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NYU Mathematics of Finance program. NYU MSMF program is offered under the Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences. Available programs of wuthering, study: Full Time Masters in economic systems Mathematics in wuthering monologue Finance. Study. Part-Time Masters in heights monologue Mathematics in why do we still Finance (accept applications for each semester) Advanced Certificate in Financial Mathematics. Wuthering Heights Monologue. Leslie Greengard, Director of Courant Institute of Power Essay example, Mathematical Sciences. Peter Carr, Director of the M.S.

Program in heights monologue Mathematics in Finance. We Still Study. Petter Kolm, Deputy Director of the wuthering, M.S. Systems Of India. Program in Mathematics in Finance. Jonathan Goodman, Chair of the wuthering, Committee on Mathematics in Impact of Genetically Modified Products on Human Finance. Full-Time Masters in heights Mathematics in Finance: February 15. Workplace Essay Example. Applicants are encouraged to submit their applications well before the deadline. Wuthering Heights. Full time students are accepted only for a Fall start date.

If you have been accepted by another program with a deadline for a reply but would prefer Courant, please contact us, mathfinapp@cims.nyu.edu as soon as possible. Space permitting, we sometimes are able to the Sexual Violence! Responce to Sexual is a Crime, Sometimes by Maya, consider applications received after the monologue, formal deadline. Why Do Study Shakespeare. Non Degree and heights monologue Certificate program: August 1 for gtb uk Fall, December 1 for Spring. 3-Day Crash Courses. Heights. Offered by adjunct professors. Courses Offered Fall Semester. 1. Derivative Securities. 2. Risk Potfolio Mgmt with Econometrics.

3. Stochastic Calculus. 4. Computing in Essay on Dress Codes Finance. Wuthering Monologue. 1. Economic Systems. Derivative Securities. 2. Risk Potfolio Mgmt with Econometrics. 3. Wuthering. Stochastic Calculus. Child Growth And Development. Courses Offered Fall Semester. 6. Wuthering Heights. Credit Markets and global shift Models(1,4) 7. Scientific Computing (4) 5. PDE for heights Finance (3) 6. Genetics, Essay. Int Rates FX Models(1,3,4) 7. Wuthering. Scientific Computing (4) 8. Advanced Risk Management (1, 2, 4) 9. Gtb Uk. Continuous Time Finance (1,3) Courses Offered Fall Semester.

10. Time Series Analysis And Statistical Arbitrage (1,3,4,7) 11. Case Studies in Financial Modeling(3,4,9) 12. Monologue. Computational Methods in Finance (7,9) 13. Growth And Development. Project Presentation. Heights Monologue. 14. Fin Eng Models for Corp Finance (1,2) 15. Genetics, Child Essay. Algorithmic Trading And Quantitative Strategies (2,4) 16. Mortgage-Backed Securities and monologue Energy Derivatives (1,3) 17. Active Portfolio Management (1, 2, 4)

Under appropriate circumstances students may substitute more advanced courses for Impact Modified Food on Human Essay some of those listed above. Heights Monologue. Permission is Essay Dress Codes granted on a case by case basis. Click here for more information on wuthering monologue degree requirements. Click here for information on Essay on rooms and instructors. Wuthering Heights. Offered every Tuesday, Full-time students only. Offered every Friday, Full-time students only. Violence! Responce To Sexual Violence Is A Sometimes By Maya Mikdashi. Focused on monologue networking skills, behavioral/technical interview skills.

Mock interviews for 1st semester students will be conducted by 3rd semester students before the on, final of the wuthering monologue, 1st semester. Tuition for 2012-2013 is Child and Development $49,752. Heights. Tuition per Stop the Sexual is a Crime, by Maya point, per term $1,272.00. Wuthering Monologue. Nonreturnable registration and services fee: First point Fall Term 2009 $433.00. Global. First point Spring Term 2010 $466.00. Nonreturnable registration and wuthering heights services fee, per we still study shakespeare point, for registration after first point $58.00. In addition, international students who are on an F-1 or J-1 visa are charged an additional fee each semester. All courses are 3 points. Typically, full-time students take 4 courses per semester. Michelle K Shin, Program Administrator. New York University.

Graduate School of Arts and Sciences. Graduate Enrollment Services. Wuthering Heights. P.O. Box 907, Cooper Station. Systems Of India. New York, NY 10276-0907. Being in New York is definitely a huge plus (networking, and life in the city in general). GRE Math - 800 ; Verbal - 670. Monologue. Why did you choose this program (over others, if applicable) I had applied to Health, 5 programs - Stanford, CMU, NYU, Columbia and Princeton. Out of heights monologue, these, I got calls from NYU, Columbia and CMU. I had an Genetics, Child Growth, interview call from Princeton but I had already accepted CMU by heights monologue, then so didn't go ahead with it. Global. When i had to wuthering heights, decide on my final choice, I was looking for certain specific things - a rigorous program, good professors, small batch size and good industry connections.

NYU - a perfect amalgamation of economic of india, maths and computing, best professor pool who provide a good mix of both theoretical and practical knowledge, well designed batch size (ours had 26) and monologue fabulous industry connections. What are the Workplace Essay, weakest points about this program? Stat: Stanford, Duke. Wuthering Heights Monologue. undergraduate math major and started the program right after undergrad. Stop The Sexual Violence! A Reading To Sexual Is A Sometimes By Maya Mikdashi. CMU, cornell, michigan, rutgers. in the end it was a close call between CMU and NYU, mostly just based off reputation of the two programs. But in heights the end, i chose NYU mostly because of its location. first semester 4 required core courses. second semester 2 core courses and the Sexual Violence! A Reading is a Crime, Sometimes by Maya Mikdashi 2 electives. 3rd semester you get more choices. i would recommend any course taught by heights, marco avellaneda. Impact On Human Essay. it varies a lot. Wuthering. some professors were good teachers and really involved, but others can be difficult to gtb uk, learn from because they're just industry professionals who are obviously very knowledgeable but dont know how to teach the material. the first computing course is completely in java. you use a lot of matlab and wuthering heights excel in almost every other course. honestly, the career services didn't do much. NYU as a school has a wasserman career center that you may be able to get some on campus interviews for, but thats about it. We Still. its a small program so you get to know almost every one in the program and its definitely a very diverse group of people. the projects are long and heights monologue tough but really prepare you well for your first job. professors teaching ability can be very hit or miss. career services isn't all that great. you're pretty much on your own to find a job (but the reputation of the program is very strong so it will help you to get interviews just by having the Impact of Genetically Food Products Health, program name on monologue your resume) just started working as an options trader.

Weekly seminars run by Essay, practitioners in the industry and heights career workshops that talk about how to Genetics, Child Growth and Development, write a resume, sell ourselves, organize contacts, etc. One-to-one appointments with career consultant are arranged weekly so that students can have their personal questions answered. Wuthering. First semester students will go through mock interviews before real interviews. The adjunct professors are very busy since they work full time during the economic of india, day. Heights. So they may not always be there when you need them. Modified Food On Human. (But the heights monologue, positive side is that they may hire you back.) Students receive frequent emails from admin about global, various job opportunities, and on heights campus interviews can be arranged. We got jobs mainly through online application, corporate connections. Some students got hired by shift, adjunct professors. The jobs MSMF students get are quite representative of roles in the entire finance industry, such as qr, desk strats, st. A few students got highly demanding quant positions. Wuthering Heights Monologue. A large portion of students are international students, mainly from why do we still shakespeare, Asia, particularly China.

But the monologue, majority of these international students have done a undergrad or graduate degree in the States. Over half of the students are math majors, and Power Workplace most students have done dual or even triple undergrad degrees. Some students join the program directly from undergrad institution, while others holding a master or phd degree, in heights monologue quantitative fields like physics, ee, cs, etc.

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How to wuthering heights Write a Proposal Essay/Paper. A proposal essay is exactly what it sounds like: it proposes an idea and Child and Development Essay, provides evidence intended to convince the reader why that idea is a good or bad one. Although proposals are generally a significant part of business and economic transactions, they are not limited to those two areas. Proposals may be written for any college classes, scientific fields, as well as personal and other professional areas. This article will go over how to write an effective proposal essay and provide a sample one that was actually submitted and implemented. Before You Start: Pre-Writing Strategies. Much of the work is done before you type a single sentence. Monologue? Before sitting down to write your proposal you’ll want to spend some time on each of the gtb uk following. Get to Know Your Audience . Wuthering Monologue? Remember, a proposal essay is an effort to convince a reader that your idea is worth pursuing - or that another idea is Essay example not worth pursuing.

To that end, you have to wuthering monologue know who you’ll be writing for. Are they business people? Academics? Government officials? If your audience is dicken global shift primarily business people you’ll want to justify your proposal by pointing to possible financial benefits.

If they’re government officials, you may want to emphasize how popular a certain proposal is. Do Your Research . Having secondary sources who can support your claims will go a long way to persuading others of wuthering heights monologue your proposal. Spend some time talking to experts or reading their research. Pre-Write . Genetics, Child And Development Essay? Before starting the actual essay, spend some time brainstorming excellent ideas. Once you have a bunch of good ideas, spend some time thinking about how you’d like to organize them.

Revise, Revise, Revise . Wuthering Monologue? Never turn in a first draft! Have a trusted peer or colleague read your paper and give you feedback. Then take some time to incorporate that feedback into a second draft. The main parts of a proposal essay are summarized here. It is important to keep in mind that depending on your proposal parts may need to be added or taken out. Why Do We Still Study Shakespeare? The parts below (with the wuthering exception of the study shakespeare introduction and conclusion) may be rearranged to monologue suit individual proposals. The introduction serves to inform your reader of the history of the proposal (if applicable) or to introduce a subject to we still study shakespeare an informed/uninformed audience.

This is the most important part of your paper in some respects. You need to both introduce the wuthering heights monologue topic and show the audience why they should care about Impact of Genetically Food on Human Health Essay, this topic. It’s often helpful to begin with an interesting fact, statistic, or anecdote to grab the reader’s attention. Typically, people only make proposal to solve a problem. As such, you’ll want to highlight a particular problem that you think your proposal would solve. Know your audience so that you can emphasize the benefits your proposal would bring. This is a statement of purpose. This section should be brief and only discuss what your actual proposition is. Monologue? It is okay for this section to be only Genetics, Child Essay, a few sentences long if the proposal is short. Do not include details about how you will carry out the proposal in this section.

How will you go about achieving your proposal? What will you do to show your audience that you are prepared? This is where you go into detail about how your proposal will be implemented. A couple things to include: Convince: You need to convince your audience not only that your proposal is a good idea but also that you’re the person who needs to carry it out. Highlighting your qualifications about why you’re suited for the task is helpful if you're the one to carry out the wuthering heights monologue proposal. Detail: In discussing the implementation, you’ll want to give enough detail to show your audience that you’ve thought about how the process will work. That said, you don’t want to bore them with overly-technical or boring details. Impact Modified Food Essay? Anticipate: Anticipating potential implementation problems is wuthering monologue both good practice and communicates to Food on Human your audience that you’ve thought carefully about your proposal and about potential stumbling blocks. Focus this area on heights monologue why the proposal will work. Quite simply, is it a viable proposal?

You can draw on similar past experiences to show why this proposal will work just like previous ones. If you do not have this past experience option, focus on what you think your audience wants to gtb uk hear. For example, if your manager really likes getting things done on time, then perhaps you might mention how your proposal can speed up productivity. Think logically here. *Tip: Do not structure this section the same way as your Benefits of. section. Simple. State what the goals of your proposal are. It might seem repetitive with the sections where you mentioned the benefits, but it serves to really drill home the point.* Another simple part.

What is needed to complete your proposal? Include tangible (paper, money, computers, etc.)and intangible items such as time. Show the audience that you know what you are doing. The more prepared you look the better your chances are to heights monologue get the proposal passed (or get a better grade if it is for Essay Codes a class). Do NOT restate your introduction here if you choose to mention the wuthering monologue history of a certain proposal. However if you did not introduce your proposal with some historical background information, here is the part where you can quickly restate each section above: Proposal, plan of action, all the why's of the paper and so on. As in any essay or paper, cite your sources as appropriate. If you actually quote from a resource in you essay then title this section Works Cited . If you do not cite anything word for word, use Works Consulted . The Purdue University Online Writing Lab serves writers from around the world and global, the Purdue University Writing Lab helps writers on Purdue's campus. Wuthering? It can help you get a better grip on technical details like citing and much more, check it out! In 1912, Pablo Picasso, an avid painter of nature and Genetics, Child and Development, still life, tore part of a makeshift tablecloth and monologue, glued it to his painting, Still Life with Chair Caning , and thus, by adding different items to Genetics, and Development aid his painting, he began the heights monologue art of collage making. (Pablo Picasso – Still Life with Chair Canning).

