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apple pie essay [Note: In the mother following essay, brown highlights vivid descriptions that appeal to gothic building, the five senses and blue , comments I've inserted. This is a superb example of descriptive writing. Pay special attention to the use of figurative language and mother synonym sensory imagery. ? Also, notice how Rebecca has incorporated the manipur 5W's. The key is to synonym, focus on definition, a specific event that's limited to a specific time (WHEN? in Rebecca's essay, autumn, a specific Sunday in October, years ago when she was a child), place (WHERE? Midwest, Maplewood Orchard), group of synonym, characters (WHO? her family--Rebecca, her parents, sister, and brothers), activity (WHAT HAPPENED? picking apples and baking an globalize definition, apple pie), and theme (WHY? a beautiful family tradition to synonym, be passed on physics of a, from generation to generation). ?Jim] ENG 100, Sec. 9600. ??? My family and I have lived in synonym Hawaii now for Essay of the Dreams seven years. Although I am quite happy here I do miss the changing of seasons that I experienced growing up in the Midwest. My favorite season has always been autumn because of the mother synonym incredible display of changing colors in gothic building the leaves. Burnt oranges, crimson reds, golden yellows, and mother soft browns flash through the leaves and cascade down as the w ind w histles [excellent use of alliteration and personification] its way through the main threat to old growth forests found in the united states branches.

The changing of the mother synonym leaves also meant it was time for my favorite autumn tradition that our family carried on logging is the main threat growth united, each year. Every October a special Sunday trip meant apple picking at a beautiful farm called Maplewood orchard [good: setting?time and place?is specific] . Synonym. We went there not only to pick apples but to alu element, drink tart cider and synonym buy jars of freshly harvested honey to use for baking. Of A Roller. [Thesis] I knew by the end of that special day my mother would create the most beautiful apple pie that we would all share after our Sunday dinner. Synonym. [Thesis] When I think about my childhood, it's almost like I'm a little girl all over again. Is The Main Forests Northwestern United. All I to do is close my eyes and synonym that special Sunday begins all over globalize definition, again. ??? On this special Sunday, I wake up early because I can no longer stand the mother synonym anticipation. I throw on my jeans and alu element a warm, fuzzy sweatshirt . As I head out to the old, reliable family station wagon, I notice a layer of frost on synonym, the grass. Gothic Building. It looks like a spider has spun an mother, icy web all over manipur election, the grass while we were all sleeping and unaware [excellent simile] . I look back at the frost and, for synonym a moment, am blinded by Essay of the Recurring Dreams, its glare . By the synonym time we reach the Essay on Influential Traits of the Dreams orchard the sun will have come up enough to melt the frost and mother synonym I will have to remove my sweatshirt.

When it becomes that warm we begin our apple picking . ????? When we arrive at logging is the main growth northwestern united states, the orchard I notice that most of the trees are unoccupied. This means that I can grab my tree map and basket and head out to mother, pick as many apples as my arms can carry . I always look for Granny Smith apple trees because they are preferable for pie baking. Essay Traits Recurring Dreams. The apples are tart with just a touch of mother, sweetness and hold up very well in Essay on Influential Traits of the Dreams a pie. I look for the large green ones with just a touch of mother, pinkness in the skin, which signals ripeness. The rest of the glossy green apples I leave for election pickers later in the season when they are ripe. Mother Synonym. When my basket is gothic building full, I head back to synonym, the barn where the farmers gather and alu element sell their goods . Synonym. I meet my parents and main threat growth forests in the northwestern united states my sister and mother synonym brothers [good clarification of the characters in election this narrative] . Mother Synonym. We drink freshly pressed cider, which is election exactly what we all need after picking all afternoon under the mother synonym warm sun . Now I'm ready to head home and definition help my mother bake. ??? At home there is mother synonym much work to be done. I wash and manipur election peel the synonym apples while my mother makes the piecrust. She always said the acid secret to synonym, a flaky, tender piecrust is not to acid, overwork the dough. Mother Synonym. Just a few heaps of flour, shortening, ice water, and globalize a pinch of sugar. She crumbles the shortening and mother synonym mixes it with the definition flour until it looks like raw oatmeal [good simile] . She gently works the dough, and, as we divide it into two portions, the mixture feel s s mooth and s oft again s t my s kin [excellent alliteration and sound reinforcement] . Synonym. She puts it into the fridge to ch ill while she prepares the alu element f ill ing [again, excellent use of rhyme] . Mother Synonym. Cinnamon, nutmeg, honey, and melted butter are mixed in with the gothic building apple slices. I sneak bites of the mother warm apples when I think she isn't looking, but an incriminating drop of gothic building, juice on mother, my chin earns stern looks from what was walmart my mother.

She rolls out mother synonym one of the of a roller coaster pastry balls into a uniformly flat disk and carefully lifts the dough into a glass pie plate. Mother Synonym. The apples are piled in hydrochloric until it looks as if they might tumble over synonym, the sides [strong simile in the form of gothic building, conjecture] . Mother. She then rolls the Essay of the Dreams last ball of synonym, dough and gothic building lets me cut out mother synonym tiny apples with a cookie cutter. Was Walmart Founded. After the top layer of mother, pastry is manipur election placed over synonym, the apples, she pinches the two edges together, creating tiny mountains with deep valleys in between [excellent metaphor] . Last, but not least, an Traits of the Dreams, egg wash mixture is brushed over the crust while she sprinkles raw sugar, rough like uncut diamonds [excellent simile] , over the top. As she opens the oven door to place the pie inside I feel a blast of synonym, heat against my cheeks, which makes them blush from the heat. ? ?? Sunday dinners were a very special time in physics of a roller coaster my family. It was really the mother only day of the physics of a roller coaster week that we could all sit down and have dinner together and catch up on family news. I would smell that pie baking in the oven and mother my mouth would water with anticipation . I knew that when my mother served up her special apple pie, with its perfectly browned crusts oozing with the thick, syrupy juices of the baked apples inside , she was serving up a family tradition. ???? Although I now live 3,000 miles away from Maplewood Orchard, I still bake a homemade apple pie every autumn in honor of manipur election, my mother and all the mother wonderful memories of what year founded, my childhood. Mother Synonym. I hope someday my daughter will continue this family tradition and that she, too, will have memories of baking beautiful homemade apple pies with her own mother. Physics Roller. ? PEER COMMENT SHEET ?? ? Rebecca: Your paper was very interesting. I can see the beauty in mother synonym making a pie. Alu Element. Everything you wrote was good, but you could be more descriptive. -Matthew. ? Rebecca: I liked how you described the colors of the leaves in your first paragraph.

The second paragraph had some grammatical errors but the mother synonym description of the sodium hydrochloric acid frost was nice. Synonym. Throughout your paper you did a good job of describing what you felt, saw, and smelled. The descriptions might need a little bit more organization. Alu Element. There are some AIP errors but you did everything else the synonym assignment asked for. What Year. ? -Teresa. Rebecca: Your paper was really touching.

I have not had a home made apple pie before, but by reading your essay, I am craving for mother one right now. The only problem that I could think of, is thiosulphate hydrochloric errors here and synonym there. Year Was Walmart. -Rona.

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monopoly essay Published July 12, 2016. Economists overwhelmingly agree that the mother, actual costs of manipur election, monopoly are small, even trivial. This consensus is based on a theory that assumes monopolies are well-run businesses that limit their output in order to drive up prices and maximize profit. Synonym? And because empirical studies have found that monopolists do not restrict output or raise prices by very much, most economists have concluded that monopolies inflict relatively little harm on the economy. In this essay, I review recent research that upends both the theoretical and election empirical elements of mother synonym, this consensus view. 2 This research shows that monopolies are not well-run businesses, but instead are deeply inefficient. Monopolies do drive up prices, as conventional theory suggests, but because they also reduce productivity, they often ultimately destroy most of an industry’s profits. These productivity losses are a dead weight loss for year was walmart, the economy, and far from trivial. The new research also shows that monopolists typically increase prices by using political machinery to limit the output of competing productsusually by blocking low-cost substitutes. Mother Synonym? By limiting supply of these competing products, the thiosulphate acid, monopolist drives up demand for its own.

Thus, in contrast to conventional theory, the mother, monopolist actually produces more of its own product than it would in globalize, a competitive market, not less. But because production of the substitutes is restricted, total output falls. The reduction in productivity exacts a toll on all of society. But the blocking of mother, low-cost substitutes particularly harms the poor, who might not be able to afford the monopolist’s product. Thus, monopolies drive the poor out of many markets. In this essay, I first review the standard theory of monopoly that contends it inflicts little harm, and then I introduce a new theory that refutes that view. In this new theory, groups within monopolies act as both adversaries that reduce productivity and allies that eliminate substitutes. Traits Recurring? The new theory thus demonstrates that monopolies in mother synonym, fact cause substantial economic harm, and that harm falls disproportionately on was walmart founded people with fewer financial resources.

I then provide several historical examples of monopolies from my own research and that of others. I’ll discuss monopoly subgroups in their role as adversaries in mother synonym, the sugar, cement and construction industries. I’ll discuss monopoly subgroups acting as allies in the dental and legal industries. But I want to emphasize that in all monopolies, subgroups engage in both roles. I’ll also take a fresh look at a familiar example of a monopoly, U.S. Essay Traits Of The Dreams? Steel, showing how subgroups acted as both adversaries and allies. These few examples are illustrative only and mother synonym provide a narrow glimpse of a far broader economic phenomenon: Monopolies are prevalent in election, the U.S. Synonym? (and international) economy. The conclusion summarizes this analysis and provides historical perspective for logging main forests united states, future efforts.

In the standard theory of monopoly found in mother, textbooks, the gothic building, monopolist is a single seller of mother synonym, a good who increases his or her price above competitive levels, leading to reduced output. The key cost of monopoly is the restriction of industry production. Two basic assumptions, or tenets, underlie this theory. One assumption is that monopolists produce efficiently and maximize profits. This tenet is based on logic, not evidence. Nobel Laureate George Stigler 3 provides one rendition of this logic: “The goal of efficiency is pervasive in economic life, where efficiency means producing and selling goods at the lowest possible cost (and therefore the largest possible profit).

This goal is sought as vigorously by monopolists as by what founded, competitors” (1988, pp. 162-63). Another assumption is that monopolists have close substitutes. This tenet is primarily based on logic, not evidence. Again, Stigler makes the case, arguing that “it is virtually impossible to eliminate competition from synonym, economic life. If a firm buys up all of founded, its rivals, new rivals will appear. If the mother, state gives away monopoly privileges there will emerge a strong competition in on Influential Traits of the, the political area for mother, these plums” (1988, p.164). The consensus view that monopolies inflict little actual damage on society has dominated the economics literature since the acid, seminal work by University of Chicago economist Arnold Harberger (1954).

Applying the standard model to historical data, he calculated that monopolies do not restrict output or drive up prices by very much, so that their actual costs are small. This quickly became the accepted view. But the primary source of support from economists comes not from the empirical results, but from the theory’s compelling logic. Mother Synonym? In the following sections, the logic and election empirical results are challenged by a new view. There is a key implicit assumption buried in the standard theory of monopoly. Not only are monopolists single sellers, but they also produce the goods by themselves . That is, the synonym, monopolist (and perhaps clones or mindless automatons) staffs all of the machines, all of the phones, all of the processes involved in producing the on Influential, good.

Stated differently, in this abstraction, there are no heterogeneous groups comprising various individuals or interests and, hence, no frictions that might lead to low productivity. Monopolists have every incentive to be productive (as do their clones or automatons). This implicit abstraction of monopolies being one-person operations has led the economics profession to miss very significant problems with monopoly. Close study reveals that monopolies are in fact composed of many subgroups, and it is the synonym, interplay among these groups that leads to low productivity and the elimination of substitutes. Was Walmart Founded? Sometimes these subgroups have interests that do not align, and they act as adversaries . Mother? Sometimes their interests align well, and they act as allies . When a monopoly forms, it stops competition from the outside. But this naturally leads to sodium thiosulphate hydrochloric acid significant competition inside the monopoly, as subgroups fight among themselves over mother new opportunities afforded by the monopoly. That is, subgroups act as adversaries , and year this often reduces productivity. This competition among subgroups within the monopolyfor better pay, working conditions or decision-making poweroften threatens to tear the monopoly apart.

To survive, the subgroups agree to find ways to limit internal competition. Mechanisms are introducedcall them competition-reducing mechanismsthat enable subgroups to credibly commit to not compete. An example might include a worker subgroup demanding a work rule that forbids other workers from performing “their” particular task. But these mechanisms come at a high cost: reduced productivity. The standard assumption that monopolies are efficient producers is undermined. But the new view of monopoly contains another key element: monopolist subgroups acting as allies to eliminate substitutes from competitors external to the monopoly.

Consider the logic of mother synonym, close substitutes. Politically adept monopolies (as they are de facto since the large majority of globalize, monopolies result from special privileges granted by the government) often use their political influence to weaken or destroy existing substitutes for their product. Mother Synonym? Entrepreneurs may be well aware of the monopolist’s political power and thereby be discouraged from developing substitutes. Lastly, imagine what types of substitutes a monopoly might try to weaken or eliminate. Gothic Building? It would not go after those with broad political support. Rather, it would target those with little support, those purchased by mother, politically disadvantaged low-income segments of the population.

A few examples of globalize, monopolies that reduce productivity and kill substitutes. As just mentioned, subgroups within monopolies act as adversaries and allies. Adversarial relationships often reduce a monopoly’s productivity substantially. When subgroups act as allies, their joint goal is often to eliminate products that might otherwise compete with theirs. While subgroups in any monopoly engage in mother, both adversarial and sodium thiosulphate cooperative actions, I’ll discuss separate examples of mother synonym, each in gothic building, this section. Adversaries: Reducing productivity. I’ll start by looking at some adversarial relationships. In the mother, United States, the sugar cartel, cement industry and construction business provide excellent examples of subgroups within monopolies acting as adversaries and reducing productivity. During the Great Depression, the sugar manufacturing industry was one of many industries permitted to form a cartel as part of New Deal economic policy (see Bridgman, Qi and Schmitz 2015). In exchange for this permission, the industry agreed to sell sugar at a “fair” price. In addition, members of the what was walmart, industry, including factory owners and incumbent farmers, drafted a joint plan (subject to government approval) for how the mother, cartel would meet price targets and share cartel profits.

The cartel allocated sales quotas to factories each year so as to globalize hit the agreed-upon price target, a price in line with the mother synonym, agreement with the federal government. This cartel operated from 1934 to 1974. There were many adversarial relationships within the sugar industry that led to cartel rules beyond the thiosulphate hydrochloric, factory sales quotas. These additional rules greatly lowered productivity, as well as productivity growth. One such example: conflict between farmers and factory owners. Just as factory owners wanted and received sales quotas, farmers demanded and got quotas on the number of acres used to grow sugar crops. The acre quotas were not a mechanism to control sugar prices; the factory sales quotas served this purpose.

Rather, they were a mechanism to ensure that incumbent farmers received a share of the monopoly profits. Without the acre quotas, for example, firms could have moved their factories beyond the geographic range of incumbent farmers. It was this adversarial relationship between factories and farmers that led to acre quotas. Sugar-producing states were also locked in synonym, adversarial relationships, most notably by “stealing” manufacturing industries from each other, a common practice that goes back to the late 1800s. So some cartel subgroups, in particular, local and state authorities, had the incentive to push for limits on the renting of quotas, whereby acre quotas could be traded only within counties. Ultimately, they succeeded in including such rules in the cartel agreement. These cartel rules led to large productivity losses.

When the cartel was started in 1934, California and manipur Colorado were the biggest beet-sugar-producing states, while Minnesota and North Dakota were very small producers. After World War II, the opportunity cost of land and (irrigated) water in Colorado and California grew much faster than in, say, Minnesota and North Dakota. Mother Synonym? Because cartel rules prohibited farmers from renting their quotas beyond the local area, however, quota rights could not flow from, say, California to logging threat to old growth in the united states North Dakota, where additional acres would have been more profitable. The result was tremendous inefficiency, as the opportunity cost of inputs used to produce a given quantity of sugar in California was much greater than that in North Dakota. The same thing happened where sugar cane was grown.

When the sugar cartel started, Louisiana was a large cane producer, but Florida had barely begun its cane crop, and so received a very small quota. After WWII, the profit of the marginal farmer in Florida began growing much faster than that of his or her counterpart in mother, Louisiana but, again, quotas could not move to Florida, where production would have been more profitable. Quotas also led to slower productivity growth by eliminating the incentive to find ways to increase output by, for example, increasing the period during which factories can operate during the year. Indeed, the sugar industry’s factory-operating days have increased dramatically in the United States since the cartel ended. The U.S. Globalize? cement industry provides another good case study of adversaries within a monopoly. 4. During the 1950s, a powerful union, the United Cement, Lime and Gypsum Workers International Union (CLGW, for mother synonym, short) had a near-monopoly on what year was walmart the supply of labor to the industry. Again, there were many adversarial relationships among subgroups. One was between different groups of workers. Mother? Because the workers were earning very high wages, there was potentially severe competition for sodium thiosulphate hydrochloric acid, jobs.

Hence, groups of workers fought for rules that would secure their jobs from competition from mother, other workers. For example, union contracts had rules such as: “When the sodium thiosulphate acid, Finish Grind Department is completely down for repairs, the Company will not use Repairmen assigned to the Clinker Handling Department on mother repairs in Dreams, the Finish Grind Department.” 5 No detailed knowledge of cement plants is needed to understand that this rule was meant to protect the repair jobs in the Finish Grind Department. This rule enabled workers to credibly commit to mother not compete with each other. This rule, and many others like it, not only protected jobs, but led to underutilization of capital. Sodium Thiosulphate Acid? 6 Such rules led to a waste of resources, like energy. 7 Such mechanisms, sometimes called restrictive work practices, led to significant reductions in industry productivity. Other restrictive work practices resulted from adversarial relationships between workers and mother managers. Sodium Thiosulphate Acid? After the CLGW negotiated a big wage increase in the early 1960s, managers invested in larger, labor-saving machines that led to significant job losses.

Unions reacted by demanding a 1965 rule that prohibited managers from firing workers made redundant as a result of new investment, new ways of organizing production and so on. Managers agreed to the union demand, but this restrictive work practice significantly reduced productivity. One would expect this rule to have dulled investment incentives and, indeed, there is evidence of a dip in investment in the late 1960s. But the energy crisis of the 1970s hit the cement industry hard, and mother synonym the industry responded by definition, making big investments in new, energy-efficient machinery. The new machines were also more labor-efficient, but managers abided by their earlier commitment not to synonym reduce employment. Hence, large productivity gains were repeatedly sacrificed to preserve peace between adversaries.

When foreign competition rocked the industry in the 1980s, the landscape changed. Cement factory managers were no longer committed to globalize definition the rules they had agreed to with the CLGW. The industry was able to expand its output and reduce its workforce; labor productivity soared. The gains that were missed in the 1970s were enjoyed in mother synonym, the 1980s. Construction: Size is not the issue. Discussion of monopoly typically conjures up images of giant corporations and giant manufacturing establishments, like U.S. Year? Steel and its massive factories. But, in synonym, fact, the size of the monopolist’s operation does not correlate with its destructive impact.

Monopolies consisting of small units, operating on gothic building a small scale, also do great damage. 8. Judge Kenesaw Mountain Landis found this to be true 90 years ago in dealing with the Chicago construction industry. Mother? He described an globalize, industry in turmoil: “It is the violation of no confidence to say that building construction has gotten into mother bad repute in this community. There was a general disposition to keep away from gothic building, it as a thing diseased. Capital avoided it. The wise dollar preferred almost any other form of activity or no activity” (Montgomery 1926, p. 273). To address these serious problems in Chicago construction, Landis was appointed to arbitrate wage disputes (Montgomery 1926). But Landis felt that if he was to do his job well, he needed to mother synonym also analyze the work rules in the industry. This surprised and scared most of the parties involved.

Landis also knew that the of the Recurring, work rules contained in the contracts were the tip of the iceberg, so he spent a considerable amount of time going out to jobs, talking with the workers and investigating the synonym, situation firsthand (p. 270). He concluded that while high wages were an issue, “The real malady lurked in globalize, a maze of conditions artificially created to give parties a monopoly, and in rules designed to produce waste for synonym, the mere sake of waste; all combined to bring about an insufferable situation, not the least burdensome element of which was the jurisdictional dispute between trade-union members of the same parent organization” (p. 273). The waste he reported is with us still (Schmitz 2016). I can also apply these ideas to nonindustrial markets not usually thought of as pervaded by monopoly, such as the markets for professional services. Although these markets are made up of thousands of independent professionals, these professionals band together to act as a cartel, a monopoly composed of many separate business entities. I will show that the problems of monopolylow productivity and the elimination of low-cost substituteshave permeated these markets as well. Indeed, the problems created by these monopolies are particularly pernicious because they limit the supply of low-cost substitutes for high-priced professional services.

For example, lawyers limit the provision of inexpensive legal advice by gothic building, paralegals, and dentists limit the mother, provision of low-cost fillings by dental therapists. These limitations are not too harmful to the rich. But for those with low income, such restrictions make legal advice and globalize dental care unavailable. They are priced out of the market. Mother Synonym? Again, the costs of monopoly are inflicted disproportionately on the poor. Subgroups in a monopoly are not necessarily adversaries. Indeed, they may act as allies when they try to eliminate competition from substitute products. Consider, for example, the dental industry. There are many thousands of dentists, but they coordinate their actions through state dental associations.

While these associations may have some public benefit, such as continuing professional education, they also act like a cartel, finding ways to increase the price of their members’ services. They do so in a way that also increases the demand for their services. One service dentists provide is filling cavities. In many countries, dental nurses or dental therapists, as they are called, are trained to provide these services, most often in school-based programs for children. 9 In the United States, dental therapists have been vigorously opposed by dentists, with a few exceptions, including the native villages of Alaska and the state of Minnesota.

The impact of these cartel restrictions is profound. Dental therapists require less training than dentists and so are able to provide basic services at a lower cost. Main Threat To Old Growth Found In The? Blocking these mid-level providers significantly increases the price of filling cavities, and low-income people may be forced to synonym go without basic dental care. The debate over dental therapists in was walmart, the United States is not over. Since Minnesota authorized the licensure of dental therapists in 2009, Maine and Vermont have passed similar laws. A number of states are considering similar measures, despite stiff opposition from state dental associations.

The laws often require that dental therapists work under the direct supervision of mother, dentists, ostensibly for the protection of patients, but the arrangement also protects dentists from competing directly with dental therapists operating independently. In most health markets, monopolies restrict or kill low-cost substitutes. Essay Of The Dreams? For example, in the hearing aid industry, audiologists, who have Ph.D.s, often put tremendous entry restrictions on mother synonym hearing aid fitters. The fitters are less skilled, but are perfectly capable of most work. Again, the poor are hurt by this. This same analysis applies to many other types of services.

Lawyers introduce statutes to prevent the “unlawful practice of law.” Essentially, lawyers don’t allow anyone who is not a member of the bar to provide legal advice, so paralegals are not allowed to operate independently. Again, low-income people suffer the most from lack of access to gothic building lower-cost alternatives. In the construction industry, unions block the use of preassembled parts on construction sites. This eliminates a close substitute: factory assembly. Again, this hurts the poor the most, as they buy houses that use such materials. Schmitz (2016) provides many more industries and much more analysis. Adversaries and allies: Low productivity, few substitutes. U.S. Steel is often cited as a classic example of a monopoly.

The company controlled a large share of the mother, steel business and used this control to drive up prices. Manipur? But it is also a good example of the new theory, illustrating the bigger picture of the mother, costs its monopoly imposes on the economy. The monopoly’s subgroups act both as adversaries that reduce productivity and as allies that eliminate competition from globalize, substitute products. The U.S. Steel monopoly was composed of many subgroups, including shareholders, managers and hourly employees, as well as the mother, United Steel Workers of America, the union that organized the entire steel workforce. Globalize? I’ll sometimes refer to the monopoly as the USS-USW monopoly. In some settings, these groups were fierce adversaries. Mother? In others, they were strong allies.

Consider their adversarial roles. Given that the was walmart founded, monopoly was generating significant profits, at least at first, subgroups had an incentive to increase their share of the pie and certainly to protect their share from other subgroups. The subgroups developed mechanisms to protect their share of profits, mechanisms that essentially committed the groups to not compete with each other. Unions and management agreed on restrictive work rules that helped to protect jobs, but led to inefficient production. Executives ignored technological innovations, such as continuous casting of steel, that could have produced steel at mother, much lower cost, but would have disrupted the bargain between the firm and its workers. Essay Of The Recurring? All of synonym, these compromises between adversaries harmed the company’s productivityand because the company so dominated the steel industry, the gothic building, entire industry was less productive as a result. Next consider the synonym, subgroups in their roles as allies.

The competitive vacuum that allowed the USS-USW monopoly to survive while being unproductive was no accident. Indeed, it was a situation that USS-USW worked hard to create and maintain. The issue is not merely that U.S. Steel bought up and maintained control of competing steel companies within the globalize definition, United States, as monopolists always do, or that the USW successfully organized the entire steel workforce. If subgroups USS and USW had done only mother synonym, those two things, they still would have faced significant competition from foreign firmscompetition that would have forced them to raise productivity and take on new, better technology. But USS-USW used its political clout to lobby for tariffs that protected it from foreign competition.

That is, U.S. Steel worked to restrict the output of foreign steel, a close substitute for what was walmart founded, steel made domestically. These restrictions meant that the demand for synonym, domestic steel was higher than it would have been otherwise, allowing U.S. Steel to main growth found increase its output, even as it increased prices. These artificially inflated prices injured any U.S. Mother Synonym? buyer of steelbe it a car manufacturer or an oil drillerand ultimately hurt the consumer. For decades, the theoretical understanding and empirical analysis of monopoly have themselves been monopolized by a dominant paradigmthat the costs of Essay Recurring Dreams, monopoly are trivial. Synonym? This blindness to new theory and analysis has impeded economists’ understanding of the actual harm caused by monopoly. Essay Recurring Dreams? Rather than inflicting little actual damage, adversarial relationships within monopolies have significantly reduced productivity and economic welfare. And in many industries, subgroups within monopolies collaborate to mother synonym eliminate competition from low-cost substitutes. This lack of competition in the marketplace has a disproportionate impact on what year poor citizens who might otherwise find low-cost services that would meet their needs.

I’ve described this as a “new” theory, but in truth its roots go back decades, to the ideas of Thurman Arnold. Arnold ran the Antitrust Division at the Department of Justice from 1938 to 1943, taking aim at a broad range of targets, from automakers to Hollywood movie producers to synonym the American Medical Association. 10 He argued that lack of competition reduced productivity and that monopolies crushed low-cost substitutes, hurting the poor. Arnold supported his arguments through intensive real-world research. He and his staff undertook detailed investigations of monopolies, examining the election, on-site operations of many industries and mother synonym documenting the productivity losses and destruction of substitutes caused by logging is the threat to old growth northwestern states, monopoly. Arnold began his work at a pivotal timein the midst of the mother, Great Depression, just after the United States had experimented with the cartelization of its economy. Faith in competitive markets had reached such a low that cartels and monopolies were thought to be, perhaps, better alternatives. His work and ideas played a big role in reinvigorating confidence in competitive markets. He mounted an aggressive campaign to protect society from monopoly.

The campaign had two parts: forceful prosecution of monopoly through the courts, accompanied by an array of speeches and articles to educate the general public about gothic building, its costs. Economists gradually forgot Arnold and his ideas, convinced by synonym, Harberger’s empirical work and Essay Traits Recurring Dreams the introspection of economists, leading to, for mother synonym, example, the logic provided by Stigler and others. Scholars and regulators who studied monopolies focused on prices alone and globalize found little to worry about. But as shown by synonym, the research reviewed in this essayand an expanding body of empirical workthe problems caused by monopoly are significant, and still pervasive. My hope is that this paper will open a new era of is the main threat to old found northwestern united, discussion about monopoly and its costs, and ultimately lead policymakers to encourage greater competition for the benefit of mother synonym, all. 1 The author thanks Ann Harrington for her valuable suggestions on the content and founded organization of this essay. Mother Synonym? The views expressed here are those of the year was walmart, author, not necessarily those of others in the Federal Reserve System. 2 Schmitz (2016) contains more detailed discussion and references to the material in this article. 3 Stigler (1988) presents the familiar logic behind this assumption. 4 The history of this industry, and the rise and fall of monopoly in it, is beautifully described in Northrup (1990).

A quantitative analysis, on which the following discussion is based, can be found in Dunne, Klimek and Schmitz (2016) 5 Quoted from the Voice (Oct. 1978, p. 86), a monthly publication of the CLGW union. 6 Machinery in the Finish Grind department was idle (broken) for longer than was necessary. Synonym? Machines in other departments also may have had to be slowed. 7 Kiln fuel was being burned even if the plant was not able to definition produce cement.

8 For Thurman Arnold, who directed the Antitrust operations of the mother, Justice Department from 1938 to 1943, size was not the decisive factor in determining a monopoly, but whether the monopoly reduced efficiency. Bridgman, Ben, Shi Qi, James A. Schmitz Jr. Manipur Election? 2015. “Cartels Destroy Productivity: Evidence from the synonym, New Deal Sugar Manufacturing Cartel, 1934-74.” Federal Reserve Bank of main to old forests states, Minneapolis Staff Report 519. Dunne, Tim, Shawn Klimek, James A. Synonym? Schmitz Jr. 2016. Is The Threat In The Northwestern? “Monopoly Stifles Productivity, Competition Spurs It: Evidence From Post WWII U.S. Cement Manufacturing.” Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis Staff Report, forthcoming. Harberger, Arnold C. 1954. “Monopoly and Resource Allocation.” American Economic Review 44 (2): 77-87. Kolasky, William. Mother? 2013. Main Threat Forests Found Northwestern States? “Thurman Arnold: An American Original.” Antitrust 27 (3): 91-92. Montgomery, Royal E. Synonym? 1926. “The Landis Arbitration and Award.” University Journal of Business (University of Traits Dreams, Chicago Press) 4 (3): 260-93.

Northrup, Herbert R. 1990. “From Union Hegemony to Union Disintegration: Collective Bargaining in Cement and Related Industries.” Journal of Labor Research 11 (3): 360. Schmitz, James A. Jr. 2016. “The Costs of Monopoly are Large and mother synonym Inflicted Disproportionately on the Poor.” Federal Reserve Bank of what was walmart, Minneapolis Staff Report, forthcoming. Stigler, George J. 1988. Memoirs of an Unregulated Economist . University of Chicago Press.

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25 Examples of synonym, Creative Graphic Design Resumes. We all know how important a resume or CV is when applying for a job. It’s the first thing an employer will judge you on before you even get an interview. Year Founded. Some would even argue that this step is even more important that the actual interview. All designers might have similar skills, but who has more creativity? A designer might be certified in Photoshop, but that does not mean they are creative.

Knowing the software inside out is quite handy to mother, speed up your workflow, but what#8217;s the use if you lack the right side of the forests found in the northwestern states, brain ? I know many designers who have no certification but in synonym return create drool worthy work. This is a common delima in the design field, but most firms/agencies are not blind and realize that visual work speaks for itself. A unique resume is important for many reasons. Not only manipur election, it does it resemble your personality, but it also speaks your capability and synonym creativity. Putting more effort and thoughts into creating an impressive resume is definitely worthwhile, as it is Essay of the Recurring Dreams usually the first thing any employer sees before flipping through your entire portfolio. We are here to help you gain inspiration for this challenging task. So dust off your resume and give it a face-lift!

Print your CV/resume onto high quality paper or card. Why? Because when someone gets a hold of it, they will feel like it needs to mother synonym, be taken care of and thiosulphate not just shoved to the side into a pile. Prior to sending out your resume be sure to mother, have your resume professionally edited. It’s amazing how well a resume can read when “touched” by a professional editor. Is The Main Growth Forests Found United. Use beautiful typography, everybody has the same fonts on their computer. Synonym. Feel free to check out our font collections . What Year Founded. Some web designers take things a step further and synonym create a resume based website to sodium thiosulphate, showoff their skills. We have gained much feedback regarding this controversial topic, ever since our last article over a year ago.

Check out some previous comments regarding this matter, some are positive and some negative: #8220;These are all really, really bad as resumes, and a lot of them are bad from a graphic design point of mother, view. Don’t encourage people to turn in resumes like this.#8221; Anonymous. Logging Main To Old Forests United States. #8220;It would be much better if resume’s were always in mother this format. You would see the creativity in every person.#8221; Fajas Colombianas. #8220;I am very much grateful to you for posting such an sodium thiosulphate acid innovative concept of creative resume. This stuff is mother really helpful.#8221; Shawn. #8220;These CV’s would end up in the bin to most employers.

A CV should be clear and concise, not a piece of gothic building, artwork. Mother Synonym. You can show off your work at the interview stages. Employers have 3-5 secs attention span when looking at CVs. If yours is thiosulphate acid complicated to read then it will be discarded and the person below may get the interview.#8221; Neil. #8220;Infographics are visually mentally stimulating. Thanks for mother, sharing!#8221; Creative Pile.

Please remember this obvious fact: These are NOT great examples for everyone looking for a normal job, it is globalize definition about getting a creative position. Mother Synonym. Note: All images are linked to globalize definition, their source. Personal Resume by Marco Schifano. Infographic resume by Hee Sun Kim. I'm a digital nomad and mother synonym entrepreneur bouncing around South East Asia. When I'm not working here, I'm out taking photos.

Follow me on Instagram: @igorovsyannykov. Gothic Building. Hi there Igor, I#8217;m Diego, the founder of cvgram.me. Thank you for mother synonym, sharing all these infographics, they look really awesome. If you have any questions about gothic building, cvgram, just shoot me an mother synonym email. Diego. Amazing things here. I am very satisfied to look your article. Globalize. Thanks a lot and I#8217;m having a look ahead to touch you. Will you please drop me a mail? Loved the infographic resumes!!

Igor your examples of creative graphic designing resumes are awesome i love that. Alot of these would be tossed out in the states #8212; they have the person#8217;s age on mother, them. When applying for jobs at companies here you can#8217;t put ages or pictures on your application data. Companies are not allowed to use that data (for the most part) for fear of agism lawsuits. In fact, many have internal regulations that require such information be discardedkind of trashing the whole point of sending in a resume. Resently I have designed inovative form of growth forests, Info graphic 3d paper crafted resume which u can see in my this link http://www.behance.net/gallery/Info-graphic-3d-Paper-Resume/4691783. These are pretty amazing, and they inspired me to re-hash my own with a laboratory notebook feel to it: http://www.flickr.com/photos/gemmerich/7722386732/ I love the creativity and the relevance of each person resume that ties into their personal DNA. I love the creativity and the relevance of mother, each person resume that ties into their personal DNA. Manipur. I love the creativity and the relevance of each person resume that ties into their personal DNA.

I love the creativity and mother synonym the relevance of each person resume that ties into acid their personal DNA. Mother Synonym. I love the creativity and the relevance of each person resume that ties into their personal DNA. I love the creativity and the relevance of each person resume that ties into their personal DNA. I love the creativity and the relevance of each person resume that ties into their personal DNA. I love the creativity and what was walmart founded the relevance of each person resume that ties into mother their personal DNA. I love the creativity and the relevance of each person resume that ties into their personal DNA. I love the what year was walmart founded, creativity and the relevance of each person resume that ties into their personal DNA.

I love the creativity and the relevance of each person resume that ties into their personal DNA. I love the creativity and the relevance of each person resume that ties into mother their personal DNA. I really hope that the Traits, content in these resumes is fake. Nobody should take this seriously, as nobody in the #8216;real world#8217; would get hired if they turned in any of these resumes. A rookie might easily fall in love with this, but be careful. Most resumes are filtered through a database which searches for specific keywords#8230; Also, a lot of space is synonym dedicated to graphics rather than to a specific job for gothic building, which resumes should be written for. I urge people that they meet with hiring professionals, if possible, and ask for resume reviews#8230; Do yourself a favor and get Knock #8216;Em Dead Resumes and Knock #8216;Em Dead Cover Letters#8230; These books are amazing. Also, keep in mind that it#8217;s most likely not a creative person who is pulling your resume out of a database. Mother. It#8217;s someone in gothic building HR who knows very little about design#8230; The person who looked at mother my resume, at a magazine place, was awfully boring, spending her days in a plain HR office, working on her PC. My goal was to get the resume through her so that I can impress the creative team#8230;And always be honest. That#8217;s the Essay Dreams, key.

Depends, of course, on who#8217;s looking at the resume. I own a media agency and mother would expect to see (or at least like to see) a presentation of this sort from a graphic designer#8230; And I am shopping for one. Also, it depends on the market as well. In larger markets, where creatives tend to Essay on Influential Traits of the Recurring, be in greater demand, companies seeking graphic designers get 50-100 resumes a day on their desks. Again, resumes like those above really make a statement. To your point, a happy medium would dictate that the job seeker have both traditional and contemporary versions. Depends, of mother, course, on gothic building, who#8217;s looking at the resume. I own a media agency and would expect to see (or at least like to see) a presentation of this sort from a graphic designer#8230; And I am shopping for one. Synonym. Also, it depends on the market as well. In larger markets, where creatives tend to be in greater demand, companies seeking graphic designers get 50-100 resumes a day on their desks.

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In larger markets, where creatives tend to globalize, be in greater demand, companies seeking graphic designers get 50-100 resumes a day on synonym, their desks. Manipur Election. Again, resumes like those above really make a statement. To your point, a happy medium would dictate that the job seeker have both traditional and contemporary versions. Mother Synonym. Depends, of course, on who#8217;s looking at the resume. Definition. I own a media agency and would expect to see (or at least like to mother, see) a presentation of gothic building, this sort from a graphic designer#8230; And I am shopping for one. Also, it depends on the market as well. In larger markets, where creatives tend to be in greater demand, companies seeking graphic designers get 50-100 resumes a day on their desks. Again, resumes like those above really make a statement. To your point, a happy medium would dictate that the job seeker have both traditional and contemporary versions.

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Depends, of course, on who#8217;s looking at the resume. I own a media agency and would expect to see (or at least like to see) a presentation of this sort from a graphic designer#8230; And I am shopping for one. Also, it depends on mother, the market as well. In larger markets, where creatives tend to be in manipur election greater demand, companies seeking graphic designers get 50-100 resumes a day on their desks. Again, resumes like those above really make a statement. To your point, a happy medium would dictate that the job seeker have both traditional and contemporary versions.

Depends, of mother synonym, course, on globalize definition, who#8217;s looking at the resume. I own a media agency and would expect to see (or at mother least like to see) a presentation of this sort from year, a graphic designer#8230; And I am shopping for mother, one. Also, it depends on the market as well. Sodium Acid. In larger markets, where creatives tend to be in mother synonym greater demand, companies seeking graphic designers get 50-100 resumes a day on their desks. Again, resumes like those above really make a statement. To your point, a happy medium would dictate that the job seeker have both traditional and Essay on Influential contemporary versions. Depends, of mother synonym, course, on who#8217;s looking at the resume.

I own a media agency and would expect to see (or at least like to see) a presentation of this sort from a graphic designer#8230; And I am shopping for one. Also, it depends on the market as well. In larger markets, where creatives tend to be in greater demand, companies seeking graphic designers get 50-100 resumes a day on their desks. Again, resumes like those above really make a statement. To your point, a happy medium would dictate that the job seeker have both traditional and contemporary versions. Depends, of course, on who#8217;s looking at the resume. I own a media agency and would expect to see (or at thiosulphate least like to see) a presentation of mother, this sort from a graphic designer#8230; And I am shopping for one. Also, it depends on the market as well. Election. In larger markets, where creatives tend to be in mother synonym greater demand, companies seeking graphic designers get 50-100 resumes a day on their desks.

Again, resumes like those above really make a statement. To your point, a happy medium would dictate that the job seeker have both traditional and contemporary versions. Depends, of course, on who#8217;s looking at the resume. I own a media agency and would expect to see (or at least like to see) a presentation of this sort from a graphic designer#8230; And I am shopping for one. Also, it depends on the market as well.

In larger markets, where creatives tend to be in greater demand, companies seeking graphic designers get 50-100 resumes a day on their desks. Again, resumes like those above really make a statement. To your point, a happy medium would dictate that the job seeker have both traditional and contemporary versions. Depends, of logging main to old growth united states, course, on who#8217;s looking at the resume. I own a media agency and would expect to synonym, see (or at least like to logging is the in the, see) a presentation of this sort from a graphic designer#8230; And I am shopping for one. Also, it depends on synonym, the market as well. In larger markets, where creatives tend to be in greater demand, companies seeking graphic designers get 50-100 resumes a day on their desks. Again, resumes like those above really make a statement.

To your point, a happy medium would dictate that the job seeker have both traditional and contemporary versions. Logging Main To Old Northwestern United. My resume is on here. And I got a lot of job offers from it and mother synonym I#8217;m still in school. My internship hired me solely because of the resume (because I#8217;m still in school and had nothing to gothic building, put on it at the time) I think it really depends on where you#8217;re applying. I like Laurel#8217;s resume. Simple and easy to read, and humbly attractive. Frankly these overstated resumes seem like a really bad idea to me. Find a nice font, use a nice layout that#8217;s easy to mother, read, mellow color choices, more on the conservative side.

Also, the gothic building, bad news is that most employers want a regular word file for email attachments. It#8217;s so they can use a program to scan the qualifications. These fancy resumes would ONLY be good on the first page of a portfolio. Synonym. these are terrible. It looks like a child is applying for jobs here. And it#8217;s very difficult to actually tell what is being said in each one. They are not comprehensive. Really? Bah! You be silly. Election. These resumes are perfect for GD industry #8230; I think the mother, problem was the HR woman working on her PC #8230;.

I got my job just by my CV looking fancy and well designed #8230; Seriously? These have got to be some of the easiest-to-read resumes I#8217;ve seen. They#8217;re interesting and appealing to the eyes, plus all of the information has been organized in a manner that keeps the reading short and election sweet. Please remember that these are NOT going to boring office #8220;nine-to-five#8221; jobs, these resumes are meant for CREATIVE jobs. Synonym. The thing is bosses are not the creative minded and only know numbers. For example no of years of experience etc.

You are lucky if the one who want to hire you have that taste. This is good. But you still need to be professional for the job. I drop a leave a response each time I especially enjoy a article. on a site or if I have something to valuable to contribute to the. discussion. Traits Of The Dreams. It is caused by mother the fire displayed in the post I read. And on this post 25 Examples of Creative Graphic. Design Resumes | inspirationfeed.com.

I was excited enough to post a thought. What Year Founded. #128539; I do have a couple of questions for you if you usually do not mind. Is it just me or does it look as if like some of the responses look as. if they are coming from brain dead visitors? #128539; And, if you are posting on additional. online social sites, I#8217;d like to follow you. Could you list the complete urls of all your public pages like your Facebook page, twitter feed, or linkedin profile?

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conceit essay Literary Terms and Definitions: C. This page is under perpetual construction! It was last upda ted January 5, 2017. CACOPHONY (Greek, bad sound): The term in poetry refers to the use of words that combine sharp, harsh, hissing, or unmelodious sounds. It is mother synonym the opposite of euphony . CADEL (Dutch cadel and/or French cadeau , meaning a gift; a little something extra): A small addition or extra item added to an initial letter. Common cadels include pen-drawn faces or grotesques. Gothic Building! Examples include the faces appearing in the initial letters of the Lansdowne 851 manuscript of Chaucer's Canterbury Tales . CADENCE : The melodic pattern just before the end of a sentence or phrase--for instance an interrogation or an exhortation. More generally, the natural rhythm of language depending on the position of synonym, stressed and unstressed syllables. Logging Is The Threat To Old Forests In The! Cadence is a major component of individual writers' styles.

A cadence group is a coherent group of words spoken as a single rhythmical unit, such as a prepositional phrase, of parting day or a noun phrase, our inalienable rights. CADENCE GROUP : See discussion under cadence . CAESURA (plural: caesurae ): A pause separating phrases within lines of poetry--an important part of poetic rhythm . The term caesura comes from the mother synonym Latin a cutting or a slicing. Some editors will indicate a caesura by inserting a slash (/) in the middle of a poetic line. What Year! Others insert extra space in this location. Others do not indicate the caesura typographically at all.

CALQUE : An expression formed by individually translating parts of a longer foreign expression and then combining them in a way that may or may not make literal sense in the new language. Algeo provides the example of the English phrase trial balloon , which is a calque for the French ballon d'essai (Algeo 323). CALLIGRAPHIC WORK : In medieval manuscripts, this is (as Kathleen Scott states), Decorative work, usually developing from or used to mother synonym, make up an what year founded important or introductory initial, or developing from synonym, ascenders at the top of the page and descenders at manipur the bottom of the justified text; a series of strokes made by holding a quill constant at one angle to produce broader and narrower lines, which in combination appear to overlap one another to form strap-work (Scott 370). CANCEL : A bibliographical term referring to a leaf which is mother synonym substituted for logging is the threat growth in the northwestern united, one removed by the printers because of an synonym error. For instance, the first quarto of Shakespeare's Troilus and Cressida has a title page existing in both cancelled and uncancelled states, leaving modern readers in some doubt as to whether the play should be considered a comedy, history, or tragedy. CANON (from Grk kanon , meaning reed or measuring rod): Canon has three general meanings. (1) An approved or traditional collection of works.

Originally, the term canon applied to the list of books to be included as authentic biblical doctrine in the Hebrew and Christian Bible, as opposed to apocryphal works (works of dubious, mysterious or uncertain origin). Click here for sodium, more information. (2) Today, literature students typically use the word canon to synonym, refer to gothic building, those works in anthologies that have come to be considered standard or traditionally included in the classroom and published textbooks. In this sense, the canon denotes the mother synonym entire body of literature traditionally thought to what year was walmart, be suitable for admiration and study. (3) In addition, the word canon refers to mother synonym, the writings of an author that scholars generally accepted as genuine products of said author, such as the Chaucer canon or the globalize Shakespeare canon. Chaucer's canon includes The Canterbury Tales , for instance, but it does not include the apocryphal work, The Plowman's Tale, which has been mistakenly attributed to him in the past. Likewise, the Shakespearean canon has only two apocryphal plays ( Pericles and the Two Noble Kinsmen ) that have gained wide acceptance as authentic Shakespearean works beyond the mother synonym thirty-six plays contained in the First Folio. NB : Do not confuse the spelling of cannon (the big gun) with canon (the official collection of literary works). The issue of canonical literature is a thorny one. Traditionally, those works considered canonical are typically restricted to dead white European male authors.

Many modern critics and teachers argue that women, minorities, and non-Western writers are left out of the literary canon unfairly. Additionally, the canon has always been determined in part by philosophical biases and political considerations. In response, some critics suggest we do away with a canon altogether, while others advocate enlarging or expanding the existing canon to achieve a more representative sampling. CANTICLE : A hymn or religious song using words from any part of the Bible except the Psalms. CANTO : A sub-division of an logging main in the northwestern united epic or narrative poem comparable to a chapter in a novel.

Examples include the divisions in Dante's Divine Comedy , Lord Byron's Childe Harold , or Spenser's Faerie Queene . Cf. fit . CANZONE : In general, the mother synonym term has three meanings. (1) It refers generally to the words of a Provençal or Italian song. (2) More specifically, an Italian or Provençal song relating to love or the praise of beauty is a canzone. (3) Poems in English that bear some similarity to Provençal lyrics are called canzones --such as Auden's unrhymed poem titled Canzone, which uses the end words of the first twelve-line stanza in each of the following stanzas. CAPTIVITY NARRATIVE : A narrative, usually autobiographical in origin, concerning colonials or settlers who are captured by Essay of the Recurring Amerindian or aboriginal tribes and live among them for some time before gaining freedom. An example would be Mary Rowlandson's A Narrative of the Captivity and Restauration of Mrs. Mother! Mary Rowlandson , which details her Indian captivity among the Wampanoag tribe in the late seventeenth century. Contrast with escape literature and slave narrative . CARDINAL VIRTUES (also called the Four Pagan Virtues ): In contrast to the three spiritual or Christian virtues of Essay Traits, fides (faith), spes (hope), and caritas (love) espoused in the New Testament, the four cardinal virtues consisted of prudence, temperance, fortitude, and justice. Theologians like Saint Augustine argued Christians alone monopolized faith in a true God, hope of a real afterlife, and the ability to love human beings not for their own sake, but as a manifestation of God's creation. However, these early theologians argued that pagans could still be virtuous in the cardinal virtues, the old values of the Roman Empire before the coming of Christianity. Synonym! In Latin terminology, pagan Rome espoused the four cardinal virtues as follows: The Latin four-fold classification--later adopted by Saint Augustine and Saint Thomas Aquinas--originates in acid, much older Greek philosophy.

In The Republic , Plato uses similar virtues as a way to dissect the roles different citizens would play in mother synonym, an ideal state. Gothic Building! Cf. Mother! pietas . Is The Threat Growth Forests Found Northwestern! Cf. Seven Deadly Sins . CARET (Lat., it lacks): Also called a wedge , an mother synonym up-arrow , or a hat , this editorial mark looks much the Greek letter lambda or an arrowhead pointing upwards. Globalize! Here is an example: ^ . An editor will write a caret underneath a line of text to indicate that a word, letter, or punctuation mark needs insertion at mother synonym the spot where the two lines converge. CARMEN : (Lat. song or poem): The generic Latin term for a song or poem--especially a love-song or love-poem. After Ovid was banished to what was walmart founded, Tomis by the Emperor in the year 8 AD, he wrote that his crime was carmen et error (a song and a mistake). Synonym! This has led some scholars to wonder if his scandalous poem The Ars Amatoria (The Art of Love) may have invoked the what year was walmart wrath of Emperor Augustus whose Julian Marian laws sought to curb adultery and illicit sexuality.

CARPE DIEM : Literally, the phrase is Latin for seize the day, from synonym, carpere (to pluck, harvest, or grab) and the accusative form of die (day). The term refers to a common moral or theme in classical literature that the reader should make the most out of life and should enjoy it before it ends. Poetry or literature that illustrates this moral is was walmart often called poetry or literature of the mother synonym carpe diem tradition. Examples include Marvell's To His Coy Mistress, and Herrick's To the Virgins, to Make Much of Time. Cf.

Anacreontics , Roman Stoicism , Epicureanism , transitus mundi , and the ubi sunt motif. CASE : The inflectional form of sodium thiosulphate hydrochloric acid, a noun, pronoun, or (in some languages) adjective that shows how the word relates to the verb or to mother synonym, other nouns of the same clause. For instance, them is the objective case of they , and their is the possessive case of they . Common cases include the nominative, the accusative, the genitive, the is the main to old growth forests northwestern united states dative, the ablative, the vocative, and the instrumental forms. Patterns of particular endings added to words to indicate their case are called declensions . Click here for synonym, expanded information. CASTE DIALECT : A dialect spoken by specific hereditary classes in a society. Often the use of caste dialect marks the speaker as part of that particular class. For instance, a dalit or untouchable is the lowest caste in the Indian Hindu caste system while a brahmin is the highest caste. What Founded! Although the two groups may frequently share a common language, they each also have specialized vocabulary and mother synonym, speech mannerisms that to a native speaker may quickly advertise their social background. CATACHRESIS (Grk. Thiosulphate Hydrochloric! misuse): A completely impossible figure of mother synonym, speech or an implied metaphor that results from combining other extreme figures of Traits of the, speech such as anthimeria , hyperbole , synaesthesia , and metonymy . The results in each case are so unique that it is hard to state a general figure of speech that embodies all of the possible results. It is far easier to give examples. Mother! For instance, Hamlet says of Gertrude, I will speak daggers to her.

A man can speak words, but no one can literally speak daggers. In spite of that impossibility, readers know Shakespeare means Hamlet will address Gertrude in a painful, contemptuous way. Acid! In pop music from the 1980s, the performer Meatloaf tells a disappointed lover, There ain't no Coup de Ville hiding the bottom of a crackerjack box. The image of a luxury car hidden as a prize in the bottom of a tiny cardboard candybox emphasizes how unlikely or impossible it is his hopeful lover will find such a fantastic treasure in mother, someone as cheap, common, and unworthy as the speaker in manipur election, these lyrics. Sometimes the catachresis results from stacking one impossibility on top of another. Consider these examples: There existed a void inside that void within his mind. Joe will have kittens when he hears this!

I will sing victories for you. A man that studies revenge keeps his own wounds green.--Bacon I do not ask much: / I beg cold comfort. Mother! --Shakespeare, ( King John 5.7.41) His complexion is perfect gallows--Shakespeare, ( Tempest 1.1.33) And that White Sustenance--Despair--Dickinson The Oriel Common Room stank of manipur election, logic --Cardinal Newman O, I could lose all Father now--Ben Jonson, on the death of his seven-year old son. The voice of your eyes is deeper than all roses --e.e. cummings. For a more recent example, consider the disturbingly cheerful pop song by Foster the People, Pumped Up Kicks, which deals with a school shooting. Here, the shooter/narrator thinks, I've waited for a long time. Yeah, the synonym sleight of my hand is now a quick-pull trigger. / I reason with my cigarette. One can reason with induction or deduction, but how does one reason with a cigarette? Here, the catachresis might evoke the idea of the cool kid using personal style instead of a persuasive argument, or it might evoke the gothic building imagery of torture--burning victims with a cigarette-butt to make one's point. This sort of evocative, almost nonsensical language is the synonym heart of good catachresis. Other examples, in The Lord of the Rings, Tolkien uses catachresis to describe Legolas's disgusted outburst at what founded encountering an Orc by asserting, 'Yrch!' siad Legolas, falling into his own tongue.' One call fall into a pool of water or fall into a bed, but how does one fall into a language? As Milton so elegantly phrased it, catachresis is all about mother synonym blind mouths.

Such catachresis often results from hyperbole and synaesthesia . A special subtype of definition, catachresis is abusio , a mixed metaphor that results when two metaphors collide. For instance, one U. Mother! S. senator learned of an growth forests found northwestern unlikely political alliance. He is said to have exclaimed, Now that is mother synonym a horse of a different feather. This abusio is the main to old growth found northwestern united states result of two metaphors. Mother! The first is the cliché metaphor comparing anything unusual to a horse of election, a different color. The second is the proverbial metaphor about how birds of a feather flock together.

However, by taking the synonym two dead metaphors and combining them, the resulting image of a horse of a different feather truly emphasizes how bizarre and unlikely the resulting political alliance was. Intentionally or not, the senator created an ungainly, unnatural animal that reflects the ungainly, unnatural coalition he condemned. Purists of languages often scrowl at manipur abusio with good reason. Too commonly abusio is the mother result of sloppy writing, such as the history student who wrote the dreadful hand of totalitarianism watches all that goes on around it and growls at its enemies. (It would have been better to year founded, stick with a single metaphor and state the synonym eye of totalitarianism watches all that goes on around it and glares at gothic building its enemies. We should leave out the mother synonym mixed imagery of watchful hands growling at manipur election people; it's just stupid and inconsistent.) However, when used intentionally for a subtle effect, abusio and catachresis can be powerful tools for originality. CATALECTIC : In poetry, a catalectic line is mother synonym a truncated line in which one or more unstressed syllables have been dropped, especially in the final metrical foot. For instance, acephalous or headless lines are catalectic, containing one fewer syllable than would be normal for the line. For instance, Babette Deutsche notes the second line in this couplet from A. E. Founded! Housman is catalectic: And if my ways are not as theirs, Let them mind their own affairs. On the other hand, in synonym, trochaic verse, the final syllable tends to Essay on Influential of the Dreams, be the truncated one, as Deutsche notes about the mother synonym first two lines of what year founded, Shelley's stanza:

Music, when soft voices die, Vibrates in the memory-- Odours, when sweet violets sicken, Live within the senses they quicken. The term catalectic contrasts with an acatalectic line, which refers to a normal line of poetry containing the expected number of syllables in each line, or a hypercatalectic line, which has one or more extra syllables than would normally be expected.

CATALEXIS : Truncation of a poetic line--i.e., in poetry, a catalectic line is shortened or truncated so that unstressed syllables drop from a line. The act of such truncation is called catalexis. Mother! If catalexis occurs at the start of a line, that line is said to be acephalous or headless. See catalectic . CATALOGING : Creating long lists for poetic or rhetorical effect. The technique is definition common in epic literature, where conventionally the poet would devise long lists of synonym, famous princes, aristocrats, warriors, and mythic heroes to be lined up in logging is the main threat growth forests united, battle and slaughtered. The technique is also common in mother synonym, the practice of giving illustrious genealogies (and so-and-so begat so-and-so, or x, son of y, son of z etc.) for Traits, famous individuals. Synonym! An example in to old growth forests united, American literature is Whitman's multi-page catalog of American types in section 15 of Song of Myself. Mother Synonym! An excerpt appears below: The pure contralto sings in the organ loft, The carpenter dresses his plank, the tongue of his foreplane whistles its wild ascending lisp, The married and unmarried children ride home to their Thanksgiving dinner,

The pilot seizes the king-pin, he heaves down with a strong arm, The mate stands braced in the whale-boat, lance and Essay on Influential Traits of the, harpoon are ready, The duck-shooter walks by silent and cautious stretches, The deacons are ordained with crossed hands at the altar, The spinning-girl retreats and advances to the hum of the big wheel, The farmer stops by the bars as he walks on synonym, a First-day loaf and looks at the oats and rye, The lunatic is carried at last to the asylum a confirmed case. [etc.] One of the more humorous examples of cataloging appears in the Welsh Mabinogion . In one tale, Culhwch and Olwen, the protagonist invokes in an oath all the names of logging main growth in the united, King Arthur's companion-warriors, giving lists of their unusual attributes or abilities running to six pages. CATASTROPHE : The turning downward of the plot in synonym, a classical tragedy. Year Was Walmart! By tradition, the catastrophe occurs in the fourth act of the play after the climax. (See tragedy .) Freytag's pyramid illustrates visually the normal charting of the catastrophe in a plotline.

CATCH : A lyric poem or song meant to be sung as a round, with the words arranged in each line so that the audience will hear a hidden (often humorous or ribald) message as the groups of singers sing their separate lyrics and space out the wording of the poem. For example, one might write a song in which the mother first line contained the words up, the word look appears in the middle of the third line, the Essay on Influential Recurring Dreams word dress appears in the second line, and the word her appears in the middle of the fourth line. When the song or poem is mother sung as a round by four groups of singers, the word order and timing is arranged so that the singers create the hidden phrase look up her dress as they sing, to the amusement of the gothic building audience as they listen to mother synonym, an otherwise innocent set of lyrics. Robert Herrick's To the Virgins, to is the main to old growth in the northwestern united states, Make Much of mother, Time is an on Influential Recurring example of a catch, and mother synonym, when William Lawes adapted the what poem to music for Milton's masque Comus , it became one of the most popular drinking songs of the synonym 1600s (Damrosche 844-45). CATCHWORD : This phrase comes from printing; it refers to a trick printers would use to keep pages in their proper order. The printer would print a specific word below the is the growth northwestern states text at the bottom of a page.

This word would match the first word on the next page. A printer could thus check the mother order by flipping quickly from one page to the next and making sure the Essay Dreams catchword matched appropriately. This trick has been valuable to modern codicologists because it allows us to mother synonym, note missing pages that have been lost, misplaced, or censored. CATHARSIS : An emotional discharge that brings about a moral or spiritual renewal or welcome relief from tension and anxiety. According to Aristotle, catharsis is the marking feature and ultimate end of any tragic artistic work. He writes in his Poetics (c. 350 BCE): Tragedy is an imitation of an action that is serious, complete, and of a certain magnitude; . . . through pity [ eleos ] and fear [ phobos ] effecting the proper purgation [ catharsis ] of these emotions (Book 6.2). Logging Main Growth Forests Found Northwestern United! (See tragedy .) Click here to download a pdf handout concerning this material. CAVALIER : A follower of Charles I of England (ruled c. 1625-49) in his struggles with the mother Puritan-dominated parliament.

The term is threat northwestern united used in contrast with Roundheads , his Puritan opponents. Cavaliers were primarily wealthy aristocrats and synonym, courtiers. They were famous for their long hair, fancy clothing, licentious or hedonistic behavior, and their support of the arts. See Cavalier drama and Cavalier poets , below. Manipur! Ultimately, Cromwell led the Roundheads in a coup d'état and synonym, established a Puritan dictatorship in hydrochloric acid, England, leading to the end of the mother English Renaissance and its artistic, scientific, and cultural achievements. To see where Charles' reign fits in English history, you can download this PDF handout listing the what reigns of English monarchs chronologically. CAVALIER DRAMA : A form of English drama comprising court plays that the mother synonym Queen gave patronage to in the 1630s. Most critics have been underimpressed with these plays, given that they are mostly unoriginal and written in a ponderous style.

The Puritan coup d'état and the later execution of King Charles mercifully terminated the globalize definition dramatic period, but unfortunately also ended their poetry, which was quite good in comparison. CAVALIER POETS : A group of synonym, Cavalier English lyric poets who supported King Charles I and wrote during his reign and who opposed the Puritans, his political enemies. The major Cavalier poets included Carew, Waller, Lovelace, Sir John Suckling, and Herrick. They largely abandoned the sonnet form favored for a century earlier, but they still focused on the themes of logging to old forests united states, love and synonym, sensuality and gothic building, their work illustrates technical virtuosity as J. A. Mother Synonym! Cuddon put it (125). They show strong signs of Ben Jonson's influence. CAVE, THE : Not to be confused with Plato's allegorical cave , this term is a nickname for a gathering of Tolkien and fellow Oxford English scholars in the 1930s before the Inklings formed. As Drout's J.R.R. Tolkien Encyclopedia summarizes the details, the name comes from I Samuel 22:1-2, where the Cave of Adullam became the place for David's conpiracies against King Saul, possibly implying that the members of the Cave at Oxford saw themselves as righteously subversive of the academic establishment. Members of the Cave included C.S. Lewis, J.R.R. Tolkien, Neville Coghill, Hugh Dyson, and Cleanth Brooks.

They were distinguished scholars of various fields. Eventually, in manipur, 1933, C.S. Lewis's brother Warnie retired to Oxford after a bout with alcoholism and mother synonym, could not regularly make meetings at the Cave. C.S. Lewis took it upon himself to raid the election Cave for similarly-minded scholars to become a part of the new Inklings group (Lobdell cited in mother synonym, Drout 88). Gothic Building! Cf. Inklings and Cave, Plato's below. CAVE, PLATO'S : In Plato's Republic , Socrates, Plato, and several of their fellows debate the mother synonym nature of ideal government. In the section on education in what year was walmart, this ideal Republic, they argue about the purpose of education. As part of Socrates' argument, the discussion veers into an allegory in which human existence is being trapped in a cave of ignorance, chained in place and unable to view anything except shadows cast on mother, the wall.

Some of those shadows are vague outlines of actual unseen truths beyond the perception of the globalize senses; others are false images deliberately designed to mislead the cave-dwellers, keeping them content and unquestioning. The purpose of education becomes freeing the imprisoned human and forcing him to leave the cave, to look at the actual objects that make the mother shadows. Cf. Platonic Forms . While reading Plato's cave as an allegory of education is a common interpretation, some philosophers (especially medieval readers) often took a more mystical approach to is the main threat in the northwestern united, the Greek text, interpreting the cave as the synonym material or physical world, while the shadows were mere outline of a greater spiritual truths--hidden and eternal beyond the physical world. C. S. Lewis coopts this idea in The Last Battle , in gothic building, which the characters discover after death that Narnia has merely been a crude approximation of heaven, and the further they travel in the onion ring, the larger and more beautiful and more true the inner rings become. CELLERAGE : The hollow area beneath a Renaissance stage--known in Renaissance slang as hell and synonym, entered through a trapdoor called a hellmouth . The voice of the ghost comes from this area in Hamlet , which has led to scholarly discussion concerning whether or not the ghost is really Hamlet's father or a demon in globalize definition, disguise. CELTIC : A branch of the Indo-European family of languages. Celtic includes Welsh and Breton. Celtic languages are geographically linked to synonym, western Europe, and gothic building, they come in mother, two general flavors, goidelic (or Q-celtic) and brythonic (or P-celtic).

CELTIC REVIVAL : A literary movement involving increased interest in Welsh, Scottish, and Irish culture, myths, legends, and literature. It began in the late 1700s and continues to this day. Definition! Thomas Gray's Pindaric ode The Bard (1757) and Ieuan Brydydd's publication of Some Specimens of the Poetry of the Ancient Welsh Bards (1764) mark its emergence, and Charlotte Guest's translation of The Mabinogion in 1839 marks its continued rise. Synonym! Matthew Arnold's lectures on Celtic literature at Oxford helped promote the foundation of a Chair of Celtic at that school in 1877. The Celtic Revival influenced Thomas Love Peacock, Alfred Lord Tennyson, Gerard Manley Hopkins, and year was walmart, W. B. Yeats, and probably led to the creation of the Abbey Theatre . A continuing part of the Celtic Revival is the mother Irish Literary Renaissance , a surge of Dreams, extraordinary Irish talent in the late nineteenth and twentieth century including Bram Stoker, James Joyce, William Butler Yeats, Samuel Beckett, George Bernard Shaw, and Seamus Heaney. CENOTAPH : A carving on a tombstone or monument, often in the form of a verse poem, biblical passage, or literary allusion appearing after the deceased individual's name and synonym, date of birth/death. Often used synonymously with epitaph . CENSORSHIP : The act of hiding, removing, altering or destroying copies of globalize, art or writing so that general public access to mother synonym, it is partially or completely limited.

Contrast with bowdlerization. Click here to download a PDF handout discussing censorship in great detail. Manipur! The term originates in an occupational position in the Roman government. After the synonym fifth century BCE, Rome commissioned censors. These censors at first were limited to conducting the census for tax estimations, but in latter times, their job was to impose moral standards for citizenship, including the removal of unsavory literature. See also the Censorship Ordinance of 1559 and the Profanity Act of 1606 . CENSORSHIP ORDINANCE OF 1559 : This law under Queen Elizabeth required the political censorship of public plays and all printed materials in globalize, matters of religion and the government. Mother! The Master of Revels was appointed to monitor and control such material. All of Shakespeare's early works were written under this act. We can see signs of year, alteration in his early works to conform to the requirements of the mother synonym censors. Contrast with the Profanity Act of 1606 . CENTAUR MYTH : In mythology and Essay Traits of the Recurring, literary use, a common motif is the centaur (a hybrid of horse-body with a human torso where the horse's head would be).

This mythic creature has gone through a number of allegorical transformations in different literary periods. In classical Greek artwork and literature, centaurs were associated with sex and violence. Their lineage traces them to mother synonym, Centaurus, the twin brother of King Lapithes. Both Centaurus and Lapithes were the offspring of Apollo and a river nymph named Stilbe. Stilbe gave birth to twins, with the elder Lapithes being strong, brave and handsome, but the younger twin Centaurus was ugly, brutish, and deformed.

Unable to find a woman willing to manipur election, marry him, Centaurus engaged in bestiality with mares, who in turn gave birth to half-human, half-horse hybrids that terrorized the land, becoming the first centaurs. Many Greek temples such as the Parthenon included a prominent carved scene called a centauromachia , which depicted the battle between Pirithous, a later king of the Lapith tribe, as he battled with centaurs who party-crashed his wedding and attempted to abduct the bride and bridesmaids. The scene was also popular in Greek pottery and wall-painting, and it helped cement the Greek idea that centaurs were generally loutish creatures symbolizing bestial natures--especially the lower passions of gluttony, rapine, and sexuality. Only a few exceptions (such as Chiron) were exceptions to this rule, and Greek heroes like Hercules spent a great deal of time beating up centaurs who sought to kidnap their wives and lovers. Later, medieval bestiaries revisited and Christianized the centaur myth. Mother Synonym! One medieval bestiary/commentary used centaurs as symbols of hypocrisy. After pews gradually become common in late medieval churches near the turn of the Renaissance, such bestiaries depicted the centaur as standing in a pew so that only the human-looking upper half of the body was visible while the lower animal half was unseen. The commentators stated that even thus wicked people in churches would look virtuous in their public appearance, but their truly monstrous nature would remain concealed. By the Enlightenment, pastoral artwork and paintings tended to depict centaurs more as frolicking, playful creatures--erasing earlier overtones of sodium hydrochloric acid, rape and evil, and by the late 19th-century, fantasy writers at the time of George MacDonald rehabilitated them, making them deuteragonists and tritagonists that heroes would encounter on their quests.

Among the mother synonym Inklings of the 1940s, C.S. Lewis in particular become fascinated with idealizing centaurs as noble creatures and Essay Traits Recurring, developed them into a private symbol for spiritual and mother, bodily perfection. Lewis saw the upward human half of of the Recurring, a centaur as being an emblem of reason and nobility, and the lower half being an emblem of mother synonym, natural biological or animal passions. Thus, the centaur became his emblem for Essay on Influential Traits of the Recurring Dreams, the healthy union of the material body and the intellectual/spiritual domains--an organism as God intended humans to be before the fall, or the perfect amalgamation of the chariot-driver, chariot, and synonym, horses in the allegory of the charioteer that Plato retells in Phaedrus . CENTUM LANGUAGE : One of the two main branches of Indo-European languages. These centum languages are generally associated with western Indo-European languages and they often have a hard palatal /k/ sound rather than the globalize definition sibilant sound found in equivalent satem words. See discussion under Indo-European . CHAIN OF BEING : An elaborate cosmological model of the universe common in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. The Great Chain of Being was a permanently fixed hierarchy with the mother Judeo-Christian God at globalize definition the top of the chain and inanimate objects like stones and mud at synonym the bottom. What Year Was Walmart! Intermediate beings and objects, such as angels, humans, animals, and plants, were arrayed in synonym, descending order of intelligence, authority, and capability between these two extremes. The Chain of Being was seen as designed by God. The idea of the Chain of Being resonates in art, politics, literature, cosmology, theology, and philosophy throughout the Middle Ages and Renaissance. It takes on particular complexity because different parts of the Chain were thought to correspond to each other. (See correspondences .) Click here for more information.

CHANSON (French song): A love-song or French love-poem, especially one the Provençal troubadour poets created or performed. What Year Was Walmart! Conventionally, the synonym chanson has five or six stanzas, all of gothic building, identical structure, and mother, an envoi or a tornada at the end. They were usually dedicated or devoted to a lady or a mistress in gothic building, the courtly love tradition. CHANSON DE GESTE (French, song of deeds): These chansons are lengthy Old French poems written between the eleventh and fourteenth centuries glorifying Carolingian noblemen and their feudal lords. The chansons de geste combine history and legend . They focus on religious aspects of mother synonym, chivalry rather than courtly love or the knightly quests so common in election, the chivalric romance . Typical subject-matter involves (1) internal wars and intrigue among noble factions (2) external conflict with Saracens, and (3) rebellious vassals who rise up against mother their lords in acts of betrayal. Typical poetic structure involves ten-syllable lines marked by assonance and stanzas of varying length. The chansons de geste are in many ways comparable to epics . Over eighty texts survive, but The Song of Roland is by gothic building far the most popular today. CHANSON À PERSONNAGES (French, song to people): Old French songs or poems in dialogue form. Common subjects include quarrels between husbands and wives, meetings between a lone knight and a comely shepherdess, or romantic exchanges between lovers leaving each other in the morning. See aubade . CHARACTER : Any representation of an individual being presented in mother synonym, a dramatic or narrative work through extended dramatic or verbal representation.

The reader can interpret characters as endowed with moral and gothic building, dispositional qualities expressed in what they say ( dialogue ) and what they do ( action ). Mother! E. M. Forster describes characters as flat (i.e., built around a single idea or quality and unchanging over gothic building the course of the synonym narrative) or round (complex in temperament and motivation; drawn with subtlety; capable of is the main threat forests found northwestern states, growth and change during the course of the narrative). Mother Synonym! The main character of gothic building, a work of a fiction is typically called the protagonist ; the character against whom the protagonist struggles or contends (if there is mother one), is the antagonist . Globalize Definition! If a single secondary character aids the mother synonym protagonist throughout the globalize narrative, that character is the mother deuteragonist (the hero's side-kick). A character of tertiary importance is a tritagonist . These terms originate in classical Greek drama, in which a tenor would be assigned the role of sodium hydrochloric, protagonist, a baritone the role of deuteragonist, and a bass would play the tritagonist. Mother Synonym! Compare flat characters with stock characters . CHARACTERIZATION : An author or poet's use of description, dialogue, dialect, and action to create in the reader an emotional or intellectual reaction to a character or to make the globalize definition character more vivid and realistic. Careful readers note each character's attitude and thoughts, actions and reaction, as well as any language that reveals geographic, social, or cultural background. CHARACTONYM : An evocative or symbolic name given to synonym, a character that conveys his or her inner psychology or allegorical nature. For instance, Shakespeare has a prostitute named Doll Tearsheet and a moody young man named Mercutio . Steinbeck has the sweet-natured Candy in Of Mice and Men . Spenser has a lawless knight named Sansloy (French, without law) and gothic building, an arrogant giant named Orgoglio (Italian, pride). On a more physical level, Rabelais might name a giant Gargantua or C.S. Lewis might call his talking lion Aslan (Turkish for lion). These names are all simple charactonyms. Cf. Mother! eponym . CHASTUSHKA (plur. chastushki ): In 19th-century Russian literature, a short song, usually of four lines--usually epigrammatic and humorous and gothic building, nature, commonly focusing on topics such as love and mother synonym, commonly associated with young artists.

Chastushki on on Influential, political topics became more common in the 20th century. Mother! Most modern examples rhyme and use regular trochaic meter, though in the oldest examples, these features are less regular, with cadences that are feminine or dactylic (Harkins 121). CHAUCERISM : In the Renaissance, experimental revivals and new word formations that were consciously designed to imitate the sounds, the feel, and verbal patterns from an older century--a verbal or grammatical anachronism . Spenser uses many Chaucerisms in The Fairie Queene . CHEKE SYSTEM : As summarized by Baugh, a proposed method for logging main threat to old growth found in the united, indicating long vowels and standardizing spelling first suggested by Sir John Cheke in synonym, Renaissance orthography. Cheke would double vowels to globalize, indicate a long sound. For instance, mate would be spelled maat , lake would be spelled laak , and so on. Silent e 's would be removed, and the letter y would be abolished and mother synonym, an i used in of the Recurring Dreams, its place (Baugh 209). It did not catch on. CHIASMUS (from Greek, cross or x): A literary scheme in which the author introduces words or concepts in a particular order, then later repeats those terms or similar ones in reversed or backwards order. It involves taking parallelism and deliberately turning it inside out, creating a crisscross pattern. For example, consider the chiasmus that follows: By day the frolic, and the dance by night . If we draw the mother words as a chart, the words form an x (hence the word's Greek etymology, from globalize definition, chi meaning x):

The sequence is synonym typically a b b a or a b c c b a . I lead the life I love ; I love the life I lead . Naked I rose from the earth ; to the grave I fall clothed . Biblical examples in the Greek can be found in manipur, Philippians 1:15-17 and Colossians 3:11, though the artistry is often lost in English translation. Chiasmus often overlaps with antimetabole . CHICANO / CHICANA LITERATURE : Twentieth- and twenty-first-century writings and synonym, poetry by Mexican-American immigrants or their children--usually in is the main threat to old growth forests united states, English with short sections or phrases in Spanish. An example would be Sandra Cisneros' writings, such as The House on Mango Street or My Wicked Wicked Ways . Following the grammatical conventions for gender in Spanish, the adjective Chicano takes an -o suffix in synonym, reference to male authors and is the forests states, an -a suffix in reference to synonym, female authors. Cf. Was Walmart! Latino Writing . CHIVALRY : An idealized code of military and social behavior for the aristocracy in the late medieval period.

The word chivalry comes from Old French cheval (horse), and chivalry literally means horsemanship. Normally, only rich nobility could afford the expensive armor, weaponry, and warhorses necessary for mounted combat, so the mother act of becoming a knight was symbolically indicated by giving the knight silver spurs. The right to knighthood in the late medieval period was inherited through the father, but it could also be granted by the king or a lord as a reward for services. The tenets of chivalry attempted to civilize the brutal activity of warfare. The chivalric ideals involve sparing non-combatants such as women, children, and helpless prisoners; the protection of the church; honesty in sodium acid, word and bravery in deeds; loyalty to one's liege; dignified behavior; and single-combat between noble opponents who had a quarrel. Other matters associated with chivalry include gentlemanly contests in mother, arms supervised by gothic building witnesses and heralds, behaving according to synonym, the manners of polite society, courtly love , brotherhood in arm s , and feudalism . What Year! See knight for additional information. This code became of great popular interest to British readers in the 1800s, leading to a surge of historical novels, poems, and paintings dealing with medieval matters. Examples of this nineteenth-century fascination include the synonym Pre-Raphaelite Movement , William Morris's revival of on Influential Traits of the Dreams, medieval handcrafts, Scott's novels such as Ivanhoe , and synonym, the earnestly sympathetic (though unrealistic) depiction of knighthood in Tennyson's Idylls of the King . In Tennyson's poem Guinevere , King Arthur describes the ideals of knighthood thus:

I made them lay their hands in mine and swear. To reverence the King, as if he were. Their conscience, and their conscience as their King. To break the heathen and uphold the Christ, To ride abroad redressing human wrongs, To speak no slander, no, nor listen to it, To honor his own word as if his God's, To lead sweet lives in purest chastity, To love one maiden only, cleave to her, And worship her by years of gothic building, noble deeds, Until they won her.

For the best modern scholarly discussion of chivalry as a historic reality in the Middle Ages, read Maurice H. Keen's Chivalry (Yale University Press, 1984). CHORAGOS (often Latinized as choragus ): A sponsor or patron of a play in classical Greece. Often this sponsor was honored by serving as the mother synonym leader of the chorus (see below). CHORIC FIGURE : Any character in any type of narrative literature that serves the is the to old growth forests found in the northwestern united same purpose as a chorus in mother synonym, drama by remaining detached from the main action and commenting upon or explaining this action to the audience. See chorus , below. CHORUS : (1) A group of singers who stand alongside or off stage from the principal performers in a dramatic or musical performance. (2) The song or refrain that this group of singers sings. Logging Threat Growth Forests! In ancient Greece, the chorus was originally a group of male singers and dancers ( choreuti ) who participated in religious festivals and dramatic performances by singing commenting on the deeds of the characters and mother synonym, interpreting the year significance of the events within the play. Synonym! This group contrasts with the is the main threat to old in the northwestern actors (Greek hypocrites ). Shakespeare alters the traditional chorus by replacing the singers with a single figure--often allegorical in nature.

For instance, Time comes on stage in The Winter's Tale to explain the passing years. Likewise, Rumor appears in Henry IV, Part Two to summarize the gossip about Prince Hal. See also choragos and mother synonym, choric figure , above. CHRISTIAN NOVEL : A novel that focuses on Christianity, evangelism, or conversion stories. Sometimes the plots are overtly focused on this theme, but others are primarily allegorical or symbolic. Traditionally, most literary critics have rated these works as being of Dreams, lower literary quality than the canon of great novels in Western civilization.

Examples include Bodie Thoen's In My Father's House , Catherine Marshall's Christy , Par Lagerkvist's Barabbas , Henryk Sienkiewicz's Quo Vadis , and Lloyd C. Douglas's The Robe . CHRISTOLOGICAL FIGURE : In theology, Christology is the mother study of Jesus' nature, i.e., whether Christ had both a human and year founded, divine nature, whether he had one sentient will alone or one human will and mother, one divine will, whether he was theoretically capable of sin like humanity or perfectly righteous like the other persons in the trinity, whether he shared in year founded, the Father's omniscience or suffered from mother, human afflictions like doubt or ignorance, whether he existed or not before his biological birth, whether he was equal in authority and power to the other persons in the trinity, and whether he actually had a physical body (the orthodox view) or was composed entirely of spirit (the Arian view). In literary studies, the term christological has been commandeered to refer to (1) an object, person, or figure that represents Christ allegorically or symbolically, or (2) any similar object, person, or figure with qualities generally reminiscent of Christ. Examples of christological figures include the Old Man in Hemingway's The Old Man and gothic building, the Sea , who after his struggle with the fish ends up bleeding from his palms and lying on the floor in a cruciform pattern; the lion Aslan in C. Synonym! S. Lewis's The Chronicles of Narnia , who allows himself like the lion of the tribe of Judah to be slain in order to gothic building, redeem a traitorous child; and the unicorn in medieval bestiaries, which would lie down and mother, place its phallic , ivory-horned meekly in a maiden's lap so that hunters might kill it--which medieval monks interpreted as an allegory of Christ allowing himself to manipur, enter the womb of the virgin Mary so that he might later be sacrificed. Zora Neale Hurston creates a christ-figure in synonym, Delia Jones, who in the short story Sweat suffers to support her ungrateful husband and crawled over the earth in logging is the threat forests in the, Gethsemane and up the rocks of Calvary many, many times . Synonym! . Thiosulphate Acid! . and so on. CHRONICLE : A history or a record of events.

It refers to any systematic account or narration of events that makes minimal attempt to mother synonym, interpret, question, or analyze that history. Election! Because of this, chronicles often contain large amounts of folklore or other word-of-mouth legends the writer has heard. In biblical literature, the book of mother synonym, Chronicles is one example of a chronicle. Medieval chronicles include Joinville's account of the Crusades and Geoffrey of Monmouth's History of the Kings of Britain , a source for much Arthurian legend. In the Renaissance , Raphael Holinshed, Edward Hall, and other chroniclers influenced Shakespeare.

Chronicles were popular in England after the British defeated the Spanish Armada in 1588. The accompanying patriotic fervor increased the public's demand for plays about English history. If Chronicles are written in the form of annual entries, they are also called annals . Thiosulphate Hydrochloric Acid! See also lepotis . CHRONOLOGICAL SNOBBERY : C. S. Lewis's term for what he describes as the uncritical acceptance of mother synonym, . . . the sodium thiosulphate assumption that whatever has gone out of synonym, date is on that account discredited, i.e., the unthinking belief that past ideas or literature are obsolete and that current or present ideas are superior to them, the myth that all change is beneficial progress. Lewis initially felt torn between his love of medieval literature and the sense that it made him a dinosaur out of touch with the year 20th century, and he felt depressed to think the fictions of the past as beautiful lies. In a fierce philosophical debate ( The Great War ) with Owen Barfield, Barfield convinced him that such a view was wrong, and Lewis states Barfield made short work of my chronological snobbery (qtd. in Duriez 45). CHRONOLOGY (Greek: logic of time): The order in which events happen, especially when emphasizing a cause-effect relationship in history or in mother synonym, a narrative. CHTHONIC : Related to the dead, the grave, the underworld, or the fertility of the earth.

In Greek mythology, the globalize Greeks venerated three categories of synonym, spirits: (1) the Olympian gods, who were worshipped in globalize definition, public ceremonies--often outdoors on synonym, the east side of sodium hydrochloric acid, large columned temples in the agora , (2) ancestral heroes like Theseus and Hercules, who were often worshipped only in local shrines or at specific burial mounds, (3) chthonic spirits, which included (a) earth-gods and death-gods like Hades, Hecate, and Persephone; (b) lesser-known (and often nameless) spirits of the departed; (c) dark and bloody spirits of vengeance like the Furies and synonym, Nemesis, and (d) (especially in Minoan tradition) serpents, which were revered as intermediaries between the logging is the threat to old growth surface world of the mother synonym living and the subterranean realm of the dead. This is manipur election why snakes were so prominent in the healing cults of Aesclepius. It became common in Greek to speak of the mother Olympian in contrast to on Influential of the, the cthonioi (those belonging to mother, the earth). See Burkert 199-203 for detailed discussion. CHURCH SUMMONER : Medieval law courts were divided into civil courts that tried public offenses and ecclesiastical courts that tried offenses against the church. Summoners were minor church officials whose duties included summoning offenders to appear before the church and receive sentence.

By the manipur fourteenth century, the mother job became synonymous with extortion and corruption because many summoners would take bribes from the Essay Traits of the Recurring Dreams individuals summoned to court. Chaucer satirized a summoner in The Canterbury Tales . CINQUAIN : A five-line stanza with varied meter and rhyme scheme, possibly of medieval origin but definitely influenced after 1909 by Japanese poetic forms such as the tanka . Mother Synonym! Most modern cinquains are now based on the form standardized by an American poet, Adelaide Crapsey (1878-1918), in gothic building, which each unrhymed line has a fixed number of syllables--respectively two, four, six, eight, and two syllables in each line--for a rigid total of 22 syllables. Here is mother probably the hydrochloric most famous example of a cinquain from Crapsey's The Complete Poems ; Three silent things: The falling snow. the hour. Before the mother synonym dawn. the mouth of one. Perhaps under the influence of diamante poems, many modern elementary school teachers have begun adding an additional set of Essay Recurring Dreams, conventions to mother synonym, the cinquain in which each line has a specific structural requirement:

Line 1 - Consists of the thiosulphate hydrochloric two-syllable title or subject for the poem. Line 2 - Consists of two adjectives totaling four syllables describing the subject or title. Line 3 - Consists of synonym, three verbs totaling six syllables describing the subject's actions. Line 4 - Consists of manipur election, four words totaling eight syllables giving the mother synonym writer's opinion of the subject. Line 5 - Consists of one two-syllable word, often a synonym for the subject. These secondary conventions, however, are usually limited to children's poetic exercises, and professional poets do not generally follow these conventions.

CIRCULAR STRUCTURE : A type of Essay of the Recurring Dreams, artistic structure in which a sense of completeness or closure does not originate in mother, coming to what was walmart founded, a conclusion that breaks with the earlier story; instead, the sense of closure originates in the way the end of mother synonym, a piece returns to subject-matter, wording, or phrasing found at the beginning of the narrative, play, or poem. Globalize Definition! An example of circular structure might be The Secret Life of Walter Mitty, which ends with an ellipsis identical to synonym, the opening sequence, indicating that the middle-aged protagonist is manipur election engaging in yet another escapist fantasy. Leigh Hunt's poem Jenny Kissed Me is an mother example of a circularly-structured poem, since it ends with the same words that open the speaker's ecstatic, gossipy report. Langdon Smith's poem Evolution is circular in its concluding repetition of the opening phrase, When you were a tadpole, and I was a fish, but it is also thematically circular, in that it implies the cycle of reincarnated love will continue again and globalize definition, again in spite of death. Synonym! In many ways, the smaller tales within a larger frame narrative act as part of a circular structure, because each small tale begins by breaking the reader away from the gothic building larger, encompassing narrative and concludes by returning the reader to that larger frame-narrative. CITY DIONYSIA : See discussion under dionysia . CIVIC CRITICS : A school of mother, 19th-century Russian literary scholars who judged the value of writing primarily by its political context and progressive ideas. They commonly wrote in what year founded, oposition to the aesthetic theories of the Parnassian Poets (Harkins 55). Example critics include Belinski (active in the 1840s), Dobrolyubov, and Chernyshevski. CLANG ASSOCIATION : A semantic change caused because one word sounds similar to mother synonym, another.

For instance, the word fruition in Middle English meant enjoyment. In Modern English, its meaning has changed to completion because it sounds like the word fruit --hence the idea of ripeness, of growing to on Influential Traits of the Dreams, full size, as Algeo notes (314). CLASSICAL : The term in Western culture is usually used in mother, reference to globalize definition, the art, architecture, drama, philosophy, literature, and history surrounding the Greeks and Romans between 1000 BCE and 410 BCE. Works created during the Greco-Roman period are often called classics . The Golden Age of Classical Greek culture is commonly held to be the fifth century BCE (especially 450-410 BCE). The term can be applied more generally to any ancient and synonym, revered writing or artwork from found in the united, a specific culture; thus we refer to mother, Classical Chinese, Classical Hebrew, and Classical Arabic works. For extended discussion, click here. To download a PDF handout placing the periods of literary history in order, click here. CLASSICAL HAIKU : Another term for the hokku , the predecessor of the modern haiku . See hokku and manipur, haiku . CLAUSE : In grammatical terminology, a clause is synonym any word-construction containing a nominative and a predicate, i.e., a subject doing a verb.

The term clause contrasts with the term phrase . A phrase might contain nouns as appositives or objects, and it might contain verb-like words in the form of participles or gerunds, but it crucially lacks a subject doing a verb. For example, consider this sentence: Joe left the building after seeing his romantic rival. Clause : Joe left the building. Phrase : after seeing his romantic rival. If the clause could stand by itself as a complete sentence, it is known as an sodium acid independent clause . Mother! If the clause cannot stand by itself as a complete sentence (typically because it begins with a subordinating conjunction), it is said to be a dependent clause . Essay Of The Dreams! For expanded discussion and examples, click here. For a discusion of clauses according to functional type, click here ( TBA).

CLERIHEW : In light verse, a funny poem of closed-form with four lines rhyming ABAB in irregular meter, usually about a famous person from history or literature. Typically the historical person's name forms one of the rhymes. The name comes from synonym, Edmund Clerihew Bentley (1875-1956), the what purported inventor. He supposedly had a habit of scribbling down such rhymes during dull lectures at school, including this one from synonym, his chemistry class: Sir Humphrey Davy. He lived in the odium.

Of having discovered sodium. CLICHÉ : A hackneyed or trite phrase that has become overused. Logging Main Growth Forests Northwestern United! Clichés are considered bad writing and bad literature. Click here to download a PDF handout for more information. Cliché rhymes are rhymes that are considered trite or predictable. Cliché rhymes in poetry include love and dove , moon and June , trees and breeze . Sometimes, to avoid cliché rhymes, poets will go to synonym, hyperbolic lengths, such as the trisyllabic rhymes in Lord Byron's Don Juan . CLICHÉ RHYME : Cliché rhymes are rhymes that are considered trite or predictable. They include love and dove , moon and June , trees and breeze . Sometimes, to avoid cliché rhymes, poets will go to is the main threat to old growth forests in the northwestern, hyperbolic lengths, such as the mother synonym trisyllabic rhymes in Lord Byron's Don Juan . CLICK : A sound common in some non-Indo-European languages in main threat to old forests found states, Polynesia made by clucking the mother synonym tongue or drawing in Essay on Influential of the Dreams, air with the tongue rather than expelling it from the lungs--such as the sound represented by the letter combination tsk-tsk . Some linguists indicate this sound in transcribing Polynesian languages by inserting an exclamation mark to indicate the palatal click.

For instance, the !chung tribe has a palatal click as part of its name. CLIFFHANGER : A melodramatic narrative (especially in films, magazines, or serially published novels) in which each section ends at mother a suspenseful or dramatic moment, ensuring that the audience will watch the next film or read the next installment to find out what happens. Year Was Walmart! The term comes from the common 1930's film-endings in which the synonym main characters are literally left hanging on the edge of a cliff until the story resumes. The term cliffhanger has more loosely been applied to any situation, event, or contest in which the logging is the main to old states outcome remains uncertain until the last moment possible. CLIMAX, LITERARY (From Greek word for ladder): The moment in a play, novel, short story, or narrative poem at which the crisis reaches its point of greatest intensity and is thereafter resolved. It is also the peak of mother, emotional response from a reader or spectator and usually the turning point in globalize definition, the action. The climax usually follows or overlaps with the crisis of a story, though some critics use the two terms synonymously. (Contrast with anticlimax , crisis , and denouement ; do not confuse with rhetorical climax , below.) CLIMAX, RHETORICAL : Also known as auxesis and crescendo , this refers to an artistic arrangement of a list of mother synonym, items so that they appear in a sequence of increasing importance. See rhetorical schemes for more information.

The opposite Recurring Dreams, of climax is bathos . CLIP : To form a word by abbreviating a longer expression, or a word formed by the same process. For instance, the word auto (as in auto shop) is a clipped form of automobile . CLOSE READING : Reading a piece of literature carefully, bit by bit, in order to analyze the significance of every individual word, image, and artistic ornament. Click here for more information. The term is sometimes used synonymously with critical reading , though I arbitrarily prefer to reserve close reading as a reference for analyzing literature and mother, critical reading as a reference for breaking down an essay's argument logically. Cf. On Influential! critical reading . CLOSED POETIC FORM : Poetry written in a a specific or traditional pattern according to the required rhyme, meter, line length, line groupings, and synonym, number of lines within a genre of poetry. Sodium Thiosulphate Acid! Examples of a closed-form poetry include haiku , limericks , and sonnets , which have set numbers of syllables, lines, and traditional subject-matter. Contrast with open poetic form . CLOSURE (Latin clausura , a closing): Closure has two common meanings. First, it means a sense of completion or finality at the conclusion of play or narrative work--especially a feeling in the audience that all the problems have been resolved satisfactorily. Mother Synonym! Frequently, this sort of closure may involve stock phrases (and they lived happily ever after or finis ) or certain conventional ceremonial actions (dropping a curtain or having the actors in a play take a bow).

The narrative may reveal the sodium thiosulphate solution of the primary problem(s) driving the plot, the death of a major character (especially the mother antagonist, the protagonist's romantic interest or even the Essay Recurring protagonist herself), or careful denouement . Synonym! An example of year was walmart, extended denouement as closure occurs in George Eliot's Middlemarch , in which the author carefully explains what happened in later years to each character in the novel. Closure can also come about by a radical alteration or change in synonym, the imaginary world created by an author. For instance, in J. R. R. Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings , much of the closure to the saga comes from the departure of the elves and wizards, who sail across the sea, leaving the world of human men and women forever, an act which apparently causes magic to fade. Shakespearean comedies often achieve closure by having major characters find love-interests and globalize, declare their marital intentions. Mother! Other more experimental forms of literature and poetry may achieve closure by Essay on Influential of the Recurring circular structure , in which the poem or story ends by mother synonym coming back to the narrative's original starting spot, or by returning a similar situation to what was found at what year the beginning of the tale. See discussion under denouement . Do note that some narratives intentionally seek to frustrate the audience's sense of closure. Synonym! Examples of literature that reject conventions of closure include cliffhanger serials (see above), which reject normal closure in an attempt to gain returning audiences. Many postmodern narratives influenced by existential philosophy, on the other hand, reject closure as too simplistic and artificial in what was walmart founded, comparison with the complexities of human living. Secondly, some critics use the term closure as a derogatory term to imply the reduction of mother synonym, a work's meanings to a single and globalize, complete sense that excludes the claims of other interpretations. For extended discussion of closure, see Frank Kermode's The Sense of An Ending: Studies in the Theory of Fiction , as reprinted in 2001.

CLOWN : (1) A fool or rural bumpkin in Shakespearean vocabulary. Mother Synonym! Examples of this type of sodium thiosulphate hydrochloric, clown include Lance, Bottom, Dogberry, and other Shakespearean characters. (2) A professional jester who performs pranks, sleight-of-hand and juggling routines, and who sings songs or tells riddles and jokes at court. By convention, such jesters were given considerable leeway to speak on synonym, nearly any topic (even criticizing court policy) as long as the criticism was veiled in riddles and wordplay. Examples of this type in Shakespeare's work include Touchstone, Feste, and Lear's Fool. Cf. fool . COCKNEY : Originally, in Middle English times, the term cockney was a derogatory term for a dumb city-dweller. It comes from logging to old found northwestern, cock's egg, the idea that an uneducated urbanite would be so ignorant he or she would not realize that a male rooster (a cock) would be the wrong gender to lay an egg.

By Renaissance times, the word was applied to mother synonym, those living in the Bow Bells area of London in Cheapside, a working class district. Today, the election term implies most strongly the spoken dialect of that area. Cockney dialect tends to be non-rhotic, with final -er pronounced as a schwa, and mother synonym, it often shows signs of definition, t -glottalization. It frequently substitutes /r/ with /w/, and merges lexical sets like north/force and thought/start . The imprecise term Estuary English refers to spoken English in synonym, the southeast of Britain that merges linguistic traits of RP and Cockney, and recent dialect shift that appears to be spreading across the island. See also Cockney Rhyming Slang , below. COCKNEY RHYMING SLANG : A form of slang in gothic building, which the speaker substitutes one word in a sentence with another word or phrase that rhymes with the mother implied word--but which leaves out the actual, final rhyming part.

This wordplay is associated with the is the to old forests found in the states dialect appearing in the Cheapside district of London's East End. The resulting sentence is baffling for outsiders unfamiliar with the tradition but provides a pleasing word puzzle to Cockney speakers. For examples, instead of stating that The woman had exquisite legs, a Cockney speaker might say, The woman had exquisite bacons. Here, the mother synonym phrase bacon- and-eggs rhymes with legs , so the speaker substitutes it for legs in the sentence, but deletes the final rhyming part of the phrase. CODE-SWITCHING : In bilingual or multilingual speech, rapidly changing from the vocabulary, grammar, and patterns of one language to sodium hydrochloric, another--often in mid-sentence. An example sentence to mother synonym, illustrate this process using Latin, Spanish, German, and French might read as follows: Imprimus, el commander qui runs his troops y sus attendants to death in sodium, a blitzkrieg isn't tres sapiens, n'est-pas? [In the first place, the commander who runs his troops and synonym, his attendants to death in a sudden attack isn't very wise, right?]

Although the term code-switching is one used in linguistics, code-switching as a phenomenon does appear in literature. Manipur Election! The character of mother synonym, Salvatori the monk in Umberto Eco's The Name of the Rose engages continuously in code-switching among Latin, Spanish, French, Italian, and German tongues, for instance. Code-switching is a common feature in Hispanic American English and in gothic building, the fiction writings of Chicano authors. Cf. Mother Synonym! dog-latin and macaronic texts . CODICOLOGY (from Latin codex , book): The study of books as physical artifacts. COGNATE : Cognates are words that (1) match each other to some degree in manipur, sound and meaning, (2) come from a common root in an older language, but (3) did not actually serve as a root for each other. For instance, in European Romance languages, many words trace their roots back to Latin.

The Latin word unus (one) later became the root for a number of words meaning one such as une (French) and uno (Spanish). Une and uno are cognates --cousins or siblings on the family tree of languages--but unus is the root or ancestor for these relatives. The Hebrew shalom , Arabic salaam , and the Aramaic shelam are similar cognates all meaning peace. Cognates play an important part in reconstructing dead languages such as proto-Indo-European , and they can be enormously helpful in learning new languages. The amateur philologist should be cautious of false cognates, folk etymology , and faux amis , however. Mother! False cognates are words that happen to have a similar sound and meaning, but which are actually unrelated semantically and historically. Essay On Influential Traits Of The Recurring! Folk etymologies are erroneous accounts of how a word came into existence.

Typically, the originator of the error hears or reads an unfamiliar word. Synonym! The orginator then fabricates a spurious source by globalize linking the strange word to a more familiar expression or then fashions a pun based upon sound similarities. Mother Synonym! Faux amis are technically cognates in terms of their morphology, but in terms of their meaning, the words have drifted apart from each other across time, such as the manipur election English verb embarass (to humiliate) and the Spanish embarazar (to impregnate). COLLECTIVE NOUN, COLLECTIVE PRONOUN : A noun such as team or pair that technically refers to mother, a collective group of individuals or individual items. What makes them tricky in grammar? They can be singular or plural (e.g., one team , two teams , or one pair, two pairs .) Many students forget that and mistakenly treat the grammatically singular word as if it were always plural. Essay On Influential Traits Of The Recurring! Likewise, collective pronouns like some use the modifier rather than the headword for singular versus plural structure. For instance, Some of the the workers are gone uses a plural verb, but Some of the work is done uses a singular verb.

COLLECTIVE UNCONSCIOUS : In twentieth-century Jungian Psychology , this term refers to mother synonym, a shared group of archetypes (atavistic and universal images, cultural symbols, and recurring situations dealing with the globalize fundamental facts of human life) passed along to each generation to the next in folklore and stories or generated anew by the way must face similar problems to mother synonym, those our ancestors faced. Within a culture, the collective unconscious forms a treasury of powerful shared images and symbols found in our dreams, art stories, myths, and religious icons. See more detailed discussion under archetypal criticism . COLLOCATION : The frequency or tendency some words have to combine with each other. For instance, Algeo notes that the phrases tall person and high mountain seem to fit together readily without sounding strange. A non-native speaker might talk about a high person or tall mountain, and thiosulphate hydrochloric, this construction might sound slightly odd to a native English speaker. The difference is in collocation.

COLLOQUIALISM : A word or phrase used everyday in plain and relaxed speech, but rarely found in formal writing. (Compare with cliché , jargon and synonym, slang .) COLONIAL PERIOD : American and British historians use this term somewhat differently. American scholars usually use the definition term colonial period to refer to the years in the American colonies before the American Revolution against the British Monarchy--usually dating it from 1607 (when Jamestown was founded) to 1787 (when Congress ratified the mother synonym Federal Constitution). This period coincides roughly with the Reformation in England and continues up through the end of the Enlightenment or Neoclassical Period. American writers from the colonial period include Ben Franklin, Thomas Paine, and Anne Bradstreet. See also Neoclassic . Click here to download a PDF handout placing this period in globalize, historical context with other literary movments. When British historians use the term, they sometimes tend to apply the word colonial in more general reference to the British expansions into the Americas, the Indies, India, Africa, and the Middle-East over the course of several centuries, even up to the nineteenth century and early twentieth century. See colonialism , below. COLONIALISM : The term refers broadly and generally to mother synonym, the habit of powerful civilizations to colonize less powerful ones. On the Essay on Influential Recurring obvious level, this process can take the mother synonym form of a literal geographic occupation, outright enslavement, religious conversion at gun-point, or forced assimilation of native peoples.

On a more subtle level, this process can take the form of bureucratic policy that incidentally or indirectly leads to the extinction of a minority's language or culture, economic exploitation of cheap labor, and logging main threat forests northwestern united, globalistic erasure of cultural differences. The term is often applied in academic discussion of literature from the colonial period. We can see the concerns of colonialism and imperial ambition in the works of mother, George Orwell's Shooting an Elephant, in Rudyard Kipling's fictional tales about India, and in Josef Conrad's novella, Heart of Darkness . See Colonial Period , above. COMEDY (from Greek: komos , songs of merrimakers): In the original meaning of the word, comedy referred to a genre of drama during the what founded Dionysia festivals of ancient Athens. The first comedies were loud and boisterous drunken affairs, as the word's etymology suggests. Later, in synonym, medieval and Renaissance use, the is the main threat to old found word comedy came to mean any play or narrative poem in which the main characters manage to avert an impending disaster and have a happy ending.

The comedy did not necessarily have to be funny, and indeed, many comedies are serious in tone. It is mother synonym only in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries that comedy's exclusive connotations of humor arose. See also Low Comedy, High Comedy, Comedy of the Absurd , Comedy of Humors , and Comedy of Manners . COMEDY OF THE ABSURD : A modern form of comedy dramatizing the meaninglessness, uncertainty, and pointless absurdity of human existence. A famous example is Samuel Beckett's Waiting for Godot . Cf. existentialism . COMEDY OF HUMORS : A Renaissance drama in which numerous characters appear as the embodiment of stereotypical types of people, each character having the physiological and behavioral traits associated with a specific humor in the human body. The majority of the cast consists of gothic building, such stock characters. (See humors, bodily for more information.) Some of Shakespeare's characters, including Pistol, Bardulph, and others, show signs of having been adapted from the stereotypical humor characters. In literature, a humor character was a type of flat character in whom a single passion predominated; this interpretation was especially popular in synonym, Elizabethan and other Renaissance literature. Election! See also stock character . COMEDY OF INNOCENCE : We have two definitions here. (1) In anthropological terms, a comedy of innocence is mother synonym a ritualized symbolic behavior (or set of such behaviors) designed to alleviate individual or communal guilt about an gothic building execution or sacrifice or to mother synonym, hide the blame for such an action. In ancient Greece, the gothic building ax or dagger used in a sacrifice might be put on trial (instead of the priest wielding it). The sacrificial animal might be required to volunteer by shaking its head or by walking up to the altar to mother, eat the Essay on Influential Recurring grain sitting on it. The sacrificial victim might be condemned to execution after being released where it could set foot in a forbidden holy grove or taboo sacred mountain (cf.

Exodus 19:12-13 and Judges 11:30-40). In America, we see remnants of the comedy of innocence in customs such as the 19th-century's hangman's black mask (to erase the mother synonym executioner's identity) or the manipur election custom of granting the condemned prisoner's last request or final meal (to alleviate any sense of cruelty on the jailer's part). (2) A specific myth told by later generations to erase or hide ancient evidence of what looks like the practice of human sacrifice in earlier times. For instance, a number of local Greek myths describe characters like Leucothea, Palaemon, and Glaucus; they fall or are thrown into the sea where they are magically transformed into sea-gods. Given the relative insignificance of these gods in the Greek pantheon , it is likely this sort of tale either (a) developed out of local hero cults or (b) the tale alludes to mother synonym, an ancient or prehistoric belief that drowned sacrificial victims would live on as animistic spirits. What Year! Another common version of the comedy of innocence is the mother motif of globalize, a human sacrificial victim (usually a child) who is miraculously saved ( deus ex machina ) and an animal substituted in his or her place. For example, in some Greek myths, Iphigenia is replaced by a white hind before her father can sacrifice her to mother, gain good winds for the Trojan voyage.

Phrixus gets whisked to safety by a Golden Ram, which is then sacrificed in the young boy's place. In the Hebrew Bible, Yahweh stops Abraham from killing Isaac, and gothic building, he directs Abraham's attention to a ram with its horns caught in a thicket (Genesis 22:9-13). Scholars of mother, mythology often see the what year was walmart dozens of such tales appearing cross-culturally and interpret them as having their origins in the comedy of innocence. COMEDY OF MANNERS : A comic drama consisting of five or three acts in mother, which the attitudes and gothic building, customs of a society are critiqued and mother, satirized according to high standards of intellect and morality. The dialogue is thiosulphate usually clever and sophisticated, but often risqué . Synonym! Characters are valued according to their linguistic and intellectual prowess.

It is year founded the opposite of the slapstick humor found in a farce or in a fabliau . COMIC OPERA : An outgrowth of the eighteenth-century ballad operas, in which new or original music is composed specially for the lyrics. (This contrasts with the ballad opera , in which the lyrics were set to pre-existing popular music.) COMIC RELIEF : A humorous scene , incident, character , or bit of dialogue occurring after some serious, tragic, or frightening moment. Comic relief is deliberately designed to relieve emotional intensity and mother synonym, simultaneously heighten and highlight the seriousness or tragedy of the action. Macbeth contains Shakespeare's most famous example of comic relief in the form of globalize definition, a drunken porter. Another is just after the mother climactic scene in Dante's Inferno , in which Dante encounters Satan himself frozen in ice.

The demon initially terrified Dante, but the narrator's fear falls way to the reader's laughter in globalize, a comic reversal in which Dante and Virgil climb down Satan's body and mother, move through the globalize center of the earth's gravity, at which point Dante is synonym confused by the way gravity reverses, looks upward, and finds himself directly staring at Satan's nether regions, writing, . . . I beheld him upward hold his legs. // And if I then become disguieted, / Let stolid people think who do not see / What the election point is beyond which I had passed (34.90-93). COMING-OF-AGE STORY : A novel in mother, which an adolescent protagonist comes to adulthood by a process of experience and manipur, disillusionment. This character loses his or her innocence, discovers that previous preconceptions are false, or has the security of mother, childhood torn away, but usually matures and strengthens by this process. Examples include Wieland's Agathon , Herman Raucher's Summer of '42 , Ray Bradbury's Dandelion Wine , Joyce's A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man , and Jane Austen's Northanger Abbey . The most famous examples are in definition, German. In German, a tale in the genre is called a Bildungsroman or a Erziehungsroman . Examples include Goethe's Die Leiden des jungen Werthers and Thomas Mann's Königliche Hoheit . COMITATUS : (Latin: companionship or band): The term describes the tribal structure of the mother Anglo-Saxons and other Germanic tribes in which groups of globalize definition, men would swear fealty to a hlaford (lord) in exchange for food, mead, and heriot , the mother loan of fine armor and weaponry.

The men who swore such an oath were called thegns (roughly akin to modern Scottish thane), and they vowed to fight for their lord in battle. It was considered a shameful disaster to outlive one's own lord. The comitatus was the functional military and government unit of early Anglo-Saxon society. The term was first coined by the classical historian Tacitus when he described the Germanic tribes north of Rome. COMMEDIA DELL'ARTE : A genre of manipur election, Italian farce from the sixteenth-century characterized by stock characters , stock situations, and spontaneous dialogue. Typically, the plot is an intrigue plot and it involves a soubrette who aids two young lovers in foiling the rigid constraints of their parents.

In many such plays, a character named Sganarelle is a primary figure in the work. Often there is mother synonym a zani , or foolish-servant, who provides physical comedy in gothic building, contrast to the anguish of the young lovers. In the mother end, the couple achieves a happy marriage. Commedia dell'arte may have influenced Shakespeare's comedies, such as The Merry Wives of Windsor , and Moliere's plays, such as L'amour Medecin , commonly translated into English as Love is the Doctor . COMMON MEASURE : Also called common meter , common measure consists of closed poetic quatrains rhyming ABAB or ABCB , in which the lines of iambic tetrameter (eight syllables) alternate with lines of iambic trimeter (six syllables). This pattern is most often associated with ballads (see above), and it is occasionally referred to as ballad measure.

Many of Emily Dickinson's poems are in loose common measure using slant rhyme , for instance: Much Madness is election divinest Sense-- To a discerning Eye-- Much Sense--the starkest Madness-- 'Tis the Majority. A fun and simple test to recognize common measure in poetry is to take a stanza and try singing it aloud to a well-known tune written in common meter, such as Gilligan's Isle, Amazing Grace, or House of the Rising Sun. If the syllabification fits these familiar ditties, you are looking at mother synonym a case of common measure. COMMONIZATION : The linguistic term for an eponym--a common word that is derived from the proper name of a person or place. Of The Recurring Dreams! For instance, the sandwich gained its name from its inventor, the fourth Earl of Sandwich. The word lynch comes from Captain William Lynch, who led bands of vigilantes to hang hoboes and bums residing near Pittsylvania County.

The verb shanghai , meaning to kidnap or press into forced labor, comes from the practices of conscription common in synonym, the oriental city of what founded, Shanghai. The word stentorian comes from the loud-mouthed Stentor in mother synonym, Greek legend, and herculean comes from the muscle-bound Hercules, and so on. COMPERT (plural: comperta ): Specifically, birth-tales in Old Irish literature that detail the conception and birth of a hero. Examples include the Compert Con Culainn ( Birth of Cú Chulainn ). Usually supernatural or extraordinary events involve themselves in the conception, such as the Essay on Influential of the Druid Cathbad's seduction of Nessa after prophesying what the hour would be lucky for (begetting a king upon a queen!) or the visitation of a god like Lug to a woman who then becomes pregnant after the divine visitation. The birth-tale in mother synonym, general is not limited to Old Irish Literature, but is found worldwide (Duffy 102-03). Examples outside of Irish literature include the birth of Jesus, or the Buddha, or Leda and Hercules in Greek myth, Pryderi's conception in Essay on Influential Dreams, the First Branch of The Mabinogion , or King Arthur's conception in Arthurian legends. COMPLETENESS : The second aspect of Aristotle's requirements for a tragedy.

By completeness, Aristotle emphasizes the logic, wholeness, and synonym, closure necessary to satisfy the audience. COMPOSITE MONSTER (in architecture, often called a chimera after the Greek monster): The term is one mythologists use to describe the fantastical creatures in Assyrian, Babylonian, Greek, and medieval European legends in which the beast is composed of the body-parts of gothic building, various animals. Mother! For instance, in gothic building, Greek mythology, the chimera has the body of a lion, tale of a serpent, wings of a bat, and a goat-head, a lion-head, and a serpent's head. Likewise, the sphinx has a lion's body and a woman's head and breasts; the synonym centaur has a horse's body and thiosulphate, human torso and a human head where the horse-head should be; the minotaur has a bull's head and mother synonym, a man's body; and sodium thiosulphate hydrochloric acid, the harpy has an mother synonym avian body and a woman's head, breasts, and arms. Earlier examples in Mesopotamian mythology include the ekimmu (a bloodsucking albino ghost with a bull's head) and logging threat growth forests found united states, the lamassu (a winged horse with a human head). In the synonym medieval period, composite monsters include the formecolion, with an ant's body and a lion's head; the mermaid, with a human top and a fish bottom; and the cockatrice, which mingles parts of a rooster and a serpent. Contrast with additive monster , above. Composite monsters were common in the legends of classical and ancient cultures, but diminished in favor after the Renaissance. What Was Walmart Founded! Many theories propose to mother synonym, explain the common tendency to create composite monsters. Theories include mistranslation in traveler's tales, in which an animal is globalize definition describing as having a head like such-and-such a creature, but the simile is lost in translation; the encounter of mother synonym, fossil remnants of extinct animals, or bones found jumbled together and Recurring Dreams, misassembled; and the heraldic practice of dimidiation , in which a nobleman's son might take two animals found on his father's and mother's coats of arms combine them into a composite creature to illustrate his genealogy.

An example in mother, 20th century films includes The Fly . In this 1950s horror classic, a fly and a human trade bodies and Essay Traits of the, heads. Cf. therianthropic and theriomorphic . COMPOSITOR : A typesetter in a Renaissance print shop. To speed the mother synonym printing process, most of sodium thiosulphate hydrochloric acid, Shakespeare's plays appear to have been set by multiple compositors. As Greenblatt notes, Compositors frequently followed their own standards in mother synonym, spelling and punctuation. They inevitably introduced some errors into the text, often by selecting the wrong piece from the type case or by setting the correct letter upside-down (1141). COMPOUNDING : A term from linguistics used to describe the creation of a new word ( neologism ) that comes about by taking two existing words and sodium acid, sticking them together to create a brand new concept (Horobin 192). Synonym! All languages do this to some extent. For instance, the word hydrogen comes from two Greek words meaning water and stuff. However, Germanic languages and Germanic poetry (including derivatives like English) are particularly prone to creating new words this way. Thousands of English words result from two older words being compounded together, such as bathtub (bath + tub), eyesore (eye + sore); window (from two Old Norse words meaning wind and gothic building, eye), and so on.

However, poets regular invent neologisms by compounding to create artificial words of their own. Even Chaucer engaged in this trick, coining the word newfangled from the English new and mother, the Middle French fanglere , meaning to make or to Essay on Influential Traits of the Recurring Dreams, fashion. See neologism , blending , and kenning . COMPURGATION : In addition to trial by synonym ordeal , compurgation was the medieval law practice among Christianized Anglo-Saxon tribes to determine innocence. A man accused of a crime would publicly swear to his innocence. The judge then gave the sodium acid defendant thirty days to to collect a number of oath-helpers who would also swear to his innocence (or at mother synonym least his good character).

If he was unable to find the required number, he was either found guilty or he could appeal to trial by ordeal. Sodium Thiosulphate! If the defendant had been caught in the act, or was considered untrustworthy, the procedure could be reversed, and the plaintiff would bring forth oath-helpers to prove his charge through similar compurgation. CONCEIT (also called a metaphysical conceit) : An elaborate or unusual comparison--especially one using unlikely metaphors, simile, hyperbole, and contradiction. Before the beginning of the seventeenth century, the mother synonym term conceit was a synonym for thought and globalize definition, roughly equivalent to idea or concept. It gradually came to denote a fanciful idea or a particularly clever remark. In literary terms, the word denotes a fairly elaborate figure of speech, especially an extended comparison involving unlikely metaphors , similes , imagery , hyperbole , and oxymora . One of the most famous conceits is John Donne's A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning, a poem in which Donne compares two souls in love to the points on a geometer's compass. Shakespeare also uses conceits regularly in his poetry. In Richard II , Shakespeare compares two kings competing for power to two buckets in a well, for instance. A conceit is mother synonym usually classified as a subtype of metaphor . Contrast with epic simile and year founded, dyfalu . CONCRETE DICTION / CONCRETE IMAGERY : Language that describes qualities that can be perceived with the five senses as opposed to using abstract or generalized language.

For instance, calling a fruit pleasant or good is abstract , while calling a fruit cool or sweet is concrete . The preference for abstract or concrete imagery varies from century to century. Mother! Philip Sidney praised concrete imagery in poetry in his 1595 treatise, Apologie for Poetrie . A century later, Neoclassical thought tended to value the generality of Essay on Influential Traits of the Dreams, abstract thought. In the early 1800s, the Romantic poets like Wordsworth, Coleridge, and Shelley once again preferred concreteness. Synonym! In the 20th century, the manipur election distinction between concrete and abstract has been a subject of some debate. Ezra Pound and T. E. Hulme attempted to create a theory of synonym, concrete poetry. Gothic Building! T. S. Eliot added to this school of thought with his theory of the objective correlative. Mother Synonym! Contrast with abstract diction / abstract imagery . CONCRETE POETRY : Poetry that draws much of its power from the way the text appears situated on the page. The actual shape of the lines of text may create a swan's neck, an altar, a geometric pattern, or a set of wings, which in some direct way connects to the meaning of the words. Sodium! Also called shaped poetry and visual poetry, concrete poetry should not be confused with concrete diction or concrete imagery (see above). Mother! The object here is to present each poem as a different shape.

It may appear on the page, on glass, stone, wood, or other materials. Was Walmart! The technique seems simple, but can allow great subtlety. Famous concrete poets include Apollinaire, Max Bill, Eugen Gomringer and the Brazilian Noigandres Group, which exhibited a collection of concrete art at Sào Paulo in 1956. In Germany, this school of synonym, poetry is called konkretisten by gothic building critics. Mother Synonym! It includes Ernst Jandl, Achleitner, Heissenbüttel, Mon, and globalize definition, Rühm.

Since World War II, further experimentation in synonym, concrete poetry has taken place by British poets, including Simon Cutts, Stuart Mills, and Ian Hamilton Finlay. See also diamante . CONFLATION : In its more restricted literary sense, a conflation is a version of thiosulphate hydrochloric acid, a play or narrative that later editors create by combining the synonym text from more than one substantive edition. For example, Greenblatt notes that most versions of King Lear published since the 1700s are conflations of the Quarto and First Folio editions of the original Renaissance texts. CONFLICT : The opposition between two characters (such as a protagonist and manipur, an antagonist), between two large groups of people, or between the protagonist and mother synonym, a larger problem such as forces of nature, ideas, public mores, and so on. Conflict may also be completely internal, such as the protagonist struggling with his psychological tendencies (drug addiction, self-destructive behavior, and so on); William Faulkner famously claimed that the most important literature deals with the subject of the human heart in conflict with itself. Conflict is the engine that drives a plot.

Examples of narratives driven mainly by conflicts between the globalize definition protagonist and mother synonym, nature include Jack London's To Build a Fire (in which the gothic building Californian struggles to save himself from synonym, freezing to death in Alaska) and Stephen Crane's The Open Boat (in which shipwrecked men in a lifeboat struggle to stay alive and get to shore). Examples of narratives driven by conflicts between a protagonist and manipur, an antagonist include Mallory's Le Morte D'arthur , in which King Arthur faces off against his evil son Mordred, each representing civilization and barbarism respectively. Examples of narratives driven by mother synonym internal struggles include Daniel Scott Keyes' Flowers for Algernon, in which the hero struggles with the loss of his own intelligence to sodium, congenital mental retardation, and Edgar Allan Poe's The Tell-Tale Heart, in which the protagonist ends up struggling with his own guilt after committing a murder. In complex works of literature, multiple conflicts may occur at mother once. For instance, in Shakespeare's Othello , one level of conflict is the unseen struggle between Othello and the machinations of Iago, who seeks to destroy him. Essay Traits! Another level of conflict is Othello's struggle with his own jealous insecurities and his suspicions that Desdemona is cheating on him.

CONFUCIAN CLASSICS : Five ancient Chinese writings commonly attributed to Confucius, though it is likely they are actually compilations of traditional material predating him. The five classics include the mother synonym I Ching ( The Book of Changes ), the Shu Ching ( The Book of History ), the Shih Ching , ( The Book of Odes ), the Record of Essay Traits of the Dreams, Rites ( Li Chi ), and the Spring and Autumn Annals . To see where this material fits in mother synonym, an outline of what year was walmart founded, Chinese history, click here. CONJUGATION : The inflection of a verb to show its person, number, mood, or tense. Here is a sample conjugation of the present tense indicative forms of to sing in English and cantar in Spanish: CONNOTATION : The extra tinge or taint of mother, meaning each word carries beyond the thiosulphate hydrochloric minimal, strict definition found in a dictionary.

For instance, the terms civil war , revolution and rebellion have the same denotation; they all refer to an attempt at social or political change. However, civil war carries historical connotations for Americans beyond that of revolution or rebellion . Likewise, revolution is often applied more generally to scientific or theoretical changes, and it does not necessarily connote violence. Rebellion , for many English speakers connotes an improper uprising against a legitimate authority (thus we speak about rebellious teenagers rather than revolutionary teenagers). In the same way, the words house and home both refer to a domicile, but home connotes certain singular emotional qualities and personal possession in mother synonym, a way that house doesn't. I might own four houses I rent to globalize definition, others, but I might call none of these my home , for example. Much of mother synonym, poetry involves the poet using connotative diction that suggests meanings beyond what the words simply say. Contrast with denotation . CONSONANCE : A special type of alliteration in election, which the repeated pattern of consonants is marked by changes in the intervening vowels--i.e., the final consonants of the stressed syllables match each other but the vowels differ. Synonym! As M. H. Abrams illustrates in The Norton Anthology of English Literature , examples include linger , longer , and Essay on Influential Traits of the Dreams, languor or rider , reader , raider , and ruder . Do not confuse consonance with a consonant (see below). See also assonance and sound symbolism . CONSONANT : A speech sound that is not a vowel. To download a PDF file listing consonants and mother, their symbols in the International Phonetic Alphabet, click here. CONSUETUDINAL BE : Uninflected use of the verb be to indicate habitual or frequent action.

This grammatical structure is definition characteristic of Black Vernacular . An example would be as follows: What you be doing on Thursdays? I be working every afternoon. Users of standard edited English typically frown on this grammatical formation. CONTEMPORARY LITERATURE : Literature written at synonym the present moment. Although the writers in every century would consider themselves contemporary or modern, when speakers use this term, they almost always mean either modernist or postmodernist literature. COTERIE WRITING : Writing intended originally for the amusement or edification of a small circle of gothic building, friends or family rather than for publication or public perusal. Often, however, such writings later become adopted or modified for publication. Sometimes, the author does this; in other cases, later editors do this posthumously. Famous examples include Mary Shelley originally created Frankenstein as part of a ghost-story contest amongst her friends and literary comrades. Aphra Behn originally wrote many of her poems as part of coterie writing, though most of her plays, her philosophical treatises, and Oronooko appear to have penned with a deliberate eye toward publication or financial gain.

CONTEXTUAL SYMBOL : A unique or original symbol an mother synonym author creates within the context of an manipur election individual work or an author's collected works. Examples include the Snopes family in Faulkner's collected works, who together function as a symbol of the South's moral decay, or the town of Castle Rock, Maine, which in Stephen King's works functions as a microcosmic symbol of human society. Contrast with cultural symbol , below. CONTRACTION : The squeezing together of synonym, sounds or words--especially when one word blurs into logging main to old found in the states another--during fast or informal speech. Contractions such as I'm (I am), he's (he is), and they're (they are) are common in verbal communication, but they are often considered too loose for more formal writing. CONTRAPASSIO (counter-suffering): A thematic principle involving situational irony in which a punishment's nature corresponds exactly to synonym, the nature of a crime. Much of Dante's Inferno revolves around elaborate contrapassio . CONTROL TEXT : A specific text upon which a modern edition is based. For instance, there are at least three dominant manuscript traditions of Langland's Piers Plowman poem: the A-text, the B-text, and the C-text (and possibly a Z-text, as recent scholarship has tentatively suggested).

These versions contain different dialogue, different wording, and different spelling; they do not all contain the same passages and do not include identical storylines. A modern editor must either choose one to use as the basis of a modern edition, or she must create a conflation . Gothic Building! Several Shakespeare plays vary wildly between the quarto and folio versions--including Hamlet and synonym, King Lear . In other cases, such as Le Morte D'Arthur , a modern editor must choose between using a manuscript source for his control text (such as the Winchester Manuscript) or a printed source (such as Caxton's printed Renaissance edition). CONVENTION : A common feature that has become traditional or expected within a specific genre (category) of literature or film. Essay Traits Recurring! In Harlequin romances, it is conventional to focus on mother synonym, a male and female character who struggle through misunderstandings and difficulties until they fall in love. In western films of the early twentieth-century, for instance, it has been conventional for protagonists to Traits Recurring Dreams, wear white hats and antagonists to wear black hats. The wandering knight-errant who travels from place to place, seeking adventure while suffering from the effects of hunger and the elements, is a convention in medieval romances. It is synonym a convention for an English sonnet to have fourteen lines with a specific rhyme scheme, abab , cdcd , efef , gg , and thiosulphate, so on. The use of a chorus and the unities are dramatic conventions of Greek tragedy, while, the aside , and the soliloquy are conventions in Elizabethan tragedy.

Conventions are often referred to as poetic, literary, or dramatic, depending upon whether the convention appears in a poem, short story or novel, or a play. CONVENTIONAL : A conventional linguistic trait is an arbitrary one learned from others, not one determined by some natural law or genetic inheritance. Today, most linguists think most vocabulary and grammar are conventional, but some linguists in previous centuries believed ethnicity affected language development and acquisition. CORPUS CHRISTI PLAY : A religious play performed outdoors in the medieval period that enacts an event from the Bible, such as the story of Adam and Eve, Noah's flood, the crucifixion, and so on. The word is derived from the religious festival of Corpus Christi (Latin: The Body of Christ). See also cycle and mystery play . CORRESPONDENCES : An integral part of the medieval and synonym, Renaissance model of the universe known as the Chain of Being. Manipur! The idea was that different links on mother, the Chain of Being were interconnected and had a sort of sympathetic correspondence to definition, each other. Each type of being or object (men, beasts, celestial objects, fish, plants, and mother, rocks) had a place within a hierarchy designed by what year God. Each type of object had a primate , which was by nature the synonym most noble, rare, valuable, and superb example of its type.

For instance, the king was primate among men, the lion among beasts, the gothic building sun among celestial objects, the whale among fish, the oak among trees, and the diamond among rocks. Often, there was a symbolic link between primates of different orders--such as the lion being a symbol of royalty, or the king sleeping in a bed of oak. This symbolic link was a correspondence. However, correspondences were thought to exist in the material world as well as in the world of ideas. Disturbances in mother, nature would correspond to disturbances in the political realm (the body politic ), in the human body (the microcosm ), and in the natural world as a whole (the macrocosm ). For instance, if the king were to become ill, Elizabethans might expect lions and beasts to fall sick, rebellions to break out in the kingdom, individuals to develop headaches or fevers, and stars to fall from the sky. To Old Growth Found! All of these events could correspond to each other on the chain of mother synonym, being, and each would coincide with the Essay on Influential of the Recurring others. For more information about correspondences and the Chain of Being, click here. COSMIC IRONY : Another term for situational irony--especially situational irony connected to a fatalistic or pessimistic view of life. Mother! See discussion under irony , below. COTHURNI : The Greek word for the elevator-shoes worn by important actors on stage.

See discussion under buskins . COTTON LIBRARY, THE : One of the most important collections of Old and Middle English texts. Click here for what year, details. COTTON NERO A.X : The Middle English manuscript that includes Pearl , Cleanness , Patience , Sir Gawain and the Green Knight , and the Legend of Saint Erkenwald . Click here for details. COTTON VITELLIUS A.XV : The Old English manuscript that includes The Passion of Saint Christopher , The Wonders of the synonym East , and The Letter of Alexander to Aristotle , Beowulf , and the Old English translation of Judith . Click here for details. COUNTING : A technique of determining stylistic qualities of a piece of writing by counting the gothic building numbers of words in paragraphs or sentences, and synonym, determining the average number of modifiers, average word lengths, and so on. COUPLET : Two lines--the second line immediately following the first--of the same metrical length that end in a rhyme to form a complete unit. Gothic Building! Geoffrey Chaucer and other writers helped popularize the form in synonym, English poetry in the fourteenth century. An especially popular form in later years was the heroic couplet , which was rhymed iambic pentameter. It was popular from the 1600s through the late 1700s. Much Romantic poetry in the early 1800s used the election couplet as well. A couplet that occurs after the volta in mother, an English sonnet is called a gemel (see sonnet, volta, gemel ).

COURT OF LOV E : In medieval convention, a court of is the threat forests in the northwestern, love is an assemblage of women presided over by a queen or noblewoman. At this mock-court, various young knights or courtiers are summoned to court and put on trial by the ladies for their crimes against love. These crimes might be neglecting their sweethearts, failing to wear their ladies' tokens at mother synonym jousts, and so on. Chaucer himself may have been summoned to gothic building, a court of love for his libelous depiction of Criseyde in Troilus and Criseyde , and Queen Anne may have required him to write The Legend of Good Women as a penance for his literary crimes. Mother Synonym! In The Wife of Bath's Tale, we find an inversion of the normal play-acting in which King Arthur gives Gwenevere and globalize definition, her ladies the right to synonym, try a rapist-knight for his crimes. Here, the women literally have power of life or death over gothic building the subject.

Andreas Capellanus discusses the courts of synonym, love in his medieval writings, and more recent scholars such as C. S. Gothic Building! Lewis ( The Allegory of Love ) and Amy Kelly ( Eleanor of Aquitaine ) discuss the convention at length. Cf. demand d'amour . COURTLY LOVE (Medieval French: fin amour or amour courtois ): Possibly a cultural trope in mother, the late twelfth-century, or possibly a literary convention that captured popular imagination, courtly love refers to a code of behavior that gave rise to modern ideas of Essay on Influential Traits of the Recurring, chivalrous romance. The term itself was popularized by C. S. Lewis' and Gaston Paris' scholarly studies, but its historical existence remains contested in critical circles. The conventions of courtly love are that a knight of synonym, noble blood would adore and worship a young noble-woman from afar, seeking to protect her honor and win her favor by logging is the main threat to old growth forests in the northwestern valorous deeds. He typically falls ill with love-sickness, while the woman chastely or scornfully rejects or refuses his advances in public but privately encourages him. Courtly love was associated with (A) nobility, since no peasants can engage in fine love; (B) secrecy; (C) adultery, since often the one or both participants were married to another noble who was unloved; and (D) paradoxically with chastity, since the passion should never be consummated due to social circumstances, thus it was a higher love unsullied by selfish carnal desires or political concerns of arranged marriages. In spite of this ideal of chastity, the knightly characters in literature usually end up giving in to their passions with tragic results--such as Lancelot and synonym, Guenevere's fate, or that of Tristan and globalize definition, Iseult. We associate courtly love with French literature primarily, but the concept permeated German and Italian literature as well.

The German equivalent of fin amour is Minne (hence Minnesänger ), and the Italian poets of the dolce stil nuovo cultivated similar subject matter. The convention of courtly love eventually becomes a source of parody. Andreas Capellanus' Rules of Courtly Love provides a satirical guide to the endeavor, and Chretien de Troyes satirizes the conventions in his courtly literature as well. Similar conventions influence Petrarch's poetry and Shakespeare's sonnets. These sonnets often emphasize in particular the idea of synonym, love from afar and unrequited love, and gothic building, make use of imagery and wording common to the earlier French tradition. In terms of whether or not practices of courtly love were a historical reality, scholars are loosely divided into schools of thought, as William Kibler notes. The first group, the mother synonym so-called realists, argue that such institutions truly did exist in election, the Middle Ages and mother synonym, the literature of the time reproduces this realistically.

The opposing school, the gothic building so-called idealists, argue that (at best) courtly love was a court game taken ironically as a joke, or (at worst) post-Romantic/Victorian readers have superimposed their own ideals and synonym, wishes on medieval culture by exaggerating these components. CRADLE TRICK : A sub-category of the bed-trick , this is what founded a folk motif in which the position of a cradle in a dark room leads one character to climb into bed with the wrong sexual partner. It appears prominently in Chaucer's The Reeve's Tale. Synonym! In the election Aarne-Thompson folk-index, this motif is mother usually numbered as motif no. 1363. CREEPYPASTA : A short story posted online designed to shock, frighten, or disconcert the manipur reader.

For more discussion, see ghost story . CREOLE : A native language combining the traits of mother, multiple languages, i.e., an advanced and fully developed pidgin. In the American South, black slaves were often brought in from a variety of African tribes sharing no common language. On the plantation, they developed first a pidgin (limited and simplified) version of English with heavy Portuguese and African influences. Election! This pidgin allowed slaves some rudimentary communication with each other and with their slave masters. In time, they lost their original African languages and the mixed speech became the native tongue of synonym, their children--a creole. Manipur Election! Contrast with pidgin . CRESCENDO : Another term for rhetorical climax . See climax, rhetorical , above. CRISIS (plural: crises ): The turning point of uncertainty and tension resulting from earlier conflict in mother synonym, a plot. At the moment of crisis in a story, it is unclear if the protagonist will succeed or fail in his struggle. The crisis usually leads to or overlaps with the climax of a story, though some critics use the two terms synonymously. See climax, literary , above. CRITICAL READING : Careful analysis of an essay's structure and definition, logic in order to mother synonym, determine the validity of an election argument.

Often this term is used synonymously with close reading (see above), but I prefer to reserve close reading for the artistic analysis of literature. Click here for more information about critical reading. Cf. close reading . CRITICUS APPARATUS : The scholarly notations in a critical edition (especially a variorum edition) in which the editor indicates all the known variations of a particular text. The apparatus often appears running along the bottom of each page or sometimes in the back of the book, and often incorporates editorial footnotes and glosses. The apparatus can appear quite cryptic to students unfamiliar with the formulaic abbreviations in scholarly use. Mother Synonym! For instance, below is an illustrative notation from A. V. C. Schmidt's criticus apparatus for Passus I, line 1, of the Everyman edition of Traits Recurring Dreams, William Langland's Piers Plowman , page 14: Collation WHmCrGYOC2CLMHRF.

RUBRIC Passus primus de visione Wr (pr] Secundus F; de v.] de petri le ploughman BR; om O); om GC2. This notation indicates subsequent lines are collated together in thirteen of the surviving manuscripts, each manuscript being indicated by mother synonym a special abbreviation. Furthermore, the opening line in manuscripts W and r has a Latin title written in red ink (rubricated) as indicated, but another manuscript F has labeled it as secundus rather than primus, while the year was walmart founded B and R manuscripts label it in a combination of French and Latin, and so on. A good criticus apparatus helps document all this diversity by mother gathering it together, line-by-line, for convenient comparison at a glance, but the editor presumes the year reader knows the dense, standardized abbreviations involved in synonym, this notation. For a clearer, hypothetical example, let us imagine Edgar Allan Poe has a poem surviving in three slightly different forms. The most widespread version Poe had published by Smith Publishing early in his career. Ten years later, Poe revised the poem for gothic building, a new publisher, Baker Books, and they printed this revision a few years after Poe's death.

Last of all, a third unpolished version survives in Poe's own handwritten notes. Scholars discover this last manuscript version squirreled away in the Morgan Library in 2012. Modern editors would compile these three sources and select what they consider the best text. Synonym! However, they must not ignore the alternative versions by leaving them unnoted and unannotated; that would effectively erase them from hydrochloric, history. Accordingly, the editors might add a criticus apparatus . Here, they would note the mother synonym relevant line number and indicate alternatives. The first version by Smith Books (abbreviated S) has the phrase Conqueror Worme appear in line six. Main Threat To Old Growth Forests Found! The version by Baker Books (abbreviated B) has a slightly different archaic spelling Conqueror Wyrm in the same spot. Mother! Finally, Poe's own original handwritten rough draft of the poem survives among his papers in the Morgan Library (abbreviated Ml).

This manuscript uses the abbreviation Conqu. Wm. scrawled in that line. Now, a modern scholar wants to publish an authoritative version of Poe's poem a century later. This modern editor chooses to emend the line to globalize, a standardized spelling of Conqueror Worm. Synonym! The criticus apparatus at the bottom of the page might consist of a footnote such as this: 6 Conqeror Worm ] S: Conqueror Worme ; B: Conqueror Wyrm , Ml: Conqu.

Wm . The 6 indicates line six as the section with variant readings. The words before the bracket ] show readers that the editor considers the preceding version the best text for a modern reader--or at logging to old in the least the version the synonym editor has chosen for his edition. Was Walmart! The material after the bracket lists each variant source and indicates how the differing material appeared in that source as exactly as possible. A criticus apparatus documents the synonym known variations that might plausibly be accurate and reminds modern readers of the multiple possible versions an sodium acid earlier audience might have experienced. Synonym! This process is especially pertinent in classical and medieval studies, since in the pre-print era, handwritten texts often exhibited striking and even contradictory variant readings.

For instance, in the case of The Aeneid , about 3,000 texts survive with each manuscript containing significant variations. In the case of Chaucer, about 82 versions of the Canterbury Tales survive, all with variant readings. Main Threat Growth Forests In The United! In the case of Shakespeare, striking differences appear in mother, the F (folio) and Q1, Q2, Q3 (first, second, and third quarto) versions of his plays, and so on. CROSSED RHYME : In long couplets, especially hexameter lines, sufficient room in the line allows a poet to use rhymes in the middle of the line as well as at manipur the end of synonym, each line. Logging To Old In The! Swinburne's Hymn to Proserpine illustrates its use: Thou hast conquered, O pale Galilean ; the world has grown grey from Thy breath ; We have drunken of things Lethean , and mother synonym, fed on the fullness of death . Laurel is manipur election green for a season , and synonym, love is sweet for a day ; But love grows bitter with treason , and laurel outlives not May . In the excerpt above, the words in red are part of gothic building, crossed rhyme, and the words in green are regular rhyme.

Crossed rhyme is also called interlaced rhyme . Contrast with internal rhyme and leonine rhyme . CROWN OF SONNETS : According to Shipley (142), an interlinked poem or cycle of synonym, seven sonnets in which the last line of each of the first six serves as the last line of the next, and the last line of the seventh sonnet serves as the manipur first line of the first sonnet. Mother! All other rhymes are used once only in the collection of the entire seven sonnets. An English example would be Donne's La Corona, though the what was walmart structure is much more common in Italian poetry. A more complicated alternative structure is the so-called heroic crown of sonnets (alias the sonnet redoublé ), which is similar in synonym, structure but consists of 15 rather than 7 sonnets in election, total, but which follows the same rules for mother synonym, rhyme repetitions (Shipley 530). CTHULHU MYTHOS (also spelled Cthulu and Kutulu , pronounced various ways): Strongly influential in pulp science fiction and early twentieth-century horror stories , the Cthulhu mythos revolves around a pantheon of malign alien beings worshipped as gods by half-breed cultists. These aliens were invented and popularized by pulp fiction horror writer H. Essay! P. Lovecraft. The name Cthulhu comes from Lovecraft's 1928 short story, The Call of mother, Cthulhu, which introduces the creature Cthulhu as a gigantic, bat-winged, tentacled, green monstrosity who once ruled planet earth in prehistoric times. Currently in a death-like state of hibernation, it now awaits an opportunity to rise from the manipur election underwater city of R'lyeh and plunge the earth once more into darkness and terror. August Derleth later coined the term Cthulhu mythos to describe collectively the settings, themes, and alien beings first imagined by Lovecraft but later adapted by pulp fiction authors like Clark Ashton Smith, Robert E. Howard, Robert Bloch, Henry Kuttner, and Brian Lumley. Some common elements, motifs, and characters of the mythos include the following:

CULTURAL SYMBOL: A symbol widely or generally accepted as meaning something specific within an entire culture or social group, as opposed to mother, a contextual symbol created by a single author that has meaning only within a single work or group of works. Globalize! Examples of cultural symbols in mother, Western culture include the logging main threat to old forests found in the states cross as a symbol of Christianity, the American flag as a symbol of America's colonial history of thirteen colonies growing into fifty states, the gold ring as a symbol of mother, marital commitment, the Caduceus as a symbol of medicine, and the color black as a symbol of mourning. Examples of cultural symbols in globalize, other cultures include white as a symbol of mourning in Japan, the Yin-Yang sphere as an oriental symbol of oppositional forces in balance, the white crane as a symbol of mother synonym, longevity in Mandarin China, and so forth. Any writer in a specific culture could use one of Essay on Influential Dreams, these symbols and synonym, be relatively confident that the reader would understand what each symbol represented. Thus, if a writer depicted a pedophilic priest as trampling a crucifix into the mud, it is likely the reader would understand this action represents the way the priest tramples Christian ideals, and so forth. Contrast with contextual symbol and archetype . CYBERPUNK MOVEMENT : (1) A loose school of science fiction authors including William Gibson, Bruce Stirling, Rudy Rucker, and thiosulphate hydrochloric, Neal Stephenson who rose in popularity in the 1980s and 1990s. (2) A science fiction subgenre that shares the concerns and features of those works produced by the cyberpunk school. Features of their novels and mother, short stories in this period include the following motifs: Common themes include the dehumanization, commodification, and mechanization of the individual; the negative effects of commercialization upon society; and implicit philosophical questions regarding consciousness and sensory reality. These cyberpunk authors have been profoundly influential in Recurring Dreams, late twentieth-century science fiction films (such as Strange Days , Robocop , etc.) and Japanese anime , where cyberpunk elements have become so common as to be almost cliché . The metaverse or the Net imagined by these early authors in the 1980s have been seen as prophetic of the synonym later real-world rise of the internet after 1993. Manipur Election! Examples of mother synonym, novels, anthologies, short stories, and other literary works from the cyberpunk movement include Neuromancer , Mona Lisa Overdrive , Islands in the Net , and manipur election, Johnny Mnemonic. (The last of these has been adapted into an awful film that bears little similarity to the original short story.) More recently, Neal Stephenson's Snow Crash has put a more satirical spin on the genre . CYCLE : In general use, a literary cycle is synonym any group of closely related works. We speak of the Scandinavian, Arthurian , and Charlemagne cycles, for instance.

These refer collectively to gothic building, many poems and stories written by various artists over several centuries. These cycles all deal with Scandinavian heros, King Arthur and synonym, his knights, or the legends of King Charlemagne respectively. More specifically, a mystery cycle refers to the complete set of mystery plays performed during the Corpus Christi festival in Essay on Influential Traits Recurring, medieval religious drama (typically 45 or so plays, each of synonym, which depicted a specific event in biblical history from the creation of the gothic building world to the last judgment). The major English cycles of mystery plays include the York, Coventry, Wakefield or Towneley, and Chester cycles. See Corpus Christi play , above. See also sonnet cycle . CYHYDEDD HIR : A syllabic verse form in ancient Welsh poetry. The octave stanza consists two quatrains of four lines with five, five, five, and four syllables respectively.

The rhyme scheme is AAAx AAAx , with X's indicating unrhymed lines. See octave and rhyme . CYHYDEDD NAW BAN : A syllabic verse form in ancient Welsh poetry in which some lines are composed of nine syllables. Mother Synonym! The rhyming couplets, when they appear, must rhyme with another line of identical length. CYNGHANEDD (pronounced kun HAN neth , lit. Welsh for symphony or harmony): A Welsh term that loosely denotes sound similarities peculiar to Welsh poetry, especially alliteration and internal rhyme . Typically, the consonants in one word or line repeat in the same pattern at the beginning and end of the next word or line--but the vowel sounds between the consonants change slightly. Is The Main To Old Forests Found In The United! In the English tradition of poetry, Gerard Manley Hopkins charmingly refers to such devices as chimes , and he makes much use of them in his works such as Spring and Fall. Synonym! See also awdl and englyn . For an example of cynghanedd in English, click here. CYNING : A king, another term for an Anglo-Saxon hlaford . Not to be confused with kenning , an Anglo-Saxon poetic device. CYRCH A CHWTA : A Welsh verse form consisting of an year was walmart founded octave stanza of six rhyming or alliterating seven-syllable lines plus a couplet.

The second line of the mother couplet rhymes with the first six lines. The first line of the manipur election couplet cross-rhymes in mother, the third, fourth, or fifth syllable of the main to old in the united states eighth line. CYRILLIC : Also called, azbuka , the mother alphabet used to write Russian, Serbian, and thiosulphate acid, Bulgarian. The name comes from the 9th-century Greek missionary Saint Cyril, who traveled from mother synonym, Byzantium to convert Slavic races of Moravia to Christianity. Folklore credits Cyril at the inventor of this script, though it is more likely he invented the Glaglotic , what Harkins refers to as an abtruse alphabet of obscure origin, which soon lost favor (5). Cyrillic, modeled largely on the Greek alphabet, rose to replace Glaglotic, though Cyril retained credit. The alphabet came to Russia later after its Christianization in 988 or 989.

Modern Russian, Ukrainian, Belorussian, Bulgarian, and Serbian alphabets were later offshoots of Cyrillic. Peter the Great simplified the alphabet in 1708, so the lettering required less ornate design, and Recurring, later modifiers removed four characters as redundant in 1918. The present alphabet consists of thirty letters, mostly phonetic, though it does not show the mother synonym stress of Recurring, syllables (5). CYWYDD (plural, cywyddau) : A fourteenth-century metrical form of Welsh lyric poetry consisting of rhyming couplets with each line having seven syllables. Traditionally, in each couplet, the lines end with alternately stressed and unstressed meter. In terms of content, cywyddau traditionally include examples of dyfalu --strings of unusual comparisons similar to metaphysical conceits. The genre is associated with the poet Dafydd ap Gwilym. CYWDD DEUAIR HIRION : In Welsh prosody, the term refers to a form of light verse consisting of a single couplet with seventeen syllables.

The first line has a masculine ending and the last line a feminine ending. CYWYDD LLOSGYRNOG : A type of Welsh verse consisting of mother synonym, a sestet stanza in which the syllable count is eight, eight, seven, eight, eight, and seven respectively. Logging To Old Forests Found In The United! The first two lines rhyme and cross-rhyme with the middle syllable of the synonym sixth line and the third and sixth lines rhyme with each other. Rime coueé or tail-rhyme has a similar scheme.

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How to write the synonym, perfect SAP CV: Top 10 tips and definition SAP CV sample template. Writing an effective SAP CV is an essential foundation for building a successful SAP career. When being considered for mother synonym, a new SAP employment opportunity your curriculum vitae is normally the first thing an employer uses to decide if you are suitable for the SAP position on offer, so it is no surprise that the candidates who write the best SAP CVs are those who are invited for interviews and who ultimately get hired. Writing a great SAP CV is the logging main threat to old growth in the united states, first step in the race for synonym, an SAP job; those with a poor CV will rarely even make it past the first hurdle. With the SAP market becoming saturated and competition increasing, having an SAP resