aggressors to carry out large scale attacks causing mortality has been overestimated, calling into question whether an existential threat truly exists and whether the response has been appropriately measured 10 . Government funding may be seen as unjustifiably skewed in crimean war battles, favour of biodefense, defined as the capacity to respond to a biological weapons attack, to the neglect of siddhartha other key areas, such as endemic and pandemic diseases. For instance, Klotz calculated what is crimean war battles referred as the “likelihood-adjusted mortality” for biological weapons, pandemic diseases, and vasudeva, endemic diseases by multiplying the probability of occurrence by an estimate of is normal sodium mortality were an event to occur 11 . By comparing these values with government funding allocated to each category, he demonstrated that biodefense receives more funding than its likelihood-adjusted mortality estimate would suggest is warranted 11 . However, objections have been raised to vasudeva siddhartha this argument. Supporters of biodefense prioritization point to the fact that focusing solely on potential fatalities ignores other issues, such as the negative social and theory, economic fallout from an attack 12 . Siddhartha! Additionally, they point to the possibility that it is more expensive to combat intentional threats, where there will be an explicit effort to circumvent current practices by Essay about The Door-In-the-Face exploiting weaknesses 12 . It should also be considered that the probability of one attack is not independent from another, and that an vasudeva siddhartha, increasing probability of success may elicit more attempts 12 . To follow will be an Essay Organization, examination of whether government spending and policies constitute a justified response to siddhartha the threat of biological weapons. Securitization is relevant in Essay Data Collection in an Organization, that it was a way for vasudeva siddhartha decision-makers to implement the policies they want and is justifiable to crimean war battles the extent that the programs themselves are necessary and appropriate. Despite other consequences of securitization, such as public fear, political manipulation, and a heavy-handed response, which may give the vasudeva impression of an Essay about The Door-In-the-Face, overreaction, the reality is that securitization was a means of enabling the implementation of certain policies and programs necessary to respond to vasudeva the threat of biological weapons. 3. Consequences of an Attack. A government’s decision to securitize an issue is a strategy to make extreme responses seem justified, and it centers on the perceived existential risk a threat poses to the population 7 . Beginning with a brief history of biological weapons use, this section will aim to defend the framing of biological weapons use as an existential threat by examining their ability to cause mortality or to generate negative social and economic fallout. A brief discussion of the potential catastrophic consequences of Essay about St. Thomas Beauty as a a smallpox attack will illustrate the argument.

The use of biological weapons dates back centuries. Examples include the Tatars catapulting plague-infected corpses over city walls at the siege of vasudeva siddhartha Kaffa in the 14 th century, the deliberate triggering of a smallpox epidemic among Native Americans via contaminated blankets in career theory, the 18 th century during the French and Indian War, and the contamination of salad bars with salmonella at a restaurant in Oregon in the 20 th century 2 . However, with the development of the germ theory during the 19 th and into the 20 th century, there was an increase in scientific knowledge about biological weapons 10 . States became increasingly interested in such weapons, with Japan establishing a bioweapons program between 1932-1945, the United States in 1942, and the Soviet Union in 1973 13 . In 1972, in response to increasing concern about the threat of biological weapons, the United Nations proposed the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production and Stockpiling of Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons and on their Destruction , more commonly known as the Biological Weapons Convention (or BWC) 14 . The treaty came into effect in vasudeva, 1975, and banned the development, acquisition, and stockpiling of biological weapons 1 . However, it failed to halt the crimean war battles research and development of biological weapons, which have continued into the 21 st century. Those who argue that government response to the biological weapons threat has been overstated point to very low mortality in previous attacks 11 . Siddhartha! The anthrax attacks of 2001 in the United States, for example, resulted in only 5 deaths 15 . This argument could be used to urge governments to instead invest resources in areas that consistently cause higher mortality, such as infectious diseases like AIDS or even the seasonal flu. However, in carrying out a threat assessment, it is also important to look at the potential for mortality. Here it has been suggested future attacks may not be on the same relatively small scale as those in the past 15 . It is difficult to produce reliable estimates of fatalities that might result from an attack; there is Method huge variation in estimates and, often, little statistical evidence to support the predictions 11 . That said, it is vasudeva siddhartha agreed that, in theory, even small amounts of a dangerous biological agent could cause significant mortality if prepared and disseminated effectively 16 . For instance, the Essay The Door-In-the-Face WHO estimates that 50kg of B. anthracis distributed upwind of a population of 500 000 would leave 95 000 people dead and 125 000 more incapacitated 17 . Other sources suggest that 100kg of B. anthracis , disseminated via a crop-sprayer, could kill as many as three million people, and comparable values have been projected for other agents 2,18 . Another concern is that a contagious biological agent will result in person-to-person transmission, creating a self-sustaining effect not present in any other weapons class 10 . While mass casualties are possible, it is also important to note that, even in situations with few casualties, biological weapons attacks may have profound social and siddhartha, economic ramifications 3 . Such attacks could lead to is stem widespread social panic and disorder, resulting in self-destructive behaviour and creating what is called a “societal autoimmune effect” involving increases in crime and vasudeva, looting 19 . While there is little evidence to predict this would occur based on previous disaster situations (such as the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center in 1993 and 2001, where the public reaction is described as effective and adaptive, rather than panicked and disruptive), it must remain a consideration 20 . The effects of a largescale attack involving biological weapons are unknown, and what is normal sodium, epidemics of highly fatal diseases may cause serious social disruption 20 . The economic consequences of biological weapons attacks are severe and suggest that investing in defense makes good economic sense. While there were only five deaths in the 2001 anthrax attacks, those attacks resulted in tens of billions of dollars in government spending 21 . Also, the financial sector may be negatively impacted if investor confidence plummets 3 . Similarly, an attack on the agricultural sector, which accounts for 15% of the United States GDP, could have severe economic ramifications 3 . If the biological agent being used is siddhartha contagious, there could also be implications for trade and travel restrictions 3 . The SARS epidemic of about The Door-In-the-Face Method 2003 showed the vasudeva economic consequences of a highly infectious disease, essentially “crippling” some of the most dynamic cities in the world 4 . The Center for Biosecurity has estimated the economic cost of a biological weapons attack in the U.S. could exceed one trillion USD 15 . In short, there are social and economic consequences that, considered in conjunction with the potential for war battles catastrophically high mortality, justify the vasudeva framing of biological weapons as a significant existential threat to St. Thomas Transcendental the United States. This is siddhartha illustrated by considering the specific case of smallpox. The Variola virus, which causes smallpox, is an example of an agent that, if weaponized and used in an attack, would pose a serious existential threat to the United States 22 . It is highly contagious; in a 1972 outbreak in Yugoslavia, even with routine vaccinations, which are no longer carried out, the disease spread rapidly, with each affected individual infecting 11 to 13 others 23 . It is also lethal, with a 30% fatality rate 1 . Data Collection Organization! Human populations are highly susceptible because, since eradication, vaccinations have not been given for 20 years 24 . Other features make smallpox an appealing option for bioterrorism: it has no treatment once symptoms occur; it would not be detected for 7-17 days; it is physically disfiguring; and the virus is vasudeva siddhartha stable in aerosol form 1,24 . Perhaps the level most problematic aspect of smallpox is that those infected are contagious before symptoms appear. Simulations have been carried out, including a 1999 exercise by the Center for Civilian Biodefense Studies at Johns Hopkins University, where a terrorist release of Variola virus grew into a global outbreak, which the health and emergency response system was unable to control 22 . Vasudeva Siddhartha! Here it could be suggested that prevention efforts promoted by securitization are the only option, given the apparent inability to is normal sodium contain a global outbreak after an attack has occurred.

While the dangers posed by siddhartha the Variola virus are not contested, skeptics argue that it is too difficult to acquire to be a real danger 10 . However, there is significant concern over unaccounted Soviet Union smallpox samples, and a 1999 U.S. report pointed to super's career evidence that secret stockpiles of the vasudeva siddhartha virus are held by North Korea, Russia, and The Door-In-the-Face Method, Iraq 1,25 . It has also been suggested that the terrorist organization Aum Shinrikyo holds quantities of the Variola virus 22 . Threat and risk assessments should not rely solely on the worst-case scenarios of vasudeva biological weapons attacks, especially since practical challenges still limit terrorists’ ability to crimean war battles conduct attacks that will have the greatest possible effect. However, it is equally crucial to be aware of the wide range of consequences of such an attack. Vasudeva Siddhartha! This section has argued that there could be serious ramifications on several dimensions, ramifications which justify the crimean war battles framing of biological weapons as an existential threat to the United States and warrant investment in siddhartha, an appropriate response capacity. Securitization, therefore, played an important role encouraging policy responses that were justified and appropriate. 4. About Collection In An Organization! Preparedness for an Attack. This section will examine the capacity of the United States to mitigate the consequences of an attack, a primary aim of biodefense. For government action to be justified, the response must be appropriate to the given threat level. The argument will be that this is the case with biodefense programs, which must seek to address key weaknesses in the preparedness system. There is vasudeva a general consensus that the United States has insufficient capabilities to respond effectively to a biological weapons attack 3 . Three primary components of super's career theory preparedness will be addressed: the siddhartha ability to detect an attack, the preparedness of the health care and emergency response system to respond, and what level, the medical countermeasures that currently exist. It will be shown that there are important deficiencies in all three of these areas, further suggesting that programs aimed at vasudeva siddhartha developing a more appropriate response capacity are not overestimating the threat but are both justified and necessary. Biological weapons are a unique class from about, conventional, nuclear, and chemical weapons because their effects may not be felt immediately 26 . It could take days before it becomes apparent that an attack has taken place; this is problematic as immediate treatment may be crucial to survival 27 . Vasudeva! Oral antibiotics for inhalational anthrax, for example, should be administered within 48 hours of exposure, which leaves little time for detection and delivery 1 . Any delay in detection could result in a large number of casualties.

Additionally, if the weapon agent is contagious, failure to detect and respond the war battles attack may result in a greater spread of the infection. For this reason, adequate detection capabilities are essential to siddhartha bioterrorism preparedness. Unfortunately, while funding for biodefense has led to improvements, such as biosurveillance systems that seek information on disease outbreaks, there are still weaknesses in the system 15 . The systems are still quite rudimentary, relying on a time-consuming process of clinician reporting, laboratory diagnostics, and crimean war battles, the phoning, mailing, or faxing of siddhartha reports 15 . To improve, biosurveillance must be modernized. Super's! We need more effective electronic reporting, quick, cheap, and vasudeva siddhartha, reliable diagnostic tests, and the integration of public health surveillance data with that from other sectors such as law and intelligence agencies 26 . Currently, however, detection systems are not able to detect biological agents at about The Door-In-the-Face relatively low concentrations, or to detect multiple biological agents with a single system, and they are not sufficiently portable and user-friendly 26 . Detection ability is siddhartha further compromised by poor diagnostic capabilities in hospitals. One U.S. study found that 91.2% of U.S. What Is Normal! hospitals surveyed lacked the necessary diagnostic technology to analyze and identify biological agents 28 . Hospitals have been targeted as the weakest link in the preparedness chain, in particular due to their inability to accommodate a sudden influx of mass casualties 29 . It has been found that 60% of hospitals lack such resources as the siddhartha supplies, equipment, beds, and staff to respond to a mass casualty situation 28 . Consequently, hospitals lack the surge capacity to attend to patients; this could be disastrous in terms of victims not receiving life-saving treatment, the failure to quarantine infectious individuals, and Collection in an Organization, the possibility of social disorder as a result of public frustration. The problem is siddhartha that hospitals need far greater resources to respond to a bioterrorist attack than they do for everyday functioning 30 . Practice scenarios have demonstrated this resource shortage problem on more than one occasion. A simulated attack on a U.S. city that involved the pneumonic plague resulted in antibiotic shortages after just three days; the situation worsened until, at the end of the weeklong simulation, 3700 cases of plague had been identified and 2000 “deaths” had been reported 31 . Also of concern is the Essay Data in an Organization overall inadequacy of medical countermeasures for vasudeva biological weapons, identified as one of the Essay areas in greatest need of attention 15 . Of the twelve biological agents identified as posing the highest threat to the United States, only vasudeva siddhartha anthrax, smallpox, and botulism receive substantial funding for medical countermeasure development and acquisition 15 . One reason for is stem research ethical this is that pharmaceutical companies are not as motivated to fund research and development addressing biological weapons since there is not as great a commercial market as there is for vasudeva chronic diseases and influenza 15 . About The Door-In-the-Face Method! Even such practices as decontamination require funding and improvement. Siddhartha! The decontamination procedures for B. Is Stem Research! anthracis, previously used in the 2001 anthrax attacks, while effective, were also slow and expensive, and could not be replicated in a situation with mass casualties 15 . In the vasudeva siddhartha discussion above, it was argued that high government funding is not overestimated but is appropriate and justified to implement biodefense initiatives required to is stem research ethical improve response capacity. This was done by demonstrating that the siddhartha United States is super's career theory ill-equipped to deal with a significant biological weapons attack, and that this lack of preparedness risks further exacerbating the already potentially catastrophic consequences of a biological weapons attack. Securitization was useful in helping justify prioritizing funding to address this issue. 5. Probability of an Attack.

The potentially disastrous consequences of an attack and the lack of preparedness for such an event have been demonstrated, but perhaps none of that would matter (or justify prioritizing biodefense) if the probability of an vasudeva, attack by states or terrorists was negligible, due to an absence of capacity or will to carry out a biological weapons attack on cell research ethical the United States. Vasudeva! This section will consider the likelihood of a biological weapons attack in the United States by states or terrorist groups. This issue is hotly contested, with some groups arguing that the chances of an attack are much lower than popular fears and perceptions would suggest, while others, like CIA Director Gross, believe it is “only a matter of time”, and predict another biological weapons attack on the United States before 2020 28,32 . As noted earlier, this essay’s focus is not on whether media rhetoric is inflated or public perceptions unrealistic. Essay Data In An Organization! Rather, it will be argued that the vasudeva siddhartha increasing availability of biological weapons and research, the documented intent of vasudeva various hostile groups to acquire such weapons make an about Data in an Organization, attack more likely. This is where we see the relevance of the siddhartha precautionary principle, as an uncertainty surrounding the probability of an attack encourages us to adopt the principle, promoting caution where funding is allocated in light of the about Data Collection Organization dire consequences that may arise were an attack to occur. Officially ratified in 1975, the Biological Weapons Convention addressed concerns relating to the increasing biological weapons threat 1 . While commendable, the convention had important flaws including an absence of any formal verification of compliance by states. For instance, after signing the declaration, the Soviet Union continued to develop their biological weapons program (unbeknownst to siddhartha the global community) 33 . Soviet defectors later confirmed the scale of Essay St. Thomas Beauty Transcendental their program, describing a massive, covert operation 34 . Other countries have also been alleged to have biological weapons programs, including Iraq, North Korea, Iran, Libya, and Syria 33,35 . While Iraq has since claimed that its biological weapons were all destroyed, this has been impossible to verify 2 . Additionally, with the recent emergence of biotechnology industries in low and middle-income countries, most notably Brazil and India, more states are gaining advanced scientific capacity that could potentially be applied to biological weapons development and vasudeva, production 3 . Essay About Aqujnas: As A! The key here is siddhartha that many states now have the scientific and technological capacity to develop biological weapons, but there is a limited capacity for national states or international organizations to monitor such a process 36 . In the BWC definition of biological weapons, the primary focus is on intent—both in terms of the purpose of the microbial agent and the delivery system 1 . Intent is the determining factor in the classification of biological weapons, but this is extremely difficult to measure or prove until after an act has been committed. In the biological sciences, much research is readily applicable to justifiable ends (vaccines), as well as hostile ones (biological weapons). The United States will often accuse other states of hostile intent based solely on the presence of pharmaceutical and biotechnological expertise necessary for is normal sodium biological weapons development 35 . This can be viewed as an area of overreaction to the bioweapons threat, illustrating how securitization processes seem to legitimize some bad policy responses as well as good ones. Despite the fact that most states could use this expertise to develop biological weapons, the vasudeva siddhartha majority does not.

This suggests that, while capacity is present, the intent to Beauty as a use biological weapons is limited. In fact, over the past century, there is only one confirmed case of a biological weapons attack by siddhartha one state on about St. Thomas as a Transcendental another: Japan’s striking against China in the 1930s and 1940s 1 . It has been suggested that reasons for this may stem from fear of retaliation or the difficulties of controlling effects on civilians and combatants 1 . Most countries possessing biological weapons claim their purpose is to deter attacks or biological weapons use by others 35 . In the past, the prospect of terrorists using biological weapons received little attention 3 . It was generally believed that terrorists would not be able to engineer biological weapons because they lacked access to the necessary biological agents, the technological capabilities, and the specialized knowledge to weaponize and vasudeva siddhartha, disseminate a biological weapon 10 . Skeptics still believe that the advanced genetic capabilities required to produce biological weapons will not be available to terrorists in the near future 3 . Essay About The Door-In-the-Face Method! For instance, the ability to process a biological agent into aerosol form, the most effective delivery method, requires expertise across a wide range of scientific disciplines 32 . Also suspect is their ability to account for environmental and meteorological conditions that may disrupt weapon dissemination 10, 32 . However, a changing global and scientific landscape has led to a greater potential for the acquisition of biological weapons capacity by terrorist groups. For instance, during the Cold War, the vasudeva siddhartha Soviets reportedly employed approximately 55, 000 scientists and technicians at 6 biological weapons research labs and 5 production facilities 37 . Among other things, smallpox was weaponized into ballistic missiles and bombs 38 . In 1997, the United States conducted a visit to one of these research labs to find that the facility was half empty, poorly guarded, and that most of the scientists had left 39 . It is, therefore, possible that the biological agents, the equipment, and the human knowledge and expertise have since fallen into the hands of rogue states or terrorist organizations. Additionally, methods of level biological weapons production are now freely accessible via the siddhartha Internet, and the technological requirements are not beyond the means of a determined, well-funded terrorist organization 2 . Moreover, recent scientific advances may support biological weapons production by enabling the production of a higher yield of high-quality product 36 . Essay About Beauty! They may also support more effective weaponization, by vasudeva making agents more resistant to environmental hazards or by making agents targetable against super's career theory specific biochemical pathways 36 . As these capabilities spread across the globe, there will be a greater potential for terrorists to harness and use these techniques. While the capabilities of terrorists to engineer biological weapons may have been overstated in the past, this can no longer be said to vasudeva be the case. It has been argued that two of the preconditions for assessing the threat of bioterrorism, vulnerability to cell research ethical an attack and terrorist capability, are in place; the only remaining consideration is intent 40 . It is important to determine whether the intent to siddhartha acquire and use such weapons is what is normal level present among terrorist groups. While terrorist groups have not often used biological weapons, it is unclear whether this is due to insufficient capabilities or lack of intent 1 . There are a variety of reasons why they may not be interested in the use of biological weapons, including viewing such weapons as illegitimate in vasudeva siddhartha, military combat, risks of tactical failure, perceptions of high technical difficulty, and concerns about the indiscriminate nature of a biological weapons attack 3 . That said, various terrorist groups, including Aum Shinrikyo and al Qaeda, have a documented interest in the acquisition of Essay biological weapons, and with advances in biotechnology and siddhartha, weaponization, their use may become more attractive 2, 41 . Experts also point to a shift in about Collection, terrorist intent: “post-modern” terrorism aims to inflict the highest mortality rather than make political statements through violence 33 . This makes biological weapons an attractive option for vasudeva such groups; one estimate suggests that the cost to cause civilian casualties is only one dollar per square kilometer for sodium level biological weapons, compared to 800 and 2000 dollars per square kilometer for nuclear and vasudeva siddhartha, conventional weapons, respectively 42 . In a similar vein, the recent “war on terror” has created an increasingly decentralized terrorist threat; biological weapons are particularly well-suited to this form of smaller, more informed terrorist groups 28 . In short, while the intent to use biological weapons has been documented in terrorist groups in the past, present circumstances may make the cell ethical acquisition and use of biological weapons more attractive. To conclude, it is difficult to either predict or prevent a bioterrorism attack, which makes any assessment of attack probability, by necessity, subject to a high degree of estimation. However, due to the potential severity of consequences of an attack, the precautionary principle justifies the vasudeva government decision to allocate spending according to the severity of consequences, recognizing a situation where it is better to overestimate than to underestimate the Essay Data Collection in an Organization probability of an attack. Vasudeva Siddhartha! As argued by Michael Moodie of the Essay Data Collection Organization Chemical and Biological Arms Control Institute, “The odds (of bioterrorism) are increasing…we have to walk a fine line between hyping the risk…and trying to convince people that it is a possibility for which we need to invest resources” 2 . 6. Biodefense Funding. The essay’s previous sections have argued that a biological weapons attack would pose an existential threat to vasudeva siddhartha the United States, that there is an inadequate capacity to what is normal sodium respond to such an event, and that the possibility exists for such an vasudeva siddhartha, attack to occur.

This would suggest that a substantial amount of government funding should be allocated towards addressing this threat. The decision to is stem cell ethical securitize bioweapons facilitated this process. Vasudeva Siddhartha! Critics who believe the threat has been overstated often argue that the government should not invest so heavily in career theory, biodefense, but instead, improve other sectors, such as reducing mortality from endemic disease 11 . Meanwhile, proponents may argue that a securitized issue should receive more funding than issues that are not framed as an existential threat 4 . This section will argue that the response, in terms of government spending, is justified in that it seeks to protect the public and has not exaggerated the siddhartha threat of bioterrorism. This will be demonstrated by examining the degree of investment in biodefense, showing that a relatively small amount is allocated specifically to biodefense. In 2000, the United States federal budget proposed that 10 billion USD be allocated to counterterrorism programs, an increase of 3.3 billion dollars from the previous year 10 . About Data In An Organization! This covered all forms of vasudeva siddhartha terrorism, but there was a greater focus on biological terrorism than in the past, with spending on medical countermeasures and defense measures increasing fourfold from 91 million USD in super's career theory, 1998 to 336.6 million in 2000 2 . These trends intensified after the vasudeva siddhartha 9/11 attacks and the subsequent “Amerithrax” scare.

While estimates vary, the consensus is that, since 2001, the United States government has invested between 50 and 100 billion USD towards research and development in response to the perceived threat of a biological weapons attack 43 . One calculation posited that the U.S. Essay About Method! allocated 54.39 billion USD to vasudeva civilian biodefense programs between 2001 and 2010 44 . This did not include allocations to Bioshield, a program designed to address the lack of adequate medical countermeasures for terrorist attacks; 8.7 billion USD has been allocated since 2004 45 . However, of civilian biodefense funding, 42.57 of the Essay Data Collection in an 54.39 billion USD was directed towards programs with multiple goals beyond biodefense improvement, such as basic infectious disease research, programs to improve public health planning and operations, and improving preparedness for a range of disasters 44 . One example is the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) Hospital Preparedness Program, which seeks to improve surge capacity in healthcare facilities 44 . Some estimates suggest that up to 92% of biodefense funding has been directed to programs that serve secondary purposes, such as improving preparedness for disease pandemics and siddhartha, natural disasters 15 . One could argue that the Essay about The Door-In-the-Face amounts dedicated to biodefense as a percentage of entire budgets are not very substantial given the vasudeva siddhartha existential threat posed by is stem research an attack. Siddhartha! The DHHS, the largest recipient of federal biodefense funding, has a budget of 879 billion USD, of which biodefense made up only 0.5% 44 . Similarly, biodefense makes up less than 1% of the Department of is stem Homeland Security budget, and only 0.10% of the siddhartha Department of Essay about Aqujnas: as a Transcendental Defense Budget 44 . Accordingly, it could be argued that the bioweapons threat does not, in fact, take as high a priority in terms of government funding as one might expect, given the associated security risk. Additionally, almost all of the increases in investments have arisen from new funding; other sectors are not suffering at the expense of vasudeva biodefense prioritization 12 . High funding is appropriate independent of any controversy relating to about estimates of attack probability, as the precautionary principle would suggest that decisive action is warranted given the potential for dire consequences, even with a low probability of the event occurring. These figures show that the funding response is not an overreaction but has been justified and appropriate given the documented threat of biological weapons, targeting programs that are likely to protect the public. The anthrax attacks of 2001 are a case where biological weapons were used against the United States in the absence of vasudeva siddhartha any direct provocation. Essay! Since then, though the issue is vasudeva siddhartha controversial, biological weapons have been considered an important threat to U.S. security. This essay has defended the securitization of the career biological weapons threat as a means to an end. It is a process to engage in vasudeva siddhartha, where it is necessary to get approval for policies that are, in Essay about Collection, themselves, necessary and justified. By analyzing the existential threat posed by bioweapons, the lack of siddhartha preparedness by the United States for super's such an event, and the possibility of an attack, evidence presented in this essay suggests that these policies and vasudeva, the overall government response were appropriate. Taking these issues into account, the essay concluded that the threat of bioterrorism has not been overestimated; it warrants securitization and the resulting response measures.

Moving forward now, government must recognize and respond to the reality of an increasing bioterrorism threat. Commission on what is normal the Prevention of WMD Proliferation and Terrorism. 2008. World at Risk: The Report of the siddhartha Commission on the Prevention of WMD Proliferation and career theory, Terrorism . New York: Random House. Chapter on ‘Biological Proliferation’. Bellamy RJ, Freedman AR. Bioterrorism.

Quarterly Journal of siddhartha Medine 2001; 94(4):227-34. Moodie M. What Level! Dangerous weapons in dangerous hands: responding to vasudeva the challenges of chemical and biological terrorism. IFRI Proliferation Papers; 2009. Abraham T. The chronicle of about Data Collection in an a disease foretold: pandemic H1N1 and the construction of a global health security threat. Political Studies 2011; 59: 97-812.

Science and Environmental Health Network . The Precautionary Principle: A Common Sense Way to vasudeva siddhartha Protect Public Health and is stem cell, the Environment. Vasudeva Siddhartha! January 2000. Floyd R. Can securitization theory be used in normative analysis? Towards a just securitization theory. Security Dialogue 2011; 42 (4): 427-439. Cell Ethical! Oelsner A. Siddhartha! ‘(De)Securitisation Theory and about, Regional Peace: Some Theoretical Reflections and a Case Study on the Way to siddhartha Stable Peace’. 2005.

European University Institute, Fiesole, Italy, pp. Is Normal! 1-21. Waever O. Politics, security, theory. Security Dialogue 2011; 42 (4): 465-480. CNN World. “Former aide: Powell WMD speech ‘lowest point in my life’”.

23 August, 2005. Siddhartha! [online] Available at http://articles.cnn.com/2005-08- 19/world/powell.un_1_colin-powell-lawrence-wilkerson-wmd-intelligence?_s=PM:WORLD [Accessed 12 March, 2012]. United States General Accounting Office. “Combating Terrorism: Need for Comprehensive Threat and Risk Assessments of Chemical and Biological Attacks.” GAO , September, 1999. Klotz, Lynn. Casting a wider net for cell research countermeasure RD funding decisions. Biosecurity and Bioterrorism . Siddhartha! 2007; 5(4): 313-318. Epstein, Gerald. Security is more than public health: commentary on “Casting a wider net for countermeasure RD funding decisions”. What Is Normal Sodium Level! Biosecurity and Bioterrorism , 2007; 5(4): 353-357. Vasudeva! CBC News Online. “In depth: biological weapons”.

18 February, 2004. [online]. Available at http://www.cbc.ca/news/background/bioweapons/threat.html [Accessed 12 March, 2012]. Accelerating Future. “Overview: Biological Weapons Convention”. Career! 24 October, 2007. [online] Available at http://www.acceleratingfuture.com/michael/blog/2007/10/overview- biological-weapons-convention/ [Accessed 12 March, 2012]. US Senate Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs. “Ten years after 9/11 and the antrax attacks: protecting against biological threats”. Thomas Inglesby, Director of Center for Biosecurity of UPMC. Vasudeva! 18 October, 2011.

Danzig R, Berkowsky PB. Why should we be concerned about biological warfare? Journal of the super's theory American Medical Association 1997; 278: 431-432. Report of WHO Group of Consultants. Health Aspects of Chemical and Biological Weapons.

Geneva 1970, WHO. Stephenson J. Confronting a biological Armageddon: experts tackle prospect of bioterrorism. Journal of the American Medical Association 1997; 276: 349-351. Steinbruner J. Siddhartha! Terrorism: practical distinctions and research priorities. International Studies Review 2005; 7: 139. Glass TA, Schoch-Spana M. Bioterrorism and the people: how to vaccinate a city against panic. Clinical Infectious Diseases 2002; 34: 217-23. Dando M. 2005. “Bioterrorism: what is the real threat?”, Risk Case Studies , Nuffield Trust Global Programme on Health, Foreign Policy and Security. Super's Theory! Tucker, Jonathan B. Scourge: The Once and Future Threat of Smallpox. New York: Atlantic Monthly Press, 2001.

Henderson DA. Vasudeva! Smallpox: clinical and epidemiologic features. Essay About! Emerg. Infect. Dis. 1999; 5: 537-39. Cherry CL, Kainer MA, Ruff TA. Biological weapons preparedness: the role of physicians. International Medicine Journal 2003; 33: 242-253. Broad, William J., and Judith Miller. “Government Report Says 3 Nations Hide Stocks of Smallpox.” New York Times 13 June 1999. [online] Available at http://query.nytimes.com/gst/ [Accessed 14 March, 2012]. Thavaselvam D, Vijayaraghavan R. Vasudeva Siddhartha! Biological warfare agents.

Journal Pharm Bioallied Sci 2010; 2(3): 179-188. Altman GB. Invisible threats. Nursing Management 2002; 33: 43-7. Bennett RL. Chemical and biological terrorist attacks: an analysis of the preparedness of hospitals for managing victims affected by chemical or biological weapons of mass destruction. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 2006; 3: 67-75. Joseph AB, Anthony GM, Craig AD. “Ambulances to Nowhere: America’s Critical Shortfall in Medical Preparedness for Catastrophic Terrorism.” BCSIA Discussion Paper 2001-15, ESDP Discussion Paper ESDP-2001-07, John F. War Battles! Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University, October 2001.

United States General Accounting Office. “Hospital preparedness: GAO report to Congressional Committees.” GAO , August 2003. Vasudeva! Fraser M, Fisher S. “Elements of effective bioterrorism preparedness: a planning primer for local public health agencies.” National Association of County and City Health Officials January 2001. United States General Accounting Office. “Combatting Terrorism: observations on career the threat of chemical and biological terrorism”. GAO , October 1999. Atlas R. Bioterrorism: from threat to siddhartha reality. Annual Review of Microbiology 2002; 56: 167-85. Alibek K, Handelman S. Biohazard: The Chilling True Story of the Largest Covert Biological Weapons Program in the World . New York, Random House, 1999. Fidler D, Gostin L. (2008).

The problem of biological weapons. In Biosecurity in sodium level, the Global Age: Biological Weapons, Public Health, and the Rule of Law . New York: W.W. Norton Company. Petro JB, Plasse TR, McNulty JA. Siddhartha! Biotechnology: impact on biological warfare and biodefense.

Biosecurity and Bioterrorism 2003; 1(3): 161-168. Christopher GW, Cieslak TJ, Pablin JA, Eitzen EM. Biological warfare: a historical perspective. Journal of the American Medical Association 1997; 278 (5): 412-7. Henderson DA. The looming threat of bioterrorism. Essay The Door-In-the-Face Method! Science 1998; 283: 1279-1282. Henderson DA. Bioterrorism as a public health threat.

Emerging Infectious Diseases 1998; 4: 488-92. Siegrist DW. The threat of biological attack: why concern now? Emerging Infectious Diseases 1999; 5: 505-508. Dunn LA. “Next generation weapons of mass destruction and weapons of vasudeva siddhartha mass effect terrorism”. Career Theory! ASCO Final Report, Defense Threat Reduction, January 2008. Pearson GS. “The Threat of Deliberate Disease in the 21 st Century”. Henry L. Stimson Center Report, No. 24. Washington, DC: Stimson Cent, 1998. Siddhartha! Franco C. Billions for biodefense: federal agency biodefense funding FY2008-FY2009.

Biosecurity and Bioterrorism 2008; 6 (2): 131-146. Franco C. Billions for biodefense: federal agency biodefense funding FY2009-FY2010. About As A Transcendental! Biosecurity and Bioterrorism 2009; 7 (3): 1-19. Franco C, Sell TK. Federal agency biodefense funding FY2010-FY2011. Biosecurity and Bioterrorism 2010; 8 (2): 129-149. Written by: Patrick Saunders-Hastings. Written at: University of siddhartha Sussex.

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3 Key Elements to siddhartha Writing an Irresistible Resume That Gets Results. Would you benefit from guidance on how to what level write a resume? If you#8217;ve been struggling to siddhartha write your resume, you know how incredibly challenging it can be. The clients who come to us for our professional resume writing services describe hour after frustrating hour of trying to figure out the proper format and find just the right words to describe their experience and qualifications in a way that will get attention and super's theory get their phone ringing. Many times these clients come up with what they believe is an #8220;okay#8221; resume only to vasudeva use it in cell the job market and siddhartha have it fall flat. The true test of an effective resume, after all, is the results that it generates for crimean you.

If your resume isn#8217;t generating results you should look first at the methods you are using in your job search. But if you are sure the siddhartha methods you are using are effective ones, the likely culprit of the what level poor results is probably your resume. The Solution for Writing Compelling Resumes. What can you do to strengthen your resume and make it so compelling and irresistible that employers pick up the phone because they just can#8217;t wait to talk with you and learn more about how hiring you would benefit their company? The #8220;secret#8221; that we use in our professional resume writing firm is the CAR technique. No, I#8217;m not talking about the car sitting in your driveway. CAR is an acronym for the three absolutely crucial elements of a competition-killing, results-generating resume. When reviewing the ineffective resumes that our clients come to us with, we see the same mistakes time after time: Boring job descriptions that focus on the responsibilities and functions of the job performed. Some clients take the vasudeva siddhartha next step and include a few accomplishments, but accomplishments listed without some explanation of the context in which they were delivered mean very little. Accomplishments listed without the results, benefits, and The Door-In-the-Face Method value-add they produced for the employer mean even less.

Rather than just listing out your job responsibilities and accomplishments, I recommend the CAR technique. When you use this technique, you will rewrite your resume#8217;s employment section to tell a compelling “story.” For the vasudeva maximum impact, your accomplishments should be presented as concise #8220;success studies#8221; complete with challenge faced, action taken, immediate result, and strategic importance. By conveying your accomplishments in this “story” manner, you make a connection with the reader and make yourself far more memorable than all the other job candidates. The CAR Writing Technique In Practice. This first #8220;before#8221; example resume (below) illustrates the mistakes that many people make when writing their resumes. Boring bulleted lists describe the job functions for ethical which this person was hired. There are a couple of accomplishments and results included, but they are far from the vasudeva focus of the document.

There is also no real way to understand the about St. Thomas Aqujnas: Beauty accomplishments as the situation in which they were produced is not described. This resume will fall flat when used in the job market. It looks just like every other one. It doesn#8217;t stand out and get attention. After rewriting the resume (example below) to showcase the challenges, actions, and results, it is far more compelling. This excerpt of the employment section clearly tell you that this candidate is an siddhartha expert in turning around and revitalizing underperforming divisions and business units. Cell Research! That fact alone sets this candidate apart from his competition. But the resume goes on to describe his many achievements and the results that have been delivered through his work for the company. A boring resume has been transformed into an irresistible one.

Employers who are seeking a candidate to help them revive the performance of their company will be drawn to this candidate and won#8217;t be able to pass up calling him to learn more. Note also the design techniques that we#8217;ve used to make what could be an overwhelming amount of information easy to read. The eye is drawn from key point to vasudeva key point. Super's Theory! Here is another similar example resume. The before version includes some good information, but it is presented in a boring and hard-to-read-at-a-glance format that doesn#8217;t go far enough in describing the situation/challenge. Vasudeva Siddhartha! It is also very light on results. What Sodium! This client insisted that it was impossible to quantify results. Vasudeva Siddhartha! The after version shows again what a difference professional resume writing and what the CAR technique can make. Although we were still unable to unearth any quantified results, we reworded accomplishments to still focus on the benefits and value add of each accomplishment. A sidebar provides an easy-to-read and eye-catching #8220;snapshot#8221; of the major challenge faced in the position and the overall key results produced.

The accomplishments and results presented in context give the reader an siddhartha immediate understanding of the strategic impact this candidate had on the company. About Aqujnas: As A Transcendental! Again, an vasudeva siddhartha employer seeking a candidate to help them grow their business to the next level of success will find this candidate irresistible and will feel compelled to pick up the phone and call him for Essay about The Door-In-the-Face an interview. For more inspiration on vasudeva siddhartha, how the CAR technique can be used to Essay about St. Thomas Aqujnas: as a turn a dull resume into vasudeva siddhartha, a winner, take a look at the many professionally written resume examples on super's, our site showcasing the work of vasudeva siddhartha Distinctive Documents. “Finally! A comprehensive e-manual of professionally written sample resumes that show you step-by-step (using 101 REAL before-and-after examples) exactly how to create your own job-winning resume – or transform one that isn’t working for you!” 101 REAL examples, tips, strategies, and valuable professional trade secrets you can download and use right NOW! About the author: Michelle Dumas is a multiply-certified, national-award-winning professional resume writer and career marketing expert widely recognized as pioneering thought-leader and ethical trend-setter in siddhartha the employment services industry. With 20 years of experience, Michelle has helped 10,000+ job seekers in war battles all 50 U.S. states and across the vasudeva world land rewarding jobs and build fulfilling careers. Our Award-Winning Distinctive Resumes Get Fast Results Give You an Undeniable Competitive Edge! Personal, Top-Quality, Affordable Service. Or Call Us: (800) 644-9694.

I have been waiting before writing to give you the great news. I applied to about eight recruitment agencies with my resume attached, all on theory, the Internet. Within a few days I was contacted and asked to go for vasudeva siddhartha an interview at a company only 35 miles away. It is 3.5 years old and is stem research sells consultancy at a very senior level in siddhartha large corporations. This week I received the offer letter. What has become very clear in this process is the about Data incredible value of a good resume.

Because you made it abundantly clear what I had achieved through a messy but interesting career path, this recruitment(. ) Lisa was wonderful. Very responsive to my comments and vasudeva siddhartha the documents she produced are excellent. Very, very pleased with the final product.I would absolutely recommend Lisa and Essay about Data Collection in an Organization Distinctive Career Services to my colleagues. The job search has ramped up into high gear since I starting using the siddhartha resume you prepared for me. I interviewed today for a position as a Property Accountant with a real estate management company. My skill set was a great match with what they were looking for, so thanks for your efforts.

I feel confident I will be offered the position. Method! Thanks again, I'll keep you posted. Search our site. Connect With Us. Copyright copy 19962017 Distinctive Career Services, LLC All Rights Reserved.

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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips. If you've spent any time doing SAT prep, you probably are familiar with what it’s like to vasudeva siddhartha, write an SAT essay. But what’s it like to be an SAT essay grader? Find out what essay graders look for, what the essay grading job involves, and about St. Thomas effective SAT essay tips you should use as a result of this information as I bring you. Vasudeva! insights from real SAT essay graders. Note : The information in this article is for the old (pre-March-2016) SAT essay, which was scored out of 12 and Essay about Aqujnas: part of the Writing section. Because the new SAT essay has been administered (and graded) so few times, there's not much information out there yet about the grading process for the new essay. We'll update this article as soon as the information comes out.

feature image credit: The Lowdown by andy carter, used under CC BY 2.0/Cropped from original. Why does understanding the essay grading job help you on the SAT essay? Well, if you know what the vasudeva, essay graders are looking for, then you can shape your prep (and write your essays) accordingly. An analogy for this situation: you are preparing for career theory your road test (to get your driver's license), and want to make sure you will pass. Siddhartha! There's no point in becoming perfect at parallel parking if it's not even going to be on your road test (I still can't believe this is true for some states), especially if you neglect practicing your full stop at a red light/stop sign skills. While in the long run parallel parking might be useful for life, it's not going to help you pass the test. Similarly, on the SAT essay, there are some things that your essay absolutely needs (specific examples) and others that are less important (perfect spelling). And a great way to learn what a typical SAT essay scorer looks for theory in an essay is to go directly to the source. How Do You Become an SAT Essay Grader? The CollegeBoard requires potential SAT essay graders to meet all of the following criteria:

Have at least a bachelor's degree Teach or have taught a high school or college-level course that requires writing Have taught for at least a three-year period Reside in the continental United States, Alaska, or Hawaii Be a U.S. citizen, resident alien, or authorized to work in the U.S. Have not worked for a test preparation company that offers SAT test preparation in the past 12 months. Vasudeva! (This does not include working for Pearson Educational Measurement or The College Board) Have not received pay from students or individuals to assist with SAT test preparation within the crimean war battles, past 12 months. (This does not include receiving pay from siddhartha your school as part of crimean war battles, your job responsibilities) SAT Essay Graders: Facts, Myths, and Strategies. Below, I’ve listed seven of the most important insights I found in various online articles on and interviews with real SAT essay scorers. The three sources I drew from vasudeva included a I am a. ask me anything question and answer series, an article in Aqujnas: Transcendental, the Washington Post titled The SAT Grader Next Door, and an opinion piece in the LA Times titled How I Gamed The SAT. 1. Fact: Essay scorers must grade 1 essay every 2-3 minutes. Once they've completed their training, official SAT essay graders have to siddhartha, grade 20-30 essays an hour (which ends up being one essay every 2-3 minutes).

If a grader starts to war battles, lag behind and take longer, she must retrain until she is back to siddhartha, that pace. Keeping the graders grading at Essay Method, fast pace ensures that the graders are looking at vasudeva, the essays as a whole, rather than, for instance, getting stuck on about St. Thomas Aqujnas:, logical issues in one paragraph. Myth: Because they have such a short time to score your essay, graders won’t read your whole essay. As long as you have a good first two paragraphs the rest of your essay doesn’t matter, right? WRONG. Remember, in order to even qualify to do this job you must have taught a course that requires writing and have been teaching for at least three years. Siddhartha! Ask any English teacher and she'll tell you that you've got to be able to read and grade essays fairly quickly in order to what sodium level, keep up with the job. On the SAT, the essay scorer's job is vasudeva, even simpler than that of an English teacher because no comments are given (something that is very time-consuming).

All the essay scorer has to Essay St. Thomas Aqujnas: Transcendental, do is siddhartha, read the essay and give it a numerical score. Strategy: Organize your essay so that the scorer can easily follow your logic. Taking the time to plan out the what sodium, organization as well as the content of your essay really does pay off. Don't bury the siddhartha, lead and make the essay grader hunt for your main point and is stem research line of reasoning: make your thesis statement easy to vasudeva, spot by putting it in your introduction (first or last line is best), and keep to a simple paragraph-per-example essay form . Essay! The five paragraph essay structure may be boring, but it will make it easier for a quick-reading grader to understand your argument. 2. Fact: Essay graders don't care about minor grammar and spelling errors. Because graders score the SAT essay holistically (based on overall impression) rather than point-by-point, they are instructed to vasudeva siddhartha, ignore minor errors that they might otherwise correct. In the context of the SAT essay, minor errors are ones that don't affect the meaning of the essay or make it significantly more difficult to understand. In the examples given on Essay The Door-In-the-Face, the CollegeBoard websites, the 6-scoring essays each have 5-6 minor errors ; these errors were not counted against the students because they A) were so few and vasudeva B) did not significantly affect the meaning of the essays.

What makes the errors minor? Consider the following two sentences. The first sentence has some minor errors (comma use and spelling issues). When I was in Essay Data, middle school I relized that if I wanted to play something more interresting than Eine Kline Nactmusic, I would have to vasudeva, write it myself. Now take a look at career, this second sentence, which has some major errors (grammatical). When I was in middle school, I realize that more interesting than Eine Kleine Nachtmusik, I have to write it to play it. The second sentence may not have any spelling errors, but the way it is vasudeva, phrased makes it difficult to what sodium, understand the meaning. Even though some minor errors are allowable in top-scoring essays, the more errors you have beyond a certain point, the more your score will drop . Vasudeva Siddhartha! And when you're trying to write an theory entire essay in 25 minutes, you're bound to make mistakes you don't even notice. The only way to catch them is to go back and reread what you've written. Strategy: Leave yourself 2-3 minutes to read over siddhartha, your essay and revise it. The time you’ll spend will be well worth it, allowing you to The Door-In-the-Face Method, catch missing words that affect the meanings of vasudeva, sentences and grammar errors that could drag your essay score as well as giving you time to rewrite words or phrases that are otherwise illegible.

This image is full of war battles, lies. And a nice pen, I guess. 3. Fact: Variety in sentences and vasudeva siddhartha vocabulary and good transitions can be deciding factors in essay grade. All three of the essay graders I drew from Essay Data Collection in an Organization agreed that if they were waffling between two different scores, variety in siddhartha, sentence structures and cell research ethical vocabulary and vasudeva siddhartha good transitions (or lack thereof) could push an essay into the next score level (or confirm that it merited the lower of the two possible scores). Myth: Using advanced vocabulary (even if you use it incorrectly) will automatically get you a high score. Again, this comes down to a misunderstanding about what graders are looking for. Showing that you know advanced vocabulary is Essay The Door-In-the-Face, fine, but if you don’t make a good argument, or don't support your argument with specific examples, you’re not going to do well on vasudeva siddhartha, this particular essay. One article described this as the about Collection Organization, plethora effect, since so many students misuse the word plethora, thinking that the SAT essay graders love that word. Here is a good summation of the situation, using quotes from siddhartha a former SAT essay grader: “Strong argument, at least three well-thought-out reasons supporting that argument, strong, relevant, specific examples for each reason, and a thorough analysis of the examples in relation to your reasons and core argument will get you to at least a 5…The 6th point comes through style--use of is normal sodium, language, diction, syntax, vocabulary. As long as the words are use correctly and appropriately, though. Randomly throwing in ANTIDISESTABLISHMENTARIANISM isn't going to vasudeva, win you any points.” (sources: e-to-the-x and about The Door-In-the-Face e-to-the-x).

Strategy: If you’re consistently getting a 4/6 or lower on your essay, work on your arguments and vasudeva support first, then grammar, THEN vocabulary. As all three sources said, having a strong argument, logical organization, and good grammar in your essay is more important than fancy wording. If you sacrifice grammar because you misuse a vocab word, your essay's scorers won’t be impressed. If you’re consistently getting stuck at a 5, THEN it might be time to work on sprucing up your vocabulary, varying your sentence structures, and improving your transitions. 4. Fact: You can prepare for the SAT essay. Just as with the other sections of the SAT, it's possible to prepare for the SAT essay. As the CollegeBoard says in Essay about Data Collection, the Practice the Writing Section chapter of the Official SAT Study Guide (Second Edition), You can never practice too much.

Myth: You can write and memorize a few essays on vasudeva siddhartha, a couple of different topics ahead of is stem cell research ethical, time, then just “steer” the siddhartha, actual SAT prompt towards those essays. WRONG. Working on set topic essays can be helpful because it gets you used to arguing in the way you need to on the SAT, but replicating it when the topic is different will lose you points and, in the worst cases, cause you to super's theory, get a 0 for writing off-topic. Vasudeva Siddhartha! The pre-written nature of these essays is immediately apparent to most essay graders. In fact, when asked about the mistake that most affected the overall grade she gave SAT essays, an actual SAT grader responded: “Artificiality. Trying to shoehorn in Essay about Collection Organization, a canned essay they've written and vasudeva essentially memorized before, or canned, pre-prepared ideas, or throw in bit words without regard to appropriateness. Essay About Organization! It needs to vasudeva siddhartha, sound natural, not contrived.” Strategy: Prepare (your own) sentence phrasings ahead of time and come armed with specific examples. If you tend to freeze up under pressure, then it's a good idea to write out and Essay about St. Thomas Aqujnas: Beauty Transcendental memorize well-constructed sentences that can be used for a variety of prompts . Use this article on the 6 different types of SAT prompts to work on vasudeva siddhartha, creating sentences that would work with every type of example.

For instance, for prompts in the form of Which is better, you could prepare a transition sentence like this: Another instance that demonstrates how [one thing] is more effective than [the other thing] can be found in [some historical or literary example]. Here's the sentence with the holes filled in for a prompt that asks Is cooperation better than competition? Another instance that demonstrates how cooperation is super's career theory, more effective than competition can be found in the dividing up of the magnificent African cake by European colonial powers in siddhartha, the late 19th century. It is important that you prepare using your own words , rather than directly taking other people's essay skeleton templates; otherwise, you might have your entire test disqualified for what level plagiarism (more on that in this article about essay skeletons).

Instead, practice explaining your own examples (which leads into the next fact). 5. Fact: You need to support your point with specific examples. The single most important piece of advice I have for students preparing for the SAT essay is to vasudeva, use specific examples . Actual essay graders say that using 3 examples is best, but that just 2 will work if the examples are very strong. I personally tend to land on the side of advising two examples with stronger arguments, rather than more examples with weaker arguments. Myth: Historical or literary examples are better than personal examples. While Klein notes in what is normal sodium level, her article that higher scores seemed to go to siddhartha, writers who made sure at least one or two of their anecdotes were not personal,” this is not a cause-and-effect thing. Crimean War Battles! Instead, the issue seems to be that students who use personal examples tend to go off-topic and use a more informal tone , which means that the students who use personal anecdotes aren't receiving lower grades on their essays because of the kind of example per se; it’s the vasudeva, way these personal examples are presented that causes a drop in about Aqujnas: Beauty as a, essay score. Take the vasudeva siddhartha, prompt I used before, Is cooperation better than competition? Let's say that I want to Transcendental, use a personal example about working with classmates on a project to vasudeva, support my thesis that cooperation is more effective than competition. Essay About The Door-In-the-Face! Here's an vasudeva siddhartha example of an about St. Thomas Aqujnas: as a example that goes off-topic:

I have experienced how cooperation is more effective than competition in vasudeva siddhartha, my own life. In AP Macro, we split up into Method, teams to siddhartha, do final projects on the stuff we'd learned. We got to choose our teams, but of course could only choose from about St. Thomas Aqujnas: Beauty as a other kids in the class. I ended up working with four other students: two good friends of mine, a guy I'd gone to elementary school, and another girl who'd been my classmate since middle school. It was a lot of fun, because we all joked around about what we were learning.

A lot of times our work sessions ended up involving YouTube videos about siddhartha, Ben Bernanke singing or other things like that, which made us all want to hang out cell ethical, more. We ended up all doing well on the project. While this example starts out strong, it devolves into reminiscing about the social aspect of the group project, rather than staying focused around the prompt (Is cooperation better than competition?). Strategy: Prepare your examples ahead of siddhartha, time. Pick out a couple each of historical, literary, pop culture/current event, and is stem cell ethical personal examples that can be used as examples of many different things. If you draw a blank in siddhartha, one area (for instance, if you tend to know history better than books), then come up with more examples in other areas to compensate. Next, practice writing about these examples and explaining them in a formal way (particularly when it comes to the stories and examples from your own life). The more familiar you are with these examples, the faster you'll be able to write about them (in a way that is relevant) on test day. Essay Data Collection In An! If you're not sure what makes a good example, take a look at these six examples of examples.

6. Vasudeva! Fact: Your essay does not have to be factually correct. This is a little known fact about the about Method, SAT essay that I really wish I'd known when I was taking the SAT way back when. Because SAT essay scorers do not have time to vasudeva siddhartha, fact check, they are not allowed to research, deduct points if you make a mistake about vasudeva, a date on an essay; in fact, part of the training that SAT essay scorers go through involves teaching them to ignore factual inaccuracies (no small roadbloack for Data Collection experienced teachers to have to vasudeva siddhartha, get past!). A corollary of this lack of theory, fact-checking is that you can make stuff up on the essay . You can do things like write that the black plague was caused by penicillin, and the graders have to vasudeva, take your word for it. Myth: Filling up the page is cell research ethical, more important that content. While it’s true that highest scoring essays are pretty much without exception more than 1 page long , that doesn’t mean that writing more automatically gets you a higher score. Correlation does not imply causation; the reason longer essays score better is vasudeva siddhartha, because the students who write longer essays are usually the ones who have more to say. Is Normal Sodium! You can't just write a short story instead of the prompt, or fill up the vasudeva, last 2/3 of your second page with “I want a pony.

I want a pony. I want a pony.” Even less extreme tactics aimed at Essay about St. Thomas Beauty as a Transcendental, filling up the page (repeating yourself, drawing out your words and siddhartha phrases, making your handwriting bigger) won’t affect your score positively and may actually end up costing you points (for lack of clarity or organization). Strategy: Make up examples and information that supports your point. Don't be afraid to confabulate (to make up facts and career theory examples) - it's better to make up specifics than to have a factually accurate but vague example . Often, students who are afraid of getting the facts wrong end up being too vague on their essays and don't write enough to get a top essay score. When you make up facts and examples, however, you must make sure the examples actually DO support your point . And just as with the previous strategy, be clear and vasudeva use a formal tone in your explanation – graders might be less convinced by your personal example if you say it happened to a friend of yours named “Iha Teessays” or “Colonel Patchypants,” rather than to a more realistically-named “Sam Vimes” or “Juanita Callahan.” Colonel Patchypants, I presume?

7. Fact: 4-, 5-, and 6- scoring essays are the most difficult to tell apart. All of the Essay about, sources I consulted confirmed that actual SAT essay graders can have a hard time telling the top-scoring essays apart (although sometimes 6 essays are really easy to vasudeva siddhartha, pick out, just because they are so outstanding). Essay The Door-In-the-Face! Is the essay generally organized and vasudeva focused, or well organized and focused? Does it show strong critical thinking or outstanding critical thinking? These incremental differences can be difficult to suss out, particularly if an essay is very strong in some areas and less strong in others. Because SAT essay graders get penalized for scoring essays 1 point apart from each other (especially if it happens multiple times), they prefer hedging bets and is stem research ethical scoring the vasudeva, middle of the range they think the essay is in. As one grader pointed out, if an essay is at least at 4, a 5 would be the safest grade for an essay scorer to give because that score is within one point of a 4 OR a 6, whereas giving the essay a 4 could result in penalties if the other grader gives it a 6.

Strategy: Work on getting your essay up to a consistent 4. If you can consistently write a 4-scoring essay, then there is a chance that an essay grader might look at it and think Better give this a 5 to be on the safe side. To consistently write at least a 4-scoring essay, you must use specific examples to war battles, support your thesis and have an organized essay as well as write in standard written English grammar (no 4 instead of four or b/c instead of vasudeva siddhartha, because). For more information on essay scoring, read my article on the SAT essay grading rubric. Make sure your essay has a solid thesis statement at Essay about Collection Organization, the beginning and siddhartha clear organization overall Leave yourself time to revise so that minor grammar errors don't add up. Vocabulary is not as important as strong arguments and clear explanations of examples Prepare some sentence phrasings/transitional phrases ahead of super's career, time (as long as the wording is your own) Prepare specific examples ahead of time. Vasudeva! Make up examples to support your point if you need to what is normal level, (but make the examples convincing and siddhartha clear) Aim for at least a 4 to crimean war battles, give yourself a chance to edge over into vasudeva, another scoring level. Discover more ways to improve your SAT Writing score with these SAT Essay Tips. Do longer SAT essays score higher? Read about how essay score is related to essay length. Want to get serious about improving your SAT score?

We have the leading online SAT prep program that will raise your score by 160+ points, guaranteed . Exclusive to our program, we have an expert SAT instructor grade each of your SAT essays and about give you customized feedback on how to improve your score. This can mean an instant jump of 80 points on siddhartha, the Writing section alone. Check out our 5-day free trial and sign up for free: Laura graduated magna cum laude from Wellesley College with a BA in crimean, Music and Psychology, and earned a Master's degree in Composition from the Longy School of Music of Bard College. She scored 99 percentile scores on the SAT and GRE and loves advising students on how to siddhartha, excel in high school. You should definitely follow us on social media. You'll get updates on our latest articles right on your feed.

Follow us on all 3 of our social networks: Have any questions about this article or other topics? Ask below and we'll reply! Series: How to Get 800 on Each SAT Section: Series: How to Essay Organization, Get to 600 on Each SAT Section: Series: How to Get 36 on Each ACT Section: Our hand-selected experts help you in a variety of siddhartha, other topics! Looking for Graduate School Test Prep? Check out Collection in an Organization, our top-rated graduate blogs here: Get the latest articles and test prep tips! © PrepScholar 2013-2015.

All rights reserved. SAT® is siddhartha, a registered trademark of the College Entrance Examination Board TM . About In An! The College Entrance Examination. Board TM does not endorse, nor is it affiliated in vasudeva, any way with the Essay about, owner or any content of vasudeva, this site.

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Gaza Strip: Blitzed, caged and broken, Palestinians' nightmarish existence has no end [Photo essay] The 2014 Israel-Gaza conflict began on 8 July. By the time the bombardment ceased 50 days later, around 2,200 Palestinians had been killed, the siddhartha majority of them civilians, including an estimated 500 children. Research. On the Israeli side, 66 soldiers and six civilians lost their lives in vasudeva siddhartha Hamas attacks. One year after the military operation, many people living in the ruins of Gaza fear another conflict, but are unable to leave the coastal enclave. Around 1.8 million people remain trapped in the tiny strip due to an eight-year blockade imposed by both Israel and Egypt. To mark the anniversary of the conflict, IBTimes UK presents this exclusive photo essay illustrating life in Gaza.

Mimi, Nunu and Lulu Nimer sit in their pink themed room Violeta Moura. Mimi, Nunu and Lulu Nimer – 14, 15 and 16 years old respectively – had hoped to Essay about St. Thomas Aqujnas: Beauty Transcendental leave the Gaza Strip when the family won the US green card lottery. Their father, Ayman, was optimistic about the possibility of leaving. There were no safe places in Gaza. Vasudeva Siddhartha. We don't have bomb shelters or anything to is stem cell protect our families, he said. We live in a big prison, surrounded by the navy at sea, to the south by Egypt, and to the north by Israeli artillery, infantry and tanks. In the siddhartha sky: drones. We are monitored 24 hours a day with radar and is stem ethical cameras.

They have the right to vasudeva siddhartha attack at Essay about St. Thomas Aqujnas: as a Transcendental, any moment any target they deem suspicious. Ayman was allowed out of the Strip for 24 hours for a preliminary visa interview at the US consulate in Jerusalem. On a second interview, the family's visa was denied because his wife Heba does not have a college degree. Ironically, Heba is an entrepreneur whose jewellery can be seen from all over the world on her brand's Facebook page, but her pieces can't be exported to vasudeva allow her to expand the business. There is no international postal service in and out of about The Door-In-the-Face Method Gaza. The girls are broken-hearted but their youth will not let them believe that that is it.

It cannot be it. Siddhartha. It just can't, they sigh in disbelief. The frustration felt by the Nimer girls is echoed in much of Gaza's youth. Twenty-three year old rapper Ibrahim, aka MC Gaza, is eloquent on the subject. Essay The Door-In-the-Face. He said: I think even our dreams are under occupation. Vasudeva Siddhartha. The youth in Gaza is dead. They get diplomas in the universities but then they don't have work, can't travel, can't do anything. We feel both pride and pessimism.

Pessimism because of the crimean situation in which we are trapped and pride because we have the capacity to do art, even in this situation. Ibrahim, aka MC Gaza Violeta Moura. Ibrahim sees it as his mission to siddhartha stir debate and motivate his peers. Hamas has forbidden concerts since 2007 when it took power. The remaining cultural and entertainment facilities that it hasn't shut down were either damaged or destroyed in the wars. However, the rubble from air strike bombardments has been turned into stages, playgrounds, swings, castles, forts and gyms. Energetic youngsters in Beit Hanoun use the ruins to practise parkour, oblivious to the estimated thousands of unexploded ordnances that lie buried in the rubble.

Palestinian youths practise parkour moves on a bombarded structure in Beit Hanoun Violeta Moura. Children play in the ruins of a mosque's dome in Essay about The Door-In-the-Face Khuzaa. Thousands of bombs, rockets and other unexploded ordnance are thought to be buried in the rubble scattered throughout the vasudeva territory Violeta Moura. A boy reacts as he talks about the extent of the destruction in the bombarded neighbourhood of Shejaiya in the east of Gaza City Violeta Moura. Playing is not an option for some children. What Level. They spend their time trying to help their widowed mothers make ends meet by selling packets of tissues, or begging for money.

The older youths talk about football, barbecues, girls and what they'd do if they could leave Gaza. But most of all, they bitch about Hamas. Should you guys be talking like this? There are people around, one says. Children sell items such as cigarettes and packets of tissues outside the market Violeta Moura. Apart from journalists and people representing NGOs, the only foreigners the children have the opportunity to 'meet' are Israeli soldiers. Despite beautiful beaches, lively culture and exquisite cuisine, tourism is almost non-existent after years of siege. Ayman longs for vasudeva, happier times.

He says: We are at the heart of the Middle East. Crimean War Battles. We could be a great city for the whole Arab world with a good port. Siddhartha. It could be like Alexandria or an Italian or Spanish city. Gaza city's skyline is seen from its port Violeta Moura. There haven't been Palestinian elections in years – in the West Bank or Gaza – and many doubt Hamas could be re-elected in a period of calm. But there hasn't been one of Essay about Method those for years either. When faced with escalating conflict, both Israelis and Palestinians have tended to vote for hawkish parties.

After the war, Israel elected a right-wing government, leaving more liberal voters in disbelief. Some left Israel or are planning to siddhartha leave. In Gaza, though, there is no way out. Many there feel helpless and say it is Essay about St. Thomas Beauty, only a matter of time until another war breaks out. Ayman says: Israel occupied our land by force and kills us on a daily basis. What would any other people do to vasudeva defend themselves? The peaceful solution does not exist. We have had 20 years of negotiations, which gave us more loss, death, hate, hardships, isolation and the siege. Those like me, who spent their lives preaching peace, ended up joining violent groups. The ruins of a bombed apartment building rises out of a mound of rubble in Gaza City. Many thousands remain homeless after the war Violeta Moura.

A man walks past a destroyed mosque and a water tank in war battles the town of Khuzaa Violeta Moura. A resident walks through the rubble of destroyed homes in the heavily bombed Shejaiya neighbourhood of vasudeva siddhartha Gaza City. The ruins of an unfinished mosque are seen near the UN Beit Hanoun School for Boys, which serves as a shelter for families who lost their homes in the war Violeta Moura. Hussam Safar, a resident of the super's career heavily damaged Shejaiya neighbourhood, sits outside the remains of his home Violeta Moura. More than 17,000 boys between the age of 14 and siddhartha 21 completed Hamas military training in 2015. The group says it is necessary to prepare the next generation to fight Israel.

Rights organisations have accused Hamas of exploiting the The Door-In-the-Face trauma of the youth, and accuse Israel of creating another generation of enemies. Emmanuel Nahshon, spokesperson for the Israeli foreign ministry, thinks otherwise. Siddhartha. We deplore the loss of about civilian life in Gaza. We think it is vasudeva, a terrible human tragedy that so many people lost their lives. But if they lost their lives, it is mostly the crimean fault of Hamas who uses people as human shields in order to siddhartha protect their terrorist activities. They shoot rockets against Israeli cities from within Palestinian neighbourhoods and of course we have to react.

A boy clears rainwater from the courtyard of the UN Beit Hanoun School for Boys, serving as shelter for homeless families Violeta Moura. In the summer of 2014, the United Nations said it found 20 rockets in one of its empty schools. Crimean War Battles. Many of those who condemned Hamas also pointed out the finding does not legitimise the disproportionate response of the Israeli army. Israel accuses Hamas of concealing weapons, establishing command centres and siddhartha launching missiles from the densely populated areas of Gaza. Journalists who managed to document this were banned by what is normal sodium level, Hamas from Gaza. Thousands of vasudeva Hamas rockets were fired into Israel from Gaza, some reaching as far as Tel Aviv. During the conflict, tension was palpable across Israel as thousands of Hamas rockets were fired from about Gaza, some reaching as far as Tel Aviv, while most were exploded in the air by missiles deployed by Israel's Iron Dome defence system. Israeli TV channels broadcast politicians' statements that they are trying to kill us. Looking at the sky, they were proved right. Vasudeva. There was a feeling of I told you so on the part of right-wingers towards the eye-rolling leftists, who countered that It's the occupation, stupid.

It was tense and about The Door-In-the-Face Method awkward in the shelters. People who usually do not mingle took refuge together: secular and siddhartha religious Jews, right wing nationalists, leftists, the silent majority, Muslims, Christians, Palestinian citizens of Israel, expats, tourists, etc. Although the country's Iron Dome missile defence system is so effective that very few Hamas rockets reached any major population centres, there were few safe places in super's career theory the areas immediately adjacent to Gaza. The lack of casualties there was either a matter of luck, poor aim or a lack of interest in vasudeva targeting the battered and Data Collection in an neglected Israeli cities of the vasudeva South. A man sorts through the rubble of a bombed building, looking for recyclable construction material Violeta Moura. As punishment for the rocket attacks, Israel pounded Gaza with air strikes. According to the United Nations Relief Works Agency (UNRWA), the economy in crimean the Gaza Strip was already collapsing before the conflict.

The latest World Bank report found unemployment in Gaza is probably the vasudeva highest in the world at 43%, following the destruction and Essay about Data in an Organization the collapse of businesses and infrastructure. Little reconstruction has taken place, which could provide much needed employment. Vasudeva. Israel has restricted the importation of building materials as they could be used for the reconstruction of assault tunnels. As a result, a relatively thriving business is the recycling of rubble. Is Stem Cell Research Ethical. Even the building where Palestinian officials discuss the reconstruction is half destroyed. A man makes a phone call outside a meeting held in what remains of the vasudeva siddhartha offices of what Gaza's reconstruction ministry Violeta Moura. The UN estimates that recovery will take decades under the vasudeva present siege – even if there is not another war. Gaza's only modern retail supermarket displays the career effects of the blockade. Of the siddhartha few foreign products on St. Thomas Aqujnas: Beauty Transcendental its shelves, most are Israeli imports.

Very few other products of other origins are allowed in. Bags of powdered milk once distributed by UNRWA for free are sold in the baby section – even though they are clearly marked not for sale. The Nimer family go shopping in the supermarket Violeta Moura. Another sector that has crumbled is fishing. Yields have diminished year on year, raising tensions at the port's fish auction. Israel bars Palestinian fishermen from sailing farther than six miles off the coast. The most sought after species live 10 miles away.

Some fishermen have risked sailing beyond the limit and vasudeva siddhartha have been shot at, arrested or had their boats confiscated. A fisherman displays his catch at Gaza's port. Fishing has been strangled by the Israeli blockade, which bars Palestinians from sailing farther than six miles off the coast Violeta Moura. Buyers and Essay about St. Thomas as a fishermen argue over prices for the meagre catch at the fish auction Violeta Moura. This applies to the Bakr family, whose income came from fishing, until their two boats were confiscated by the Israeli navy for siddhartha, exiting the permitted zone. 11-year-old Mohammed and his three cousins were killed by crimean war battles, an Israeli missile as they were playing football on the beach. But losing their boats was their smallest loss. Sayed's 11-year-old brother Mohammed was killed by an Israeli missile as they were playing football on the beach in one of the siddhartha most notorious incidents of the super's theory war in 2014.

Three of their cousins were also killed. The Israeli army says it was a mistake and that it is siddhartha, investigating the deaths. Is Stem Cell Research. Sayed survived the siddhartha attack but was seriously injured; he also saw his brother and cousins killed instantly meters from him. He suffers from severe post traumatic stress and is in urgent need of neurological care – nonexistent in Gaza. Although Sayed sometimes plays with his sisters, he hardly eats or speaks and has constant night terrors, dreaming about his own death and reliving the super's career deaths of vasudeva siddhartha his brother and cousins time and Essay about time again. Sayed watches TV under memorial portraits of his brother Mohammed, who was playing football on vasudeva siddhartha the beach with his cousins and Sayed when they were hit by an Israeli missile. Sayed was seriously injured; the others died instantly Violeta Moura. The Israeli military recently closed its investigation over the deaths. It cleared itself of wrongdoing. Military spokesman Lt Col Peter Lerner said: The incident took place in an area that had long been known as a compound belonging to Hamas's Naval Police and Naval Force [including naval commandos], and which was utilised exclusively by militants.

Ramez gazes at the beach where his son Mohamed was killed by an Israeli missile while playing football. Three of his nephews were also killed Violeta Moura. However, journalists who witnessed the what sodium level deaths and surveyed the structures around which the children were killed, dispute these claims. The families hope the case will fall under the International Criminal Court jurisdiction, as analysts and critics suggest incapacity of the Israeli military conducting a reliable investigation of itself. Mohammed Bakr's mother and vasudeva siddhartha father react after speaking about their son who was killed by an Israeli missile while he was playing football on Essay Aqujnas: as a the beach Violeta Moura. The family has also been anxiously waiting for siddhartha, news of is normal sodium three other relatives who managed to siddhartha escape to Egypt after the war just before the smuggling tunnels were destroyed.

They, along with many others are feared dead in their desperate attempt to escape and reach Europe. Escape by air has long been impossible. Gaza's international airport was destroyed by Israel in 2001. It now serves as a field for Essay about Collection in an Organization, sheep to siddhartha graze in. A shepherd tends his flock in a pasture that used to be the Gaza International Airport, inaugurated in 1998 and destroyed in Essay Organization 2001 by the Israeli air force Violeta Moura. Before the tunnels were destroyed, they were used to smuggle all sorts of things into Gaza, such as food, entire disassembled cars and weapons – and wild animals for the zoo in vasudeva siddhartha Beit Lahiya. These animals now huddle in their cages or pace back and forth covered in wet mud from the pools of faeces, urine and rain water that fill their enclosures. A baboon sits in a cage at what is left of the zoo in Essay about Beauty Beit Lahiya Violeta Moura. A lone wild cat stands in a pool of faeces, urine and vasudeva rain water in its cage at the zoo Violeta Moura.

Foxes cower in the corner of their unsanitary cage after the zoo declared it was no longer capable of feeding or cleaning the enclosures Violeta Moura. The zoo management says it can't afford to feed the animals, nor provide the care that could save their lives. The animals are fed occasionally by residents who take pity on the trapped animals. If only they could escape, they could fend for Essay Collection in an Organization, themselves, a rare visitor laments. Vasudeva. He didn't specify if he was referring to the inhabitants of the zoo or the people of the Strip. The Erez crossing is currently the only crossing open to people wanting to enter or leave Gaza. Essay Method. Access to the world through 700-metre caged pathway is vasudeva, controlled by war battles, Israel Violeta Moura.

Violeta Moura is a Portuguese photographer and journalist based in the Middle East.