A collage is simply a group of objects arranged together to create a complete image of an idea, theme, or memory. For example, David Modler created a collage called “Big Bug” to represent the irony that is the importance of insects to our natural world in gtb uk comparison to their size. The bug in the image is the wuthering heights smallest feature of the collage yet it is to be viewed as the gtb uk most important aspect (Modler, David). All these parts of heights monologue a collage collaborate together to create a unifying theme or message and can be used as a helpful tool in education. I propose that each student make an artistic collage to be presented to the class that will symbolize the context, audience, setting, structure or any key ideas found in Power Essay example one of the readings this semester. Students who make a collage will be able to drop the lowest quiz grade. The students will have one week from the wuthering monologue announcement of the project to complete the Genetics, Growth collage and wuthering, prepare a presentation for gtb uk it. Each student must choose one reading that we have done so far or will read in the future, and no two students may choose the same work. Conflict with students wanting to present the same work will be resolved by a first come first serve basis.

The students will be given a rubric with the exact requirements of the project and what the purpose of the project is. I will make the rubric myself and monologue, submit it for approval, or we can use the rubric that I have attached. Benefits of Collage Proposal. Making a collage would allow the Power Essay students to think and inspect the wuthering heights readings and Genetics, Growth Essay, ideas visually (Rodrigo, “Collage”), thus giving them another perspective, or possibly clearing up any misconceptions and heights monologue, confusions they had about a work when we were just discussing it in Power in the Workplace Essay class verbally. A collage provides the opportunity for heights revision of a certain work and would certainly help to dicken global shift clear up any topics in the readings that might come up on the final exam or a future test, via a visual and more creative method. If a student received a bad grade on a quiz because they did not understand the reading, the collage would give the student an opportunity to go back to the reading and understand it, or to read ahead and grasp concepts that might be useful to present to the class before the wuthering monologue class does the why do we still study reading. A collage would allow the monologue student to become familiar with the Essay on work in a visual way and give them an monologue, opportunity to understand the main themes, topics, and ideas of a work, even one we might not have read yet. Viability of dicken Collage Proposal. Since a collage would be like giving the student an opportunity to go back and review a subject and at wuthering monologue the same time would resemble preparation for a presentation, the time and effort required to go back and re-read a work as well as prepare the collage creatively would be sufficient to justify replacing the lowest quiz grade. Our course mentor said that this project would be a nice addition to the class because, just like any play is better seen than read, the collage will allow students to get the visual aspect behind a work and help them to grasp the ideas better.

Past visuals that we have used in class to describe scenes from our readings such as The Tempest and The Odyssey have greatly helped me to Power Workplace Essay example understand some of the ideas of the monologue stories. For example, I always pictured the cyclops as a nasty, vile creature, but after some of the “fuzzy” drawings on the board done by some of my peers, I imagined and understood that he could in fact be a gentle creature that was just angered by Ulysses trespassing and blinding him. I could not have seen that perspective of the story had it not been for some of the more innocent visuals on the board. Finally, I have discussed with the students in our class about the gtb uk idea of a collage replacing the wuthering heights monologue lowest quiz grade and the overwhelming majority approved of the idea. Since a collage will substitute for a quiz grade, the Impact of Genetically Modified on Human Essay assignment will be optional.

Just as a quiz is almost always optional based on class initiation of heights monologue discussion, the collage will also be optional based on similar student effort parameters. In The Essay Example? The students who do not want to do a collage can choose “door number 2” and take a quiz that would be created by the teachers and/or myself. This quiz can be used to make the total number of assignments for wuthering monologue each student in why do the class even, and may or may not be graded based on wuthering monologue the professor's discretion. The first goal of my collage proposal is to give students a chance to be creative and step outside the boundaries of classroom discussion. They can use their imaginations to find a way to creatively put together a collage that will help the class as well as themselves to better understand the course reading. A second goal of my proposal is that the time and effort put into making the collage and presenting it in on Dress Codes front of the class will equal the worth of dropping the wuthering lowest quiz grade. Because this collage requires the creator to examine the gtb uk context, audience, setting, structure of any one of the readings, it is essentially like a quiz itself, which includes questions on similar topics. The literary work that a student chooses to create a collage on will determine how much time is necessary to fully complete the project. One week to create a collage should give each student—no matter what reading they choose to do—ample time to create a presentable and educational collage for the class. In terms of wuthering heights tangible resources, this project is not very demanding. A simple poster or a series of photographs or drawings assembled neatly together by the student will be about as resourcefully demanding as this project gets.

In addition, a few hours of class time will need to be allocated in order to Genetics, Child Growth present the collages. Heights? If each student takes at least five minutes to present the total time needed for the presentations will be 1 hour and 15 minutes. The presentation day(s) and time(s) can be decided by the class as a whole. The rest of the resources needed are already available: The readings are all published online if a student needs to refer back to them Craft supplies are readily available. Skills for Successful Completion. As a good planner and gtb uk, organizer I made a rubric that is specific enough to give the wuthering students a good idea of gtb uk what they should be doing for the collage. The rubric can be made available upon your request. In addition I can also come up with a quiz if there are students who want to opt out of the collage project.

I can talk to the class and come up with a good presentation time and date for everybody. I would volunteer myself to hold an early presentation session a few days before the due date so the others can get an idea of what their collage could look like and why they can benefit from the project. Wuthering Heights Monologue? I will make myself available to the class if they have any questions about the proposed project. A collage will allow students to understand visually a reading or topic in a reading that they may have been confused about. The project is a fun and on Dress Codes, creative way to get students to think about a reading more in monologue depth as well as review for shift future exams. Heights? As a result of the Impact Food Health Essay effort and wuthering monologue, time put into the collages, the students should be allowed to dicken shift drop their lowest quiz grade in the semester. Modler, David. Big Bug . Wuthering Heights? Photograph. Kronos Art Gallery . Impact Food Health? Web.

12 Oct. 2011. Pablo Picasso - Still Life with Chair Caning (1912). Lenin Imports . Wuthering Heights Monologue? Web. 12 Oct. 2011. Rodrigo. Collages. Web 2.0 Toolkit . 11 Mar. 2009. Web. 2 Oct. 2011.

Here is an example of lab report with step-by-step instructions on writing a good lab report. When writing a lab report you are presenting scientific facts that support a hypothesis, to gtb uk an audience.. by Virginia Kearney 6. How to Write the Introduction of an Essay. by wayseeker 18. How to Write an Exploratory Essay With Sample Papers. by Virginia Kearney 8. Easy Words to wuthering monologue Use as Sentence Starters to Write Better Essays. by Virginia Kearney 125.

100 Science Topics for Research Papers. by Virginia Kearney 109. How to Write an Argument Essay Step by Step. by Virginia Kearney 15. charbie krin 11 days ago. NIce, very helpful. LFC328 6 months ago from NY. Laura, what a great skill you have.

I wish I was bless with it :_). thank you so very much for the information. It have gave me a guideline for my proposal. Global Shift? Thank you again God bless you! I am little bit lost of the diagram for research design what is needed in terms of the heights monologue research plan diagram please reply. cedricperkins 2 years ago. A powerful guide in fact. It lists almost all aspects of writing a proposal essay. However, there is one thing students have to note.

Even though there are certain rules and of Genetically Modified Products Health Essay, principles for writing an wuthering heights, essay, there is always scope for breaking the Impact Food Products on Human Essay conventions. Universities always accept innovations in writing. Be prepared to write in the most recent writing mechanics. Wuthering? I think www.classessays.com will help you to write proposal essays to emerge out why do successfully. Wuthering Heights? However, the above mentioned tips are, of course, the part and parcel of writing a proposal essay. roselinda nyota 2 years ago. Ahmad Fahrurroji 2 years ago from Impact of Genetically Modified Food on Human, Karawang, Indonesia. Awesome hub and so helpful. Rakim Cheeks 2 years ago. This was a really great detailed format of how to write a proposal essay.

I believe all college students need to wuthering heights monologue read this! As a writer, this helped me, and you explained it very well. Excellent job! Laura Writes 2 years ago. Thanks a lot Leptirela, tried my best to keep such a long read as clutter free and flowing as possible. Excellent hub. Dicken Global Shift? Informative and monologue, understandable.

May I please express how, impressive this hub and the lay out is global shift :) Great post. Wuthering Heights? Interesting infographic how to write an gtb uk, argumentative essay http://www.essay-profy.com/blog/how-to-write-an-es. ?. The challenge in writing a proposal resides in its structure. For the writer it is important that it be clear, to wuthering heights monologue the point and Workplace Essay example, as concise as possible. It is important to remember that the reader is the wuthering one who will accept or reject your proposal either way due to a wide array of factors. Leaving no door open other than the one of acceptance key factors are presentation, clarity and Growth Essay, a summarisation that leaves but he avenue of an acceptance. Once finalized have a friend or someone else in wuthering monologue whose judgment you trust to be honest and willing to give objective comments as well as towhy they propose changes. One practice I enforce when writing anything that is consequential is to set the global shift document aside forgetting about it for a couple of days and the review it again.

A fresh read is always good. One last tough. Your proposal is important as you are writing it for a specific reason therefore as yourself the question objectively as you can will the intended reader accept it? If you have a slight hesitation review it again and try to find the weak point and rewrite it to give it strength. Do not forget to Google to find supporting data for your proposal or even proposals in the same line.

Best of heights monologue luck to all. This was extremely helpful! I wasn't quite sure how to dicken global lay my proposal essay out. So thank you, thank you! (: This information was very helpful. You gave me something to go on. Thank you. This was a great go-by. Short and sweet, yet in-depth and detailed enough to wuthering heights monologue get the Genetics, Child Growth and Development Essay points across intelligently. Thanks for your help!

Jo_Goldsmith11 3 years ago. Just what I was looking for. Great job with presentation and easy reading on the eyes. shared, tweet and Up. thank you for writing this. :-) Laura Writes 3 years ago. If you are writing a thesis proposal, you could use this format if it works for wuthering monologue the theme of your thesis. However for research, you should look into a format that is like writing a research grant. It could look something like this, but check with a scientific journal or the company that you are requesting a research fund from to see if they have specific formatting requirements. Is this the same Thesis Proposal or research Proposal? Thank you so much. Very good and helpful.

Really clear and straight forward. Friskila Damaris Aquila Silitonga 4 years ago. Nice info and it's a practical round up with good resources. Friskila Damaris Aquila Silitonga. I have been a grant writer for sixteen years and gtb uk, it's always nice to see someone include the actual practice with the monologue theory of proposal/grant writing. Many can just list the parts of a proposal, but it's more beneficial for the reader to see actual work. Great job! Laura Writes 4 years ago.

No problem, good luck on your papers! Thx London 4 ur contribution. in building ma proposal. codjoe conduah 4 years ago. am glad i could find something like this its been very tough for me on a proposal i was working on but now this has really eased ma fears. thanks a lot. Laura Writes 4 years ago. I'm glad this is proving useful to everybody. Good luck on your papers! samuel sikei 4 years ago. Thank you, this is so direct and dicken, very professional. Anil 4 years ago from Kerala.

Hai nice essay. I suggest it to the school and heights, college students. Thanks for why do study shakespeare sharing . thank you sosososososososososososo much. thx for the awesome outline. This has been excellent explained. This is great, extremely helpful. I am in the process of developing a proposal and wuthering heights monologue, this will be a useful guideline for Workplace example me. jessica ramirez 5 years ago. excellent very helpful(:

Laura Writes 5 years ago. Thank you, I'm glad you found this useful. Joseph Asumadu 5 years ago from Ghana-aWest Africa. This is very good thump up. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners. Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners. HubPages ® is a registered Service Mark of HubPages, Inc.

HubPages and monologue, Hubbers (authors) may earn revenue on this page based on affiliate relationships and advertisements with partners including Amazon, Google, and others. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners.

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R©sum© Les Mots (Sartre) - Fran§ais - Premi¨re L. Ce document est le r©sum© complet du texte Les Mots , de Jean Paul Sartre . Monologue? Avec cette fiche de lecture qui reprend les 2 parties de l'oeuvre, vous allez pouvoir prendre de l'avance dans vos r©visions et tout conna®tre de ce texte pour pr©parer du mieux possible l' ©preuve anticip©e de fran§ais de 1¨re L . Retrouvez ci-dessous les parties principales de ce r©sum© . R©sum© Les Mots de Jean Paul Sartre. Dans un premier temps l'auteur d©crit sa g©n©alogie . Genetics, Child Growth And Development Essay? Jean-Paul Sartre ©tait le fils d'Anne-Marie Schweitzer et de Jean-Baptiste Sartre . Wuthering? Ce dernier d©c©da lorsqu'il n'avait que neuf mois. Genetics, Child Growth Essay? Sa m¨re, malgr© le refus discret de Louise et Charles Schweitzer, s'installa chez eux. Monologue? Les premiers temps furent difficiles, Anne-Marie et sa m¨re ©taient en conflit perp©tuel. Genetics, Child Growth And Development? Mais au fur et mesure, la situation se d©bloqua et Charles devint un grand-p¨re inoubliable et affectueux. Wuthering? Il revivait par son petit-fils. Jean-Paul Sartre se souvenait qu'il avait ©t© un gar§on plut´t sage , qui on we still, avait ©vit© la plupart des ©cueils de la vie . Wuthering Heights? Il s'effor§ait de prendre le r´le d'un enfant vertueux, que l'on ne pouvait qu'appr©cier.

L'adoration du grand-p¨re pour son petit-fils et de sa famille avait fait de lui un enfant ador© et adorable. Power In The Example? Tous ses faits et gestes r©pondaient aux attentes de ses proches et il en jouait. Wuthering? Il cherchait tous prix se faire aimer de tout le monde. Why Do? Il s'effor§ait donc, malgr© ses propres sentiments avoir le « bon comportement ». Wuthering Monologue? En analysant cela, il en d©duisit que l'absence de son p¨re, lui permettait d'avoir sa propre place. Essay On Dress Codes? Mais sa relation avec sa grand-m¨re ©tait moins facile, elle savait qu'au fond de lui, il ©tait un enfant comme les autres. Monologue? Cependant, quelques moments de bonne entente se pr©sentaient parfois, notamment dans la belle-famille Schweitzer. En 1911, ils d©m©nag¨rent Paris et Charles cr©a l'Institut des Langues Vivantes (I.L.V). Genetics, Growth And Development Essay? Dans un contexte d©licat entre la France et l'Allemagne (1870, l'Alsace et la Lorraine appartiennent l'Allemagne), ils inculqu¨rent au petit gar§on, la haine germanique, sans r©elles explications. Wuthering Monologue? L'I.L.V. In The Workplace Example? semblait permettre d'adoucir les relations franco-allemandes : r©guli¨rement Charles et Louise recevaient des allemands diner . L'auteur semblait troubl© de son comportement qui dura jusqu' ses neuf ans : vouloir toujours plaire, ses propres sentiments se renvoyait lui en ©gocentrisme. La d©couverte de la litt©rature - Sartre.

Durant son enfance, Jean-Paul Sartre, d©couvrit l'univers litt©raire . Monologue? Les livres ©taient pour lui des objets myst©rieux. In The Workplace Essay? Il observait les querelles de ses grands-parents sur leurs go»ts contraires en mati¨re de lecture. Heights? Il se mit dans l'id©e que seule la litt©rature, en bonne et due forme ©tait digne d'ªtre lue. Power In The Essay? En expliquant qu'il ©crivait des livres, Charles lui en donna un, mais le gar§on ne sachant pas lire, il fut rapidement d©contenanc©. Heights Monologue? Anne-Marie lui proposa de lui lire une histoire, qu'elle lui contait r©guli¨rement. Genetics, Child And Development Essay? Mais ne reconnaissant pas les phrases automatis©es de sa m¨re, de surcro®t trop sophistiqu©es, il fut d©sorient© et examina le r´le de ces objets myst©rieux. Monologue? Il appr©cia de plus en plus, l'effet des livres et voulut, lui aussi, pouvoir les d©chiffrer. On Codes? Il prit un livre qu'il connaissait pratiquement par cœur et tenta de le d©chiffrer. Wuthering Monologue? Sa curiosit© et sa volont© lui permirent de savoir lire la fin du livre. Genetics, Child? La biblioth¨que de son grand-p¨re, devint d¨s lors, un parc d'attractions. Heights Monologue? Il d©chiffrait les mots mªme s'il ne les connaissait pas tous, jusqu' ce qu'il d©couvre le dictionnaire, qui lui paraissait contenir toute la vie.

A mesure qu'il lisait, les mots se mettaient en mouvement et il observait leur spectacle. Global? Il comparait les histoires qu'il lisait, sa vie et ne comprenait pas toujours les comportements des personnages , ni le lien avec la r©alit©. Wuthering Heights? Karl Schweitzer lui expliqua alors le cheminement d'un livre et lista les diff©rents auteurs « classiques ». Power In The Example? Le petit gar§on les lisait sans s'arrªter, en les prenant pour ses amis. Wuthering Monologue? Il se les repr©sentait semblables aux livres (objet) qu'il tenait entre les mains. Shift? Cependant, sa m¨re et sa grand-m¨re s'inqui©taient de le voir mettre autant d'ardeur dans ces lectures ; elles d©cid¨rent de lui faire lire, en cachette, des ouvrages plus adapt©s son ¢ge. Wuthering Heights? Il adora ces livres plus compr©hensibles o¹ tout se finissait bien. Power Workplace Example? Charles fut d©§u, mais comprit, lorsqu'il d©couvrit ses nouvelles lectures. Son instruction - R©sum© Les Mots Jean Paul Sartre. Un jour, le grand-p¨re inscrivit son petit-fils l'©cole, mais ce fut une catastrophe : bien qu'©tant tr¨s en avance en lecture, il ne connaissait pas l'orthographe des mots. Wuthering? Charles fut f¢ch© et quelque part humili© de cet ©pisode et le retira de l'©cole. Essay? A la place on wuthering heights, prit un enseignant domicile.

Lorsqu'ils d©m©nag¨rent Arcachon, il entra l'©cole communale, puis l'Institution Poupon. Genetics, Growth And Development Essay? Mais cette derni¨re, trop ©litiste, fut remplac©e par une autre enseignante domicile, lass©e par la vie. Monologue? Charles prit alors en main son instruction et d©cida de ses pr©cepteurs. Peu peu, l'auteur constata qu'il n'©tait pas aussi central qu'il le pensait. Power In The? Il comprit que Karl©mami, Anne-Marie et le reste de la famille avaient leurs histoires et que sa pr©sence ne changeait rien. Heights? Pensant ªtre l'unique centre d'int©rªts, il fut d©§u et chercha quel ©tait l'objectif de sa vie. Essay Dress? Il ne se sentait pas exister et jalousait les personnes dont on wuthering heights monologue, ne pouvait se passer (M. Genetics, Growth? Simonnot), et qu'on appr©ciait par-dessus tout.

Puis sa grand-m¨re paternelle mourut. Heights Monologue? L'auteur expliqua qu'il rencontrait souvent la Mort lorsqu'il ©tait petit. Gtb Uk? Il la personnifiait. Wuthering? Concernant la religion, rapidement, par l'interm©diaire des propos de son entourage, le petit gar§on devint ath©e.. Plus Jean-Paul Sartre grandissait et moins son jeu d'imposture - d'un enfant adorable - fonctionnait. Impact Of Genetically Modified Food Products On Human Health Essay? Il ne savait plus quoi faire pour retrouver sa place.

Il se replia sur lui-mªme et inventait sa vie, seul, travers des histoires imagin©es. Monologue? Il s'imaginait h©ros de toutes les situations, encourag© par les id©es que v©hiculait son entourage. Essay? Ses proches le marquaient d'un sentiment de vengeance li© la d©faite de 1870. La d©couverte du cin©ma - Jean Paul Sartre. Un jour, sa m¨re l'emmena au cin©ma.

Cet art venait de na®tre et intriguait le jeune gar§on . Wuthering Monologue? Il se plaisait aller voir ces films muets o¹ la musique lui inspirait les ©motions que le r©alisateur voulait transcrire. Gtb Uk? Chaque film faisait entrer le petit gar§on dans un monde diff©rent, qu'il appr©ciait. Wuthering Heights Monologue? Et, lorsque Karl©mami ©taient occup©s, Anne-Marie jouait au piano les morceaux entendus dans ces films. Impact Of Genetically Products On Human Health? Jean-Paul Sartre s'imaginait alors en h©ros de films muets. Heights? Vivant la fois dans ses illusions et dans la vie r©elle , et n'ayant pas un d©veloppement physique dans la normalit©, sa sociabilit© avec les autres enfants ©tait faible. In The Workplace? Il vivait mal cette exclusion. Fiche de Lecture Les Mots de Sartre.

Lorsque l'©t© arriva, Louise, Anne-Marie et le petit gar§on partirent Arcachon. Wuthering Monologue? Karl envoyait des lettres en vers, au petit gar§on et celui-ci se mit lui r©pondre en vers. Genetics, Child Growth And Development? C'©tait ses d©buts d'©crivain. Monologue? Il prit le go»t de l'©criture et s'inspira des histoires de ses livres et magazines pour enfants et ©crivit en prose. Genetics, Growth And Development Essay? Sa m¨re ©tait fi¨re de lui, mais son grand-p¨re constata que ce qu'il ©crivait s'inspirait de ses lectures d'enfant.

Il fut d©§u d'observer qu'il ne faisait que copier. Wuthering Heights Monologue? Le petit gar§on utilisait les histoires qu'il s'imaginait lorsqu'il lisait des livres ou qu'il allait au cin©ma. A cette ©poque, la mode ©tait au spiritisme et aux histoires fantastiques. Power In The Workplace Essay Example? Cela effrayait le jeune ©crivain, mais contribuait ses ©crits. Heights? Au fur et mesure, la copie s'estompa au profit de l'invention. L'avenir - R©sum© Les Mots Jean Paul Sartre. Le temps ©tait venu pour le jeune gar§on de se projeter dans l'avenir. Power Workplace Essay? Blanche Picard , informa sa m¨re et sa grand-m¨re que sa vocation ©tait l'©criture. Monologue? La famille n'avait pas les mªmes ambitions pour le gar§on.

Notamment Charles qui voulait faire de son petit-fils un professeur d'allemand, comme lui. Essay? Il accepta tout de mªme de ne pas freiner sa vocation, mais lui fit comprendre qu'il deviendrait professeur et que l'©criture serait annexe. Wuthering Heights? Il mettrait fin ses romans d'aventures pour se consacrer des articles descriptifs ou litt©raires. Study? D©§u et oblig©, il dut se r©signer ©crire pour les autres, en esp©rant toucher les lecteurs et ªtre reconnu par son talent. Monologue? Malgr© l'©nergie que mettait Charles faire en sorte que le petit gar§on n'©crive plus, celui-ci avait compris qu'il ©tait de ces auteurs que le monde attendait. Workplace Essay Example? Il se remit ©crire en imaginant son succ¨s. Premi¨re signification de l'©criture. Par l'interm©diaire des discours de son grand-p¨re, le petit gar§on se fit une id©e originale du r´le de l'©criture. Wuthering Heights? Elle ©tait un objet d'©change et de salut pour les Hommes : sans elle, le Ciel rappellerait l'Homme lui. Dicken Global Shift? Il se sentit protecteur l'instar de Chanteclerc.

Mais si son r´le ©tait d'©crire pour prot©ger les Hommes, il s'inqui©tait de palier son manque de « talent ». Par ailleurs, particuli¨rement entre neuf et dix ans, il ©tait obnubil© par la mort et n'appr©ciait pas son physique. Wuthering Heights? Il s'©tait mis dans l'id©e, qu'il ne serait appr©ci© qu'apr¨s sa mort. Genetics, Essay? Il se sentait porteur d'un message, de la n©cessit© de ces « hommes illustres ». Heights? A travers sa renomm©e posthume qu'il s'imaginait, il tentait de se conna®tre. Le petit gar§on avait observ© que l'envie d'©crire ©tait venue d'une obligation. Gtb Uk? On l'avait induit dans cet art, sans qu'il en ait eu le choix. Heights? Bient´t, il n'©crivit plus, se rattachant aux savoirs scolaires. Genetics, Growth And Development? La premi¨re guerre mondiale qui s'©tait d©clar©e en 1914, avait r©duit l'©dition de ses livres pr©f©r©s (pour enfants). Wuthering? Mais les combats lui permirent de renouer avec l'©criture et il imagina un texte sur la guerre, en utilisant ses fid¨les aventuriers pour faire cesser les combats.

Cependant, il constata qu'©crire ne racontait pas la vie et que tout ce qu'il avait pu ©crire jusqu' pr©sent venait de son imagination : il ne pr©disait pas l'avenir et ces ©crits ne changeaient pas le cours des choses. Of Genetically Modified Products On Human Health Essay? D©§u de ce constat, il faillit renoncer ©crire. Heights? Il mit de c´t© ses anciennes lectures et en trouva d'autres telles que Sitting-bull, Buffalo bill, Texas Jack. Genetics, Child And Development Essay? Il mit aussi de c´t©, sa future et imagin©e, carri¨re fulgurante d'©crivain. Heights? Il semblait serein de ce choix et vivait des moments agr©ables avec sa m¨re. Essay On Dress Codes? Leur complicit© l'amena peu peu d©tester les hommes qui s'approchaient d'elle. Plus tard, on wuthering monologue, se d©cida l'envoyer au coll¨ge. Power Essay Example? Ses r©sultats ©taient m©diocres car il n'avait pas eu l'habitude d'apprendre en groupe. Wuthering Monologue? Apr¨s un entretien avec le professeur principal, qui le prit sous son aile, ses notes s'am©lior¨rent. Essay Dress Codes? Ce nouvel environnement lui permit enfin de se sociabiliser : il avait des amis.

Ses relations le sortaient de son destin pr©vu par d'autres que lui. Heights Monologue? Il n'avait plus le temps d'©crire et appr©ciait ses camarades. Food Products Health Essay? Cet interlude lui permit de se d©velopper et finalement de ne plus se centrer sur sa mort, mais sur sa vie et tout ce qui en d©coulait. Monologue? Chaque moment difficile ©tait un pallier de la vie . Cette p©riode de la vie de l'auteur a pos© les bases de sa personnalit©. Dicken Global? Il explique alors qu'il a toujours recherch© la progression dans ses œuvres, l'am©lioration.

Et comme tous « perfectionnistes » et ayant des difficult©s s'aimer, l'auteur reniait ses œuvres pr©c©dentes pour rechercher le perfectionnement futur. Son enfance fut malgr© tout, connot©e par ses croyances. Wuthering Heights? Il se convainquait que le « Tout-Puissant » n'existait pas r©ellement, mais que le « Saint-Esprit » r©gissait sa vie. Dicken Shift? Il l'associait ses choix et le rendait responsable de sa destin©e. Wuthering Monologue? La Mort, sa mort, de moins en moins pr©sente, continuait de le hanter dans les moments d'ennui. Dicken? Mais tout ceci contribua lui faire d©couvrir son existence. Il conclut bri¨vement en expliquant qu'il s'est engag© enti¨rement dans ses ouvrages en s'appuyant sur sa foi et son travail. Wuthering Heights? Car tr¨s jeune, il s'©tait senti sans talent et pensait avoir se battre pour faire quelque chose de sa vie et acc©der la gloire qu'il s'imaginait. Gtb Uk? Il relie d'ailleurs son succ¨s cette absence de talent, qui l'a pouss© chercher toujours plus haut. Vous devez ªtre connect© pour pouvoir lire la suite. Vous voulez en savoir plus sur les enseignements du Bac L ? digiSchool vous prop.

S’inscrire au Baccalaur©at Litt©raire en candidat libre est une ©tape franchir. Les cours de litt©rature de Terminale L repr©sentent une ©preuve au Baccalaur©at. Le Baccalaur©at est un examen tr¨s redout© par les lyc©ens. Heights? Entre r©visions et s.

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123 Help Me Com Essays and Research Papers. of our essay, for me , is a statement of independence. It feels that independence is such a natural drive of humanity, it seems so obvious, but . Wuthering Heights. it is on all too often easily overlooked in wuthering monologue, early year’s education. Using the case study, I will explore why independence is such an intrinsic need of young children, the Products on Human Health favourable environment, and the role of the teacher. When I try to understand why independence is such an intrinsic need of young children, as much as it seems obvious to me to be something instinctual. Childhood , Ecology , Environment 1746 Words | 5 Pages. ?The phrase ‘ Help me to help myself’ portrays the child’s sensitivity to do things him/herself with the . help of his/her carers, peers and people with whom s/he comes in contact with. Maria Montessori was the one to first recognize this need of the child and went further to research on it. “As a rule, however, we do not respect children. We try to wuthering heights force them to follow us without regard to why do shakespeare their special needs. We are overbearing with them, and above all, rude; and then we expect them to be submissive.

American novels , Ecology , Environment 1652 Words | 4 Pages. Heights Monologue. Persuasive Speech Specific Purpose: To persuade my class to help the Impact Modified homeless in the Denver metro area by contributing efforts. Central . Idea: Helping an organization like Colfax Community Network can help the less fortunate and Introduction Attention I. Someone once asked Mother Teresa how could they make a difference as she had to Calcutta, India. A. She simply said, “Find your own Calcutta.” 1. This meant to make a difference; a person shouldn’t try. Wuthering Heights Monologue. Begging , Homelessness , Poverty 842 Words | 3 Pages. these traumas US and ARVN troops began using local South Vietnamese villagers as guides through the jungle pointing out in the Essay booby traps or disarming them by . triggering them themselves. Point 2 As more and more South Vietnamese villagers were forced to help find the wuthering heights monologue booby traps with the US troops, other villagers began to resent the US troops for causing the Genetics, Child Growth and Development deaths of their friends and families. Wuthering. This was an shift, effective consequence because it enabled the Vietcong to wuthering heights hide in their homes and gtb uk, gather supplies. Army of the Republic of Vietnam , Booby trap , Causality 1431 Words | 4 Pages. they to heights monologue be your friend? In my opinion, “Friend” is really important for me . I can live without computer and TV but I can’t live . without ”friend” the person who is in the sharing my mood with me whenever I’m happy or sad and wuthering, I found “her” my really best friend who has nice appearance , good personality and I’m very happy that I can be friend with her.

My best friend is Glydelle N. Amon. She has curly hair, almost as tall as me and not talk too much with the gtb uk person that she isn’t known very well. When. Heights. Carbon dioxide , Feeling , Friendship 1294 Words | 4 Pages. of slavery, but there is many people saying that he cannot do it and that he cannot have peace between the Essay on Codes two sides and have abolished slavery, but . throughout the wuthering heights monologue trailer we see that he gets more and dicken global, more people to come and wuthering monologue, join him and they try to help him achieve his goal.

Also that from the gtb uk trailer you get a sense that he is a very powerful and determined man because he over powers overs men’s voices and wuthering heights monologue, he makes greats sacrifices for what he does and does not give in easily. At the start of Impact Food on Human Health Essay, the. Abolitionism , Abraham Lincoln , American Civil War 1926 Words | 5 Pages. Wuthering Heights. Relation in Impact of Genetically Modified Food on Human Health, Organization How helped me the Human Relation Class The Human Relations class has helped me in my life because . it is an important tool for personal and professional development of human beings. I personally helped me to improve interpersonal relations, as these play a key role in developing the wuthering monologue whole person.

Through relationships, I as an gtb uk, individual I've reached an important social reinforcement of the immediate surroundings that have helped me to my adaptation. But the contrary. Wuthering. Developmental psychology , Human , Interpersonal relationship 919 Words | 3 Pages. ? Citation: “What makes you think colored people need your help ? Why you even care about this? You white.” (Page 191) Definitions: Colored: . Belonging wholly or in part to a race other than the white, especially to the black race; influenced or biased; specious; deceptive. Gtb Uk. Help : To save; rescue; to make easier or less difficult; to give or provide what is necessary to accomplish a task or satisfy a need. Care: Serious attention; a cause or object of concern; grief; a state of mind in which one. Wuthering Heights. African American , Black people , Colored 1108 Words | 4 Pages.

Movie Paper: The Help Victoria Harris December 2, 2012 I decided to watch the movie titled The Help . Shakespeare. Sitting down to wuthering heights monologue watch . Dicken Shift. the over heights monologue, two hour movie I hoped that it would be as good as everyone made it seem. Shortly after the first fifteen minutes into the movie you could tell that it was going to Impact Modified Food Products Health be a really great and heights, interesting movie. The Help was actually a novel first based on a book written about African American maids around the time of the Power in the Essay civil rights movements around the wuthering fifties and. Black people , COINTELPRO , Minority rights 1380 Words | 4 Pages. Zainab Sabbah Sabbah 1 English 3U1 12/ 03/2012 “The Help ” Essay Literature is Genetics, Child and Development Essay where we go to heights explore the highest and lowest places . in human society and in dicken shift, the human spirit, where we go hope to find not absolute truth but the wuthering heights truth of the tale, or the imagination and gtb uk, of the heart. The book The Help written by Kathryn Stockett connects to the topic because the book looks at the most important things in literature like book, articles, laws and wuthering monologue, bills that make up the Impact of Genetically Products on Human Essay time the characters. Kathryn Stockett , The Help , Truth 1515 Words | 4 Pages.

this is wuthering monologue happening or why did this happen to me ? How about looking back at past events and wondering how your life would be if that didn’t . Essay Dress Codes. happen? I do it all the time, when I look back and see why and wuthering monologue, where I am today thanks to everything that happened in of Genetically Products, the past. This belief is very helpful to me because it helps me look at the bright side of thing and it creates a positive attitude for me . I have had many experiences with my belief which has lead me to believe that there is a reason behind it. Heights. 2004 singles , 2007 singles , English-language films 1043 Words | 3 Pages. Why Do We Still Study. Riley Petty The Help Essay “All these houses they’re building without maid’s quarters? It’s just plain dangerous. Everybody knows they . carry different kinds of diseases than we do.” This is the world that Eugenia “Skeeter” Phelan lives in monologue, throughout the book The Help . Gtb Uk. For Jackson, Mississippi in the early 1960’s, racism is as routine as the Wednesday afternoon Bridge games. However, things are about to change when Skeeter digs deep and uncovers shameful secrets and hidden stories that make this.

African American , Black people , Kathryn Stockett 844 Words | 3 Pages. Wuthering Heights. 1.10 Reading Response The Help (Novel) – Kathryn Stockett In the Essay example novel The Help , the wuthering heights author Kathryn Stockett examines the in the Workplace Essay . idea of one’s pursuit of happiness, and what makes one truly happy. Stockett depicts this idea through three separate aspects in the novel. Firstly, she shows the wuthering monologue huge prospects of Dress Codes, happiness through the wuthering monologue relationship between Skeeter, Minny and Aibileen. Additionally, Stockett portrays the pursuit of happiness of Miss Celia, and thus uncovers what qualities create true happiness. Dicken Global Shift. Happiness , Interpersonal relationship , Kathryn Stockett 1065 Words | 3 Pages. protection more then I see them being carried for monologue hunting. Gun Control is gtb uk a topic you can hear at many restaurant tables or amongst people standing in a . store. Do people really understand what they are talking about? Will stronger gun control laws help those that carry them legally? These are questions I ask when I am part of a gun control discussion.

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This quote . caught my attention because it makes me feel somewhat sorry for Hester. She is using sewing to try and calm herself during her punishment. It reminds me of monologue, having an “outlet” in life. Something that you can do and Products on Human Essay, while doing it you forget about everything wrong in your life. 6) “Could they be other than the insidious whispers of the bad. Anne Hutchinson , Hester Prynne , Nathaniel Hawthorne 1125 Words | 3 Pages. Things such as settings, events, character traits, and language all need to be realistic. This entails a huge amount of research done by the author to . support his/her novel and create a reliable, engaging read. Kathryn Stockett, the wuthering monologue author of The Help , intertwines both fact and Impact of Genetically Food on Human Health, fiction accurately depicting life in the south and the hardships that African Americans faced back in the 1960’s. One of the wuthering heights most important aspects when writing a historical fiction novel is the setting.

If this is accurate. African American , Jim Crow laws , Ku Klux Klan 1869 Words | 5 Pages. In The Workplace Essay Example. contemporary, have a look at wuthering heights the essays by journalist Anna Quindlen (Homeless), comedian Steve Martin (The Death of My Father), and novelist Stephen King . (The Writing Life). Several essays first appeared in print within the Growth and Development Essay past few decades. To help you locate essays that match your own tastes, the contents of the Essay Samplers have been organized here by author (below), title, and theme. CONTENTS BY AUTHOR AND TITLE Mortimer Adler ”How to wuthering monologue Mark a Book” (1940) Part 5 #4 Mary Austin The. 2007 , A Modest Proposal , George Orwell 532 Words | 5 Pages. five signs) and Bipolar Disorder (include the term mania). Which one is more common? 33. What was Peter Lewinsohn’s theory? 34.

Write out each bolded . sentence under “Understanding Mood Disorders” and give a brief explanation of each as needed to help you understand the bolded sentence. 35. Under the Biological Perspective: How has genetics influenced the development of mood disorders? 36. Growth And Development. Under the wuthering heights Biological Perspective: How has the depressed brain influenced the development of mood disorders. Child Growth And Development Essay. Abnormal psychology , Borderline personality disorder , Cognitive behavioral therapy 891 Words | 4 Pages. ?Jennifer Alemoh Professor Cheryle Gittens- Bailey ENG 101 20 November 2013 Minimum wage and families Minimum wage job place workers in wuthering heights, a striving . circumstance where they have to why do study seek for additional financial help in order to live a moderate live in America.

Most families that are struggling with paying their rents or providing for their families are either on minimum wages or unemployed. This shows lack of heights monologue, security for those families or individuals that has expenses that must be covered. Employment , Employment compensation , Living wage 1105 Words | 3 Pages. Spaeth Mrs. Impact Of Genetically Modified Food Health Essay. Mueller Domestic Social Issues 8 October 2012 The Help Helping Society Every person goes through some form of wuthering, discrimination . in their lifetime. It may be because of their age or it might be because of their race. In modern society, a lot of people go through discrimination because of these factors, but the discrimination that they go through is nothing like the black people in director Tate Taylor’s movie The Help go through.

The main characters of the film are black maids in gtb uk, Jackson. Affirmative action , Black people , Miscegenation 1051 Words | 3 Pages. Monologue. The Help , which was originally written in 2009 by Kathryn Stockett and then released as a film in gtb uk, 2011 is an extraordinary example of courage, . dignity, and self respect. In a time during racial injustice, segregation and oppression; three courageous characters break an ancestor cycle providing a new outlook of respect and dignity. Heights Monologue. I selected this film to review because I felt it truly displayed character, dignity, and self respect. This movie displayed the hardships of racial issues and the courageous.

Aristotle , Ethics , Happiness 853 Words | 3 Pages. 123 Textiles Jakob Parker IT/240 6/10/2013 John Helt 123 Textiles Corporation has been a . respected company around the neighborhood for we still shakespeare years, and through all the earthquakes that have happened they always stood around. I have been asked to devise a plan to help this corporation out, not only is the natural disaster level high, but it is in a high crime area and the server was taken right out of one of the windows. While this is a huge concern as far as the wuthering heights monologue hardware. Backup , Cryptography , Encrypting File System 1336 Words | 4 Pages. Oh God Help Me The poem For Deliverance from a Fever is a beautiful poem by Anne Bradstreet.

The use of rhyme and rhythm . Power Workplace Example. throughout this poem depicts to me that Anne had an exceptional understanding of poetry and how to wuthering write poetry. Anne uses a great array of words to make the poem more appealing to not only the reader but also herself. This finely written poem portrays to me that Anne was a very spiritual women but maybe had doubts about everything going on around her. The course of this. Chosen people , Christian terms , Ecclesiology 1144 Words | 3 Pages. experiment because of the fact she tries so many different things and doesn’t tend to stick with them. She struggles with finding her identity and pursuing . her dreams. “Well-I do-alright?-thanks everybody! And forgive me for ever wanting to be anything at all. FORGIVE ME , FORGIVE ME , FORGIVE ME !” (37).

Her family can’t seem to understand why she keeps trying new things when they feel as though she’ll just give up and start another new things again shortly. They can’t understand her because they don’t know. A Raisin in the Sun , Dream , English-language films 1532 Words | 4 Pages. maid and gtb uk, she has to look after Mae Mobley as that’s part of her job. Heights. She loves and cares for her no matter what. Growth Essay. Aibileen and Mae Mobley have very special . moments together like when Aibileen was in the bathroom with Mae Mobley, and Aibileen tries to help Mae Mobley go on the toilet. This changed the movie, because it showed how much she cares for Mae Mobley and heights monologue, how if Aibileen wasn’t around, Mae Mobley would have been a lot worse off. Aibileen knows Mae Mobley better than her own mother; she knows. Gtb Uk. Childbirth , Coloured , Elizabeth I of England 1120 Words | 3 Pages.

THE ACT OF ASSISTANCE The Help is a novel written by Kathryn Stockett about African American maids working in white households in wuthering heights monologue, Jackson, . Mississippi during the early 1960s. Impact. A short sentence on the cover reveals the meaning behind the wuthering monologue story, which is “Change begins with a whisper.” That is the main external conflict of the story. Gtb Uk. People are sick of how they, and wuthering, people that they know are being treated because of the color of their skin. Shift. So they need to find a way to heights transform people’s way of. Impact Of Genetically Modified Essay. African American , Domestic worker , Great house 1109 Words | 3 Pages. “The Help ” (Good Copy) Would you want to live in the 1960’s, have a black skin colour and be considered an monologue, “animal” or a “slave”. That’s . exactly what happened to gtb uk the dark coloured citizens of that time, who worked for the white people as slaves or maids. Wuthering Heights Monologue. During the Essay 1960’s time there was a small rebellion in Jackson Mississippi influenced by a book called the “The Help ”, which was life changing for black citizens. Skeeter the protagonist of this story gave three big impacts to the black community.

Black people , Pardo , Race 1221 Words | 3 Pages. Various Breathing Patterns Data: ?No chart necessary here, but you will need to heights monologue use the data you get from why do study shakespeare running the experiments to answer the questions . below Questions: ?answer each question; use full sentences; ask instructor if you need help 5-1: What happens to PCO2 during rapid breathing? Explain your answer. 5-2: What happens to PCO2 during the entire time of the rebreathing activity? 5-3: Did the monologue depth of the breathing pattern change during rebreathing? (Carefully examine. Asthma , Lung , Mucus 716 Words | 4 Pages. employees can sometimes service a customer more personably knowing that other employees can help the next person in global, line (hopefully I explained . good enough to wuthering monologue make since??) Example: If you are waiting at the post office or airport (like the book describes), then a clerk will have more time to personalize a customer’s request and Products on Human Health, will not hold up the line completely because the wuthering heights next clerk over can help the next person in the “snake” line when they get done servicing their customer. Disadvantage-.

Bus , Bus stop , Disadvantage 813 Words | 3 Pages. Khayla Salangsang February 20, 2013 ENG 123 MW 11AM Identity in “Yellow Woman” by Leslie Marmon Silko “Yellow Woman” by Leslie Marmon . Essay On Codes. Silko is a story about a woman who goes on a journey with a man. On this journey, the wuthering monologue narrator, who is assumed to be the woman, is plagued by questions of who she is and if the stories of her culture about Products what she may be becoming are true. Wuthering. She struggles to find herself and what she wants because she wants to Impact of Genetically Food Products on Human Essay be herself but at the same time, see if she is becoming. Wuthering Monologue. Leslie Marmon Silko , Woman 1479 Words | 4 Pages. forgiven by Fukuji once he returned the sword back to Genetics, Child him. Heights. As the why do we still reader, I must say that it has been a pleasant occurring of understanding such a deep . and better than good novel of a boy who came about to being a man in the end. Heights. It really touched me that I have a lot in common with the novel. My connections happen through my childhood as a kid when I really didn’t like my name as well as Muna did and after I stole something that wasn’t mine I ended up getting caught by my mom so I definitely learned. Bladesmith , Character , Fiction 681 Words | 2 Pages. Stand by Me (Movie Review for Small Group Com) A Summer To Remember The movie Stand By Me is based upon a novel by Steven King. It doesn't have the same eerie feel as some of his other . books and is generally a more serious movie.

It takes place in the small town of Castle Rock, Oregon. It is the middle of the summer in approximately the early 1960's. The kids are bored and that is the shift setup for their adventure to go find a dead body in the woods. The main role of Gordie LaChance is played by Wil Wheaton. He is having trouble in wuthering monologue, his. Corey Feldman , Jerry O'Connell , Leadership 1608 Words | 4 Pages. consideration the dicken reality of the situation. Wuthering. Superego – “ conscience” * “The superego is like a relentless conscience that distinguishes right . from wrong in no uncertain terms. Its prime objective is to keep the id in check.” * It helps us fit into society by getting us to act in socially acceptable ways. COMPONENTS OF PERSONALITY HABITS * Routine behaviors done on a regular basis. Gtb Uk. They are recurrent and often unconscious patterns of wuthering heights, behavior and shakespeare, are acquired through.

Id, ego, and super-ego , Mind , Motivation 516 Words | 5 Pages. Wuthering Heights Monologue. Help Me Learn Thru Edutainment and shakespeare, Multiple Intelligences. Help Me Learn Thru Edutainment and Multiple Intelligences Edutainment (also known as educational entertainment or . Heights. entertainment-education) is an art form that uses entertainment for educational purposes. Example. Some sources attribute the phrase “edutaining” to Peter Catalanotto who coined the phrase as he traveled the United States teaching schoolchildren about wuthering writing and illustration in a memorable fashion by Child Growth Essay offering the information using an entertaining platform instead of the original text. Education , Educational psychology , Emotional intelligence 1328 Words | 5 Pages. Wuthering Monologue. himself civilized and look upon as a upstanding man for his work in the field when he really is Child Growth and Development oblivious to the fact that he has lost all control of his . Wuthering Heights Monologue. real self. Study Shakespeare. But there are signs of life in him and really it makes him shine as a good character to me despite his unethical demeanor. Kurtz has a woman back home whom has not left his mind he still hold her picture dear to him, and she still lives and breathes him all through the story end. Another thing that completely stands out is the horror. The. Heart of Darkness , James Earl Jones , Knowledge 1021 Words | 3 Pages. How My Optimism Will Help Me Press On To Greater Achievements Of The Future.

How My Optimism Will Help Me Press on to Greater Achievements of the Future By Anish Mantri I come from a family of optimists. My . parents are first generation immigrants to the USA and one value they highly regard is wuthering heights “optimism”. They strongly believe that one can overcome any obstacle as long as they are hopeful about the future and in the Workplace example, show resiliency to stick with their dream. My father came to the USA with $500 in heights monologue, his pocket and why do we still study shakespeare, a dream to go to wuthering monologue a top business school and succeed in Impact on Human Health Essay, corporate America. Autism , Dream Come True , Help me 850 Words | 3 Pages. Heights Monologue. ?AVT 123 (Aircraft Communications/SATCOM) Communication The sending of a message via medium to a receiver Feedback – a . response or one that sets such a process in motion; a reply or reaction to a stimulus. Gtb Uk. Hindrances to communication Noise Language Barrier Weather Surroundings Language/Sound Barrier Media Failure Telecommunication TELE – Greek word…… at a distance The sending of a message through a medium to heights monologue a receiver at a distance; involved the use of machines. Electromagnetic radiation , Electromagnetic spectrum , Frequency 918 Words | 4 Pages. Gtb Uk. How Does a Scholarship Help Me Realize My Full Potential. ------------------------------------------------- How does a scholarship help me realize my full potential My name is Lorane . Brown who resides in St. Catherine. I am 31 years old who am persistent, goal oriented and monologue, conscientious.

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Let us take a look at a sample question. The question below is similar to the question in the previous week’s article in terms of content points. Monologue. Only the text-type differs. Of Genetically Modified Food On Human Health. [pic] [pic] [pic] Dear Raihan. Help , Help me , Mode of transport 5010 Words | 13 Pages. searching for a skinny guy with round eye-glasses. Oh, that should probably be me . Yup, that’s me . I called her earlier today to . meet me here. Wuthering Heights. I don’t know why I did. But it just felt… appropriate. She saw sitting there, and gave me an inquisitive air.

She has probably no idea what I’m doing here, or what she’s doing here; or what was written on the paper I held in my sweaty hands. I motioned for her to sit down beside me , and she did. She gaped at the white sheet document I was holding, and Food Essay, without. Wuthering Monologue. 2003 singles , 2004 singles , 2005 singles 18228 Words | 49 Pages. Com 200 Foundations of study shakespeare, Interpersonal Communication. Self-Assessment Communication Style COM 200 Foundations of wuthering heights, Interpersonal Communication University Of Phoenix December 17, 2012 Abstract . The purpose of of Genetically Food Products Health Essay, this paper is to discuss my results from the “What’s My Face-to Face Communication Style?” self assessment. The research conducted with the use of the Peer Perception Survey shall allow the author to interpret the scores given by friends and heights, acquaintances. In The Workplace. This will enable a thorough examination of wuthering monologue, how other individuals observe the author. Power In The Example. Communication , Friendship , Individual 1057 Words | 4 Pages. I have to say rotten dot com is not my type of website, but it did catch my attention.

Even if you are disturbed or not attracted to heights . something, you should give it a chance. You never know what to expect especially when you see, Rotten dot com collects images and information from gtb uk many sources to present the viewer with a truly unpleasant experience on the main page. The content of the heights site is different than any other website that I have seen, but the form and layout is Essay very. Death , Image , Infant 912 Words | 5 Pages. Wuthering Heights. with several family influences, one that has always stayed with me which is the biggest reason why i first wanted to dicken shift take upon this career was . my mother. When i was little my mother would always talk about how she helped people and it would give her the most amazing feeling knowing she helped at least one person everyday. Consequently this made me wonder how it felt to support those people that really needed aid.

It also made me wonder how amazing it really felt whist doing this partly the reason. GCE Advanced Level , General Certificate of Secondary Education , Need 1387 Words | 4 Pages. Heights. How my optimism will help me press on to greater achievements of the future. my optimism will help me press on to greater achievements of the future I can’t be optimistic about my future… I can’t, without . looking at my past that is. I’ve seen where I used to be in life compared to where I am now. Impact Of Genetically Food Products On Human Essay. I use that climb in my everyday life to fuel my optimistic view, because without knowing struggle you’ll never know progress.

I know that without a past I can never have a future and without a future what’s there to be optimistic about? Optimism is helping shape me into a leader for. Heights Monologue. Future , Glossolalia , Holy Spirit 979 Words | 2 Pages. Why Do Study. 1-20-13 Essay #1- math and me When I first learned about math I was nervous I thought I wouldn’t learn how to do it or be good at it or maybe . not be able to keep up with the wuthering heights others. Essay. When I finally started doing it I realized I was actually pretty good at it so I kept practicing and learning new things and then third grade came and heights monologue, we had to do multiplication and times tables, I wasn’t thrilled. I didn’t quite get it at first and took me a while to shift get the hang of it. I just remember doing mad minutes. Education , High school , Learning styles 1265 Words | 3 Pages. the coalition influencing tactic, in hopes of heights monologue, using influential people to achieve his goal. With a coalition influencing tactic you use influential people to . help persuade others to meet your objective.

The more people you can get on your side, the more influence you can have on others. Superiors, peers, subordinates, and why do we still shakespeare, outsiders can help you influence others. Coalitions are also a political strategy. (e) Is the memo a wise political move for Ron? What might he gain and lose by sending it? I. Authority , Exchange , Help 673 Words | 3 Pages. get the wuthering heights monologue fuck away from me , you fucking bastard pricks.

They’ll kick me out again for fighting, but I don’t even care. Impact Products On Human. I’ll . fucking end you,” he shouts at them. Once he sees they’re mostly retreating, he turns his attention to the kid. He’s got his eyes shut tight, still clinging to Louis’ hand and sitting on wuthering, the ground. Maybe Louis is scaring him. “Hi,” he says, trying to sound friendly. Genetics, Child And Development Essay. “Are you alright?” The kid feels over the ground first, and Louis looks around to help . He hands the boy a. All That You Can't Leave Behind , Hand , Help! 1111 Words | 5 Pages.

?Study Guide for Quiz 2 – Women in Islam Part I Be prepared to answer the short answer questions below. Two of them will be on the quiz. (10 points) 1. . Name six facts about the life of Mohammad, including where he lived and approximately when. What women were in wuthering heights monologue, his life? (Study Guide 18) 1. Born in Mecca in the year 570. 2. Was an orphaned by the age 3 and dicken global, raise by his uncle 3. Became a business man 4. Met a successful wealthy widow named Khadija and marries her. 5. When Mohammad. Heights. Allah , Hadith , Islam 1305 Words | 5 Pages. Being Me Its tough being a teenage girl; especially me , that’s excruciating. Take some advice – no one can ever fully . understand someone so don’t even try to – it’s impossible. As you read this essay beware, not everyone lives with money and in the Workplace Essay example, happiness handed to them or lives ‘the dream’. Fact 1, Everyone is stereotyped, bound to whatever group everyone else thinks you are, not who you actually are every stereotype hates at least one other. Heights. I get stereotyped because of the make-up on my face.

2005 albums , 2006 albums , 2007 singles 1086 Words | 3 Pages. 2. Genetics, Child Essay. Chain store model: – Centralized procurement and selling through a multi-channel system – Associated methods of heights monologue, settlement, . review and allocation and users’ files 3. Distribution advantage: – Shanghai Me Mechanical and Electrical Equipment Chain’s logistics center had experience troubleshooting in the industry for many years – Thorough knowledge of the mechanical and electrical industry sector 4. Modified Food Products. Established customer base: . Customer , First-mover advantage , Inventory 759 Words | 6 Pages. Wuthering Heights Monologue. decades now, has been consistent in giving the Filipino consumers high quality products like Monde biscuits and Luck Me ! Noddles. The most . and loved favorite noodles, LUCK ME ! now opens its door to its Luck Me ! Noodle factory, giving the chance to get to know more about noodles and of Genetically Products Health, discover the wonderful world of noodles. Start of our our educational trip. Our first stop Lucky Me ! Noodle Factory at Sta.

Rosa, Laguna. At the noodle factory, everyone enjoyed and have fun with the inter-active plant. Heights. Antioxidant , Citric acid , Food 734 Words | 3 Pages. ?. COM Failure Marketing and the . Study. COM Bust Why Marketing? The . Heights. COM bust, the . COM “bubble”, the . failure of companies that “dot-bombed”, happened more than a decade ago, but the lessons learned are important for the present tech sector.

Many investors argue that we are in a bubble now, with companies like Instagram selling for $1 billion and hundreds of others getting million dollar valuations. Looking back, it’s clear from a marketing perspective current aspects of the products and websites themselves. Business , Dot-com bubble , Dot-com company 1074 Words | 3 Pages. We Still Shakespeare. finding the ground of yourself, knowing where you come from and the elements that make you what and who you are. Heights Monologue. Yeah, for some people it does seem pretty . Essay Dress Codes. easy. But from heights monologue where I’m coming from, it’s a whole different story. Let me start off by sharing a little biography about me . My name is Denice Mikaela Bayson Mendoza a..k.a Mikee. Why Do. I’m 20 years old and I live in Makati City. I studied pre-school, elementary and monologue, high school in St. Scholastica’s College Manila but got kicked out after my freshman year.

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Class Size: What Research Says and What it Means for heights monologue, State Policy. Class size is one of the small number of variables in American K-12 education that are both thought to influence student learning and are subject to legislative action. Legislative mandates on maximum class size have been very popular at the state level. In recent decades, at Dress Codes, least 24 states have mandated or incentivized class-size reduction (CSR). The current fiscal environment has forced states and districts to rethink their CSR policies given the high cost of maintaining small classes.

For example, increasing the pupil/teacher ratio in wuthering heights the U.S. by one student would save at least $12 billion per year in teacher salary costs alone, which is roughly equivalent to the outlays of Title I of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act, the federal government’s largest single K-12 education program. The substantial expenditures required to sustain smaller classes are justified by the belief that smaller classes increase student learning. We examine “what the research says” about whether class-size reduction has a positive impact on student learning and, if it does, by Genetics, Essay, how much, for whom, and under what circumstances. Wuthering? Despite there being a large literature on class-size effects on academic achievement, only a few studies are of high enough quality and sufficiently relevant to be given credence as a basis for legislative action. The most influential and credible study of CSR is the Student Teacher Achievement Ratio, or STAR, study which was conducted in Tennessee during the on Human, late 1980s. In this study, students and teachers were randomly assigned to a small class, with an average of monologue 15 students, or a regular class, with an average of 22 students. This large reduction in why do study class size (7 students, or 32 percent) was found to wuthering heights monologue increase student achievement by an amount equivalent to of Genetically Modified Health about 3 additional months of wuthering heights monologue schooling four years later. Studies of class size in Texas and Israel also found benefits of why do we still study shakespeare smaller classes, although the gains associated with smaller classes were smaller in magnitude than those in the Tennessee STAR study. Other rigorous studies have found mixed effects in California and in heights monologue other countries, and Genetics, and Development, no effects in Florida and Connecticut. Because the pool of credible studies is small and the individual studies differ in heights the setting, method, grades, and magnitude of class size variation that is studied, conclusions have to Power in the Workplace Essay be tentative.

But it appears that very large class-size reductions, on the order of magnitude of 7-10 fewer students per class, can have significant long-term effects on student achievement and other meaningful outcomes. These effects seem to heights be largest when introduced in the earliest grades, and for Power in the Workplace Essay example, students from less advantaged family backgrounds. When school finances are limited, the cost-benefit test any educational policy must pass is heights not “Does this policy have any positive effect?” but rather “Is this policy the most productive use of these educational dollars?” Assuming even the largest class-size effects, such as the STAR results, class-size mandates must still be considered in the context of alternative uses of tax dollars for education. There is global no research from the U.S. that directly compares CSR to wuthering monologue specific alternative investments, but one careful analysis of Essay several educational interventions found CSR to be the least cost effective of wuthering those studied. How the dicken global, quality of school lunch affects students’ academic performance. 2017 Brown Center Report on American Education: Race and school suspensions. The popularity of class-size reduction may make it difficult for policymakers to increase class size across the board in order to sustain other investments in wuthering monologue education during a period of budget reductions.

In that context, state policymakers should consider targeting CSR at students who have been shown to benefit the gtb uk, most: disadvantaged students in the early grades, or providing a certain amount of funding for wuthering heights monologue, CSR but leaving it up to Essay on Dress local school leaders on how to wuthering distribute it. In settings where state mandates on maximum class size are relaxed, policymakers need to Essay on Dress bear in mind that the effect of any increase in class size will depend on how such an increase is implemented. For example, a one-student increase in monologue the pupil/teacher ratio in Child the U.S. Wuthering Heights Monologue? would reduce the teaching workforce by about 7 percent. If the Child Essay, teachers to be laid off were chosen in a way largely unrelated to their effectiveness, such as seniority-based layoffs, then the associated increase in class size might well have a negative effect on student achievement. But if schools choose the least effective teachers to let go, then the wuthering heights, effect of increased teacher quality could make up for some or all of the possible negative impact of increasing class size. State resources for education should always be carefully allocated, but the need to judiciously weigh costs and Essay, benefits is particularly salient in times of austere budgets. Class-size reduction has been shown to monologue work for some students in some grades in Workplace example some states and countries, but its impact has been found to heights monologue be mixed or not discernable in other settings and circumstances that seem similar. It is very expensive. The costs and we still shakespeare, benefits of class-size mandates need to be carefully weighed against all of the alternatives when difficult decisions must be made. A Context for wuthering, Linking Research to Policy. There are a small number of variables in American K-12 education that are both thought to influence student learning and are subject to legislative action.

Class size is one. Others include human resource policies, funding levels, curriculum, days/hours of instruction, and testing and accountability. Advocates for legislation on any of these topics are likely to appeal to research evidence as support for their position. That is appropriate and desirable as long as: a) the evidence is of high quality, b) it is relevant to the legislative action under consideration, c) conflicting evidence isn’t ignored, and d) alternative courses of legislative action are similarly evaluated and compared. The absence of Workplace Essay example any of these four conditions undermines the legitimacy of advocacy that is built on monologue, assertions about what “research says.” If the evidence is not of high quality it provides little or no support for any conclusions. For instance, advocates for class-size reduction might cite evidence that students in smaller classes perform better on state examinations. But this simple correlation could be due to families with higher levels of education living in Child Growth and Development Essay more affluent school districts that can afford smaller classes.

Class size per wuthering monologue, se might have no more to do with student achievement than the condition of the schools’ sports stadiums. “Evidence” that is this weak is no evidence at on Dress, all. Research can be of high quality but of wuthering heights monologue questionable relevance to legislative action because the settings and circumstances of the research are so different from those at hand. For example, a number of well-designed studies of class size in the U.S. prior to World War II found that student achievement increased when class size rose.[1] But the nature of the population, the organization of schools, the characteristics of teachers and so many other things differ between now and the U.S. between the gtb uk, two world wars that the relevance of this research for current legislation is weak. Considering the balance of the evidence is also very important. Too frequently advocates for particular positions cherry pick their evidence, conveniently ignoring research that raises questions about their favored position or putting their thumbs on the appraisal scale so that the flaws in conflicting research are emphasized. Wuthering Heights Monologue? Advocates for and against class-size reduction have engaged in Essay Dress Codes or been accused of engaging in such cherry picking for as long as there has been research on this issue and the prospect of legislation.[2] Finally, and most importantly, all legislative action that requires appropriations involves choices.

An appeal to evidence to support expenditures without consideration of the heights monologue, costs and benefits of Power in the all the options that are available can seriously mislead. With a limited and currently shrinking pool of state funds available to wuthering support K-12 education, the relative productivity of expenditures should be carefully considered. Why Do Study Shakespeare? What are the costs and benefits of maintaining a cap on wuthering heights, class size relative to other state-mandated uses of funds for education? And what are the costs and Growth and Development Essay, benefits of state mandates on specific uses of education funds relative to appropriations that allow more flexibility at the local level in how funds are spent? Research Associate, Andrew W. Mellon Foundation.

Senior Fellow - Economic Studies, Center on Children and Families. Background on Class-size Reduction. Legislative mandates on maximum class size have been very popular at the state level. In recent decades, at least 24 states have mandated or incentivized class-size limits in their public schools.[3] Because the legislatively imposed limits have nearly always required a reduction in class size compared to the period prior to the legislation, these initiatives are called class-size reduction (CSR). State-level CSR initiatives flourished during a period of wuthering heights rapidly expanding per-pupil expenditure on public K-12 education in the U.S. (per pupil revenue increased by 58 percent in real dollars in the last 20 years[4]). Indeed, CSR was a significant contributor to gtb uk the increase in spending in that the average pupil/teacher ratio for public schools has decreased by 21 percent in the last 20 years.[5] ,[6] The average U.S. pupil/teacher ratio in the public schools is currently 15.3.[7] With an wuthering heights, average U.S. teacher salary of approximately $55,000,[8] each student has an individual cost of about $3,600 in teacher salary alone. Genetics, Growth And Development? With about 49.3 million public school students enrolled, a one-student decrease in class size from the present average would cost over $12 billion a year in aggregate for the U.S.[9] A one-student increase in class size would generate an equivalent savings. Wuthering Heights? The costs of CSR are not limited to teacher salaries. More classrooms are needed for smaller classes. In our example of a one-student reduction in class size across the U.S., more than 225,000 additional classrooms would need to we still study be added to the nation’s stock.

In any context $12+ billion a year for any educational initiative is a large amount. By way of comparison, the federal government’s largest single K-12 education program, Title I of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act, involves about the same level of annual expenditure as would a one-student reduction in the nation’s average pupil/teacher ratio.[10] With the end of federal stimulus funding and economic growth at low rates, 40 states are projecting shortfalls for their 2012 budget year. Some, including large states such as California, Texas, and Illinois, are projecting revenue shortfalls that are more than 20 percent of the size of the 2011 budgets.[11] For these states, there is wuthering heights monologue no single solution. Cuts will have to be made in many areas, including education, and difficult choices will abound. In this context, we believe it is useful to revisit research on the effects of class size on student learning, and to gtb uk explore what the findings from that research have to contribute to the budget deliberations that many state legislatures are presently or will shortly be engaged in. Does class-size reduction have a positive impact on student learning? If so, by heights, how much, for whom, and under what circumstances? What would be the likely effect of relaxing class-size mandates? What are the why do we still study shakespeare, uncertainties in the conclusions that can be drawn from heights, existing evidence about state CSR policies? There is a large body of research on Power in the Essay, the relationship between class size and student learning.

A 1979 systematic review of the monologue, literature identified 80 studies.[12] There are surely hundreds today. The vast majority of these studies simply examine the association between variation in class size and student achievement. The primary difficulty in interpreting this research is that schools with different class sizes likely differ in many other, difficult-to-observe ways. Dicken? For example, more affluent schools are more likely to wuthering heights monologue have the we still shakespeare, resources needed to provide smaller classes, which would create the illusion that smaller classes are better when in fact family characteristics were the real reason. Alternatively, a school that serves many students with behavior problems may find it easier to manage these students in smaller classes. A comparison of such schools to other schools might give the appearance that small classes produce less learning when in fact the behavior problems were the main factor. The most credible studies of CSR have utilized either randomized experiments, in monologue which students and teachers are randomly assigned to smaller or larger classes; natural experiments in which, for example, a sudden change in class size policy allows a before-and-after analysis of its effects; or sophisticated mathematical models for estimating effects that take advantage of longitudinal data on individual students, teachers, and schools.

We limit our review to such studies. Research that supports the effectiveness of smaller classes. The most influential and credible study of CSR is the Student Teacher Achievement Ratio, or STAR, study which was conducted in Tennessee during the late 1980s. Impact? Beginning with the entering kindergarteners in 1985, students and teachers were randomly assigned to a small class, with an average of 15 students, or a regular class, with an average of 22 students. Thus the reduction in monologue class size (7 students, or 32 percent) was quite large. There are several research studies based on the STAR experiment. We examine two, including one that focuses on longer-term outcomes. Krueger’s analysis of the Tennessee STAR experiment finds that elementary school students randomly assigned to small classes outperformed their classmates who were assigned to regular classes by about 0.22 standard deviations after four years.[13] This is equivalent to students in the smaller classes having received about 3 months more schooling than the students in the regular classes.[14] This effect was concentrated in the first year that students participated in Growth and Development Essay the program.

In addition, the positive effects of class size were largest for black students, economically disadvantaged students, and boys.[15] Krueger estimates that the wuthering heights monologue, economic returns to class-size reduction in Genetics, Essay Tennessee were greater than the costs, with an monologue, internal positive rate of return of about 6 percent. A recent long-term follow-up of STAR participants into adulthood utilized IRS tax records to investigate a range of outcomes.[16] The researchers find that students assigned to small classes at the beginning of elementary school are about 2 percentage points more likely to on be enrolled in college at age 20. Wuthering Heights? They did not find any evidence of an impact on incomes at age 27, but the income effects are measured with too much imprecision to warrant strong conclusions. In summary, STAR researchers have found positive effects of early and very large class-size reductions on Essay Dress, academic achievement in school and college attendance, with the economic benefits of the program outweighing the wuthering monologue, costs. These are important results from a very strong research design. Rivkin, Hanushek, and Kain used a sophisticated statistical model to examine the effects of natural variation in class size in Essay Dress Texas in the mid-1990s.[17] The study utilized longitudinal data from more than one-half million students in over three thousand schools. The researchers found positive effects of wuthering monologue smaller class sizes on reading and mathematics in 4 th grade, a smaller but still statistically significant effect in 5 th grade, and little or no effects in later grades. Because the Essay on Dress Codes, researchers used state assessment results that were only available beginning at 4 th grade, they could not estimate class-size effects for the early grades that were studied in STAR. The estimated class-size effects for 4 th and 5 th graders in Texas were about half the size the K-3 effects in Tennessee. International studies also provide positive evidence for the effects of class-size reduction.

Angrist and Lavy took advantage of a class-size limit in Israel of 40 students. Whenever there are more students in a grade than 40 per teacher, a teacher and classroom must be added. The effect on class size in smaller schools can be dramatic. For example, with 80 students in a two-classroom 3rd grade, class size will be 40, but with 81 students it will be 27. The researchers find positive effects of smaller fourth- and fifth-grade classes, with effect sizes that are on the lower end of the heights monologue, range of those found in the STAR study.[18] They do not find any effects on third-grade scores. Studies with mixed results. In 1996, California enacted a K-3 CSR program designed to reduce class size by Genetics, and Development, ten students per class, from 30 to 20, throughout the state. School participation in first and second grades exceeded 90 percent statewide by 1998, but participation in Kindergarten and third grade did not exceed 90 percent until 2000.

This staggered introduction of CSR provided opportunities for monologue, researchers to study its effects. CSR created 25,000 new teaching positions in its first two years. Many of these positions were filled by teachers without certification or prior teaching experience. Other positions were filled by experienced teachers who switched grades or schools. Jepsen and Rivkin carried out a sophisticated analysis to examine the we still, influence of both the class-size reduction and the changes in the teacher workforce.[19] They find positive effects for heights, class-size reduction that are about half as large as those found in Tennessee. At the same time they find that increases in the numbers of new and not-fully-certified teachers offset much of these gains. In other words, students who ended up in the classrooms of Essay Codes teachers new to wuthering heights their classrooms and grades suffered academically from the Workplace example, teacher’s inexperience by almost the same amount as they benefited from being in a smaller class. Heights Monologue? There is an important lesson here: Major education initiatives do not operate in a vacuum. Policies designed to affect one dimension of a student’s educational experience are likely to affect others as well.

Other unintended negative consequences of California’s CSR policy included an increase in class size in grades four and five[20] and the use of multi-grade classrooms.[21] Woessman and West, taking advantage of differences in average class size between the 7 th and 8 th grades within schools, examined class-size effects on performance on international examinations in 11 countries around the world.[22] They find educationally meaningful effects of Power in the Workplace Essay smaller classes in a small number of monologue countries, and a roughly even split between no effects and gtb uk, small effects in the remainder of the countries. Interestingly, the countries in which they find educationally meaningful positive effects of smaller classes are those with low salary levels for teachers and wuthering, lower than average performance on shakespeare, international exams. A low average salary level for teachers suggests that a country is wuthering drawing its teaching population from a relatively low level of the shift, overall capability distribution of all its employees. Thus, the heights, countries studied by Woessman and West seem to have taken different paths, with some opting for relatively large numbers of poorly-paid teachers who perform better in smaller classes and others having relatively fewer but better-paid teachers whose performance isn’t as affected by the number of students in class.

In this regard it is worth noting that the East Asian nations that perform at higher levels than the U.S. on international exams have very large class sizes. Dee and Impact of Genetically Products Essay, West used a nationally representative database of students to wuthering heights monologue compare the outcomes of the same eighth-grade students who had attended different size classes in different subjects. They find no overall impact of class size on test scores, i.e., the same students did not perform better in in the Workplace the subjects in which they had smaller classes. There was, however, a small positive effect on test scores in urban schools, and modest overall positive effects on non-cognitive skills such as student attentiveness and attitudes about learning.[23] Studies with negative results. Arrayed against these positive and mixed findings for heights monologue, CSR are two credible studies that find no positive effects. Hoxby examined natural class size variation in Connecticut that was caused when natural population variation triggered a change in the number of classes in a grade in a school. For example, a small school that has 15 first-grade students in one year and 18 the next year would have a larger class during the second year.

Additionally, a school that has set a class-size limit of 25 would have one second-grade class of shift 25 if there were 25 second-grade students but two classes of 13 if there were 26 students. Hoxby finds no relationship between class size and achievement in fourth and sixth grade (which should reflect class size in all previous grades). Hoxby does not even find class-size effects at schools that serve disproportionately large shares of disadvantaged or minority students.[24] A recent study by heights monologue, Chingos systematically examined the broad and expensive Florida CSR policy. In 2002, voters approved an amendment to the Florida state constitution that set limits on the number of students in core classes (such as math, English, and dicken global, science) in the state’s public schools. Beginning with the 2010-2011 school year, the heights monologue, maximum number of students in each core class would be: 18 students through grade 3; 22 students in grades 4 through 8; and 25 students in Child Growth Essay grades 9 through 12. In 2003, the wuthering heights, Florida Legislature enacted a law that implemented the amendment by Essay Codes, first requiring, from 2003-04 to 2005-06, districts to reduce their average class sizes either to the maximum for each grade grouping or by at least two students per year until they reached the maximum. Beginning in 2006-07, compliance was measured at the school level, with schools facing the same rules for heights monologue, their average class size that districts faced previously. Beginning in 2010-11, compliance was measured at the classroom level. This policy cost about $20 billion to implement during its first eight years, with continuing costs of $4 billion to $5 billion each subsequent year.[25]

Taking advantage of the staggered introduction of class-size reductions over time at the district and school level, Chingos utilized a sophisticated before-and-after analysis to examine the effects of the policy on student achievement between 2004 and global, 2009. He finds no evidence that the Florida policy had any impact on test scores in grades 3 through 8 (state-wide assessments in math and reading were not administered in the earlier grades).[26] Despite there being a large literature on class-size effects on academic achievement, only wuthering heights monologue a few studies are of high enough quality and sufficiently relevant to be given credence as a basis for legislative action. Because the pool of credible studies is small; the individual studies differ in the setting, method, grades, and magnitude of class size variation that is studied; and no study is without issues, including those reviewed here, conclusions have to be tentative. It appears that very large class-size reductions, on the order of global shift magnitude of 7-10 fewer students per class, can have meaningful long-term effects on wuthering, student achievement and perhaps on non-cognitive outcomes. The academic effects seem to be largest when introduced in the earliest grades, and for students from less advantaged family backgrounds. They may also be largest in Workplace classrooms of teachers who are less well prepared and effective in monologue the classroom. The Tennessee STAR experiment generates the on Dress, largest estimate of the payoffs of a big decrease in class size. In Krueger’s cost-benefit analysis, the return to the investment in smaller class sizes in Tennessee was slightly bigger than the costs of heights implementing the program. In other words, it paid its way. All other studies of CSR generate either smaller estimates of the effects of variation in class size or find no effects at Impact Modified Food Essay, all.

Getting a decent sense of the wuthering heights monologue, size of the effect that can be expected from of Genetically Food Products Health, reducing class size is obviously important to evaluating its benefits. Few voters would support a multi-billion dollar initiative that results in improvements in student outcomes (or any other desirable outcome, such as the population’s health or vehicle gas mileage) that are too small to be noticeable. One way to roughly estimate the wuthering monologue, size of Impact Modified Products on Human Health class-size effects that is consistent with the existing literature would be to assume that the effects are linear, i.e., a reduction in class size by one student would generate 10 percent of the benefit of a reduction in class size by 10 students, and to heights monologue assume that the effects diminish with each grade in school, with a reduction of a given number of students in 5 th grade expected to have about half the effect of reduction of the same number of students in Essay Codes kindergarten. The largest estimates of the magnitude of class-size effects are those produced by Krueger (1999), who found that the students in classes that were 7 to wuthering monologue 8 students smaller on average than regular-sized classes performed about dicken, 0.22 standard deviations better on a standardized test. This means that students performed about 3 percent of a standard deviation better for every 1 student less in the class. These effects were generated largely by class-size reductions in wuthering kindergarten. If we take the effect by 5 th grade to be half the Genetics, Child Essay, size of the kindergarten effect, then a reduction in wuthering monologue 1 student per Essay Dress Codes, class would generate approximately 1.5 percent of a standard deviation difference in achievement scores in 5 th grade. This means that on a statewide assessment such as the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS), which has a mean of about 700 and a standard deviation of about 100 at 5th grade for mathematics, a reduction in class size by heights monologue, one student would generate an improvement of 1.5 scale score points. Thus a statewide mean of 700 on TAKS would become a statewide mean of 701.5. Essay Dress? Alternatively, an heights, increase of class size by one student would lead to a statewide mean of 698.5 on TAKS. Essay Dress Codes? At grade three the effect would be about monologue, 2 points up or down (assuming an effect size for a 1 student reduction of 2.0, which is 2/3 rds of the effect for earlier grades in STAR).

To put a one or two point change in student performance as a result of dicken global class size in context, the difference between the average scale scores of wuthering monologue whites and blacks on TAKS at 5 th grade is 65 points. Note that our estimates of a one to two point effect on TAKS of a one student change in class size are based on an upper bound for class-size effects based on Krueger’s analysis. Estimates that averaged together effect sizes for all the studies we have reviewed, including the two that found no effects at all (Hoxby; Chingos), would obviously be considerably smaller. Funding Class-size Reduction vs. Power? Other Initiatives. When school finances are limited, the cost-benefit test any educational policy must pass is not “Does this policy have any positive effect?” but rather “Is this policy the wuthering heights, most productive use of these educational dollars?” Assuming even the largest class-size effects, such as the STAR results, class-size mandates must still be considered in the context of alternative uses of shakespeare tax dollars for education. Will a dollar spent on class-size reduction generate as much return as a dollar spent on: raising teacher salaries, implementing better curriculum, strengthening early childhood programs, providing more frequent assessment results to teachers to help guide instruction, investments in educational technology, etc.? There is no research from the U.S. that directly compares CSR to specific alternative investments.

In other words, the wuthering, comparison condition for all CSR studies has been business as usual rather than, for example, a comparison of $20 billion invested in in the Workplace Essay smaller classes vs. Wuthering Monologue? $20 billion invested in higher teacher salaries. Thus, estimates of effects and costs from different education investments have to Modified on Human Health be extrapolated and estimated from different studies, and this process is necessarily inexact. Heights Monologue? Nevertheless, Harris finds short-term rates of we still study shakespeare return for computer-aided instruction, cross-age tutoring, early childhood programs, and increases in instructional time that are all greater than those for monologue, CSR.[27] Whitehurst does not estimate costs, but finds effects on student achievement from choosing more effective curriculum; reconstituting the teacher workforce (for example by Modified Food Products Health Essay, substituting Teach for America teachers for new teachers from traditional training routes); and enrolling students in popular charter schools in urban areas that are all as large or larger than those obtained from CSR.[28] The popularity of class-size reduction may make it politically difficult for wuthering heights, policymakers to increase class size in gtb uk order to sustain other investments in education, even in a time of budget austerity. Wuthering Monologue? In that context, state policymakers might consider targeting the reductions at students who have been shown to benefit the most: disadvantaged students in the early grades, or providing a certain amount of funding for CSR but leaving it up to local school leaders on how to distribute it. Genetics, Child And Development Essay? Much smaller classes for inexperienced teachers who need support in developing skills or for teachers who are responsible for struggling students may make more sense than across the board reductions.

The tradeoff between class size and teacher salaries needs to be very carefully considered. Effects on student achievement related to differences in teacher quality are very large. The same data from the Tennessee STAR study that demonstrates long-term effects for wuthering, class-size reduction produces estimates of gtb uk much larger effects for variation in teacher quality within schools. Thus, for heights monologue, example, while differences between large and small classes in early elementary school had no long-term effects on the earning power of adults, differences in classroom quality did.[29] With fixed or reduced state budgets to support K-12 education, maintaining class-size limits means a larger pool of teachers with lower salaries. On? It means that funds that might be devoted to raising teacher salaries across the board or selectively in hard to fill positions or for highly effective teachers will be limited. By one estimate, an increase in average class size by 5 students would result in an across the board increase of 34 percent in wuthering heights monologue teacher salaries if all the Power in the Workplace, savings were devoted to that purpose.[30] Higher salaries would likely draw more qualified people into the teaching profession, and keep them there.

In the current fiscal climate, it is clear that the yearly increases in funding in real dollars that have long been enjoyed by our nation’s public schools are coming to an end for the foreseeable future. Many states and districts are contemplating cuts in funding that will require schools to wuthering monologue make hard choices. So although the research literature has focused on the effect of reducing class size, the current policy debate concerns the other side of the dicken shift, coin—the consequences of increasing the monologue, size of in the Workplace Essay example classes. Monologue? The potential for negative consequences of larger classes clearly needs to why do we still study be weighed against the fallout from cutting other programs in wuthering heights monologue order to preserve smaller classes—both academic programs and non-academic offerings such as athletics and Essay on Dress, the arts. Another important point is that the effect of any increase in class size will depend on how such an increase is implemented. Our earlier rough calculation indicated that a one-student increase in wuthering monologue the pupil/teacher ratio in the U.S., which would save over $12 billion per Genetics, Child and Development Essay, year in wuthering heights monologue salary costs alone, would decrease the teaching workforce by about 7 percent of the nation’s teachers. Many school districts and states across the nation are considering reductions in the teacher workforce on this order of dicken global magnitude.

If the heights, teachers to gtb uk be laid off were chosen in a way largely unrelated to their effectiveness, such as “last in first out,” then the associated increase in class size could well have a negative effect on student achievement. But if schools choose the least effective teachers to let go, then the effect of increased teacher quality could make up for some or all of any negative effect of increasing class size.[31] State resources for education should always be judiciously allocated, but the need to carefully weigh costs and benefits is particularly salient in times of wuthering heights monologue austere budgets. Class-size reduction has been shown to work for in the Workplace example, some students in some grades in some states and countries, but its impact has been found to be mixed or not discernable in other settings and circumstances that seem similar. It is very expensive. The costs and benefits of class-size mandates need to be carefully weighed against all of the alternatives when difficult budget and program decisions must be made. Jonah Rockoff, “Field Experiments in wuthering heights Class Size from the Power Workplace example, Early Twentieth Century,” Journal of Economic Perspectives , 23(4): 211–230 (2009).

See, e.g, Eric A. Hanushek, “The Failure of Input-Based Schooling Policies,” Economic Journal , 113(485): F64–F98 (2003) and Alan B. Krueger, “Economic Considerations and Class Size,” Economic Journal , 113(485): F34–F63 (2003). Education Commission of the wuthering heights monologue, States, “State Class-Size Reduction Measures,” Denver, Colorado: Education Commission of the States (2005). Note that the pupil/teacher ratio is nearly always smaller than class size because it includes teachers in specialized roles as well as regular classroom teachers. Gtb Uk? However, within states, pupil/teacher ratio and wuthering, class size are highly correlated. We use pupil/teacher ratio here because it can be calculated from data reported by all U.S. school districts to the federal government, whereas class size cannot. Presently there are 3.2 million teachers serving 49.3 million students in Child and Development Essay the public schools, which corresponds to 15.3 students for every teacher. Decreasing the pupil/teacher ratio to 14.3 would require hiring 226,000 additional teachers, which at $55,000 per wuthering, teacher would cost $12.4 billion/year in salary costs alone. These per-pupil cost estimates are very conservative compared to others in the literature that try to account for all costs of teachers, including fringe benefits and facilities. See, e.g., Douglas N. Harris, “Toward Policy-Relevant Benchmarks for Interpreting Effect Sizes: Combining Effects With Costs,” Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis 31(1): 3–29 (2009).

Gene V. Glass and Mary Lee Smith. “Meta-Analysis of Research on Class Size and Achievement.” Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis 1(1): 2–16 (1979). Alan B. Krueger, “Experimental Estimates of Education Production Functions,” Quarterly Journal of why do we still study Economics , 115(2): 497–532 (1999). The average student gains 0.88 standard deviations per year from kindergarten through the end of wuthering third grade (Carolyn J. Hill, Howard S. Codes? Bloom, Alison Rebeck Black, and Mark W. Wuthering Heights Monologue? Lipsey, “Empirical Benchmarks for Interpreting Effect Sizes in Research,” Child Development Perspectives , 2(3): 172–177 (2008)). The STAR effect size of 0.22 is 25 percent of that, which corresponds to Essay on Dress 2.5 months of a 10-month school year. Matthew M. Chingos, “The False Promise of Class-Size Reduction,” Center for American Progress (2011). Raj Chetty, John N. Wuthering Monologue? Friedman, Nathaniel Hilger, Emmanuel Saez, Diane Whitmore Schanzenbach, and Danny Yagan, “How Does Your Kindergarten Classroom Affect Your Earnings? Evidence from Project STAR,” NBER Working Paper No.

16381, September 2010. Steven G. Gtb Uk? Rivkin, Eric A. Heights Monologue? Hanushek, and John F. Gtb Uk? Kain, “Teachers, Schools, and Academic Achievement,” Econometrica , 73(2): 417–458 (2005). Joshua D. Angrist and Victor Lavy, “Using Maimonides’ Rule to Estimate the Effect of Class Size on Scholastic Achievement,” Quarterly Journal of Economics, 114(2): 533–575 (1999). Christopher Jepsen and Steven Rivkin, “Class Size Reduction and Student Achievement: The Potential Tradeoff between Teacher Quality and wuthering heights, Class Size,” Journal of Human Resources , 44(1): 223–250 (2009). David Sims, “Crowding Peter to Genetics, Child and Development Educate Paul: Lessons from a Class Size Reduction Externality,” Economics of Education Review , 28: 465–473 (2009). David Sims, “A Strategic Response to Class Size Reduction: Combination Classes and wuthering heights monologue, Student Achievement in in the Workplace California,” Journal of Policy Analysis and Management , 27(3): 457–478 (2008). Ludger Woessmann and Martin West, “Class-Size Effects in School Systems Around the World: Evidence from wuthering monologue, Between-Grade Variation in TIMSS,” European Economic Review , 50(3): 695–736 (2006).

Thomas S. Dee and Martin R. Gtb Uk? West, “The Non-Cognitive Returns to Class Size,” Education Evaluation and heights, Policy Analysis (forthcoming). Caroline M. Hoxby, “The Effects of Class Size on Student Achievement: New Evidence from Population Variation,” Quarterly Journal of Economics , 115(4): 1239–1285 (2000). [25] “2009–10 Florida Education Finance Program,” DOE Information Database Workshop, Summer 2009, available at Essay on Dress, http://www.fldoe.org/eias/databaseworkshop/ppt/fefp.ppt . [26] Matthew M. Chingos, “The Impact of a Universal Class-Size Reduction Policy: Evidence from Florida’s Statewide Mandate,” Harvard University, Program on Education Policy and Governance Working Paper. 10-03 (2010), available at http://www.hks.harvard.edu/pepg/PDF/Papers/PEPG10-03_Chingos.pdf. [27] Douglas N. Harris, “Toward Policy-Relevant Benchmarks for Interpreting Effect Sizes: Combining Effects With Costs,” Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis 31(1): 3–29 (2009). [28] Grover J. Whitehurst. “Don’t forget Curriculum,” Brown Center Letters on wuthering, Education, #3 . October 2009, Washington, D.C.: The Brookings Institution. [29] Raj Chetty, John N. Friedman, Nathaniel Hilger, Emmanuel Saez, Diane Whitmore Schanzenbach, and Danny Yagan, “How Does Your Kindergarten Classroom Affect Your Earnings? Evidence from Project STAR,” NBER Working Paper No. 16381, September 2010.

[30] Matthew M. Chingos, “The False Promise of Class-Size Reduction,” Center for American Progress (2011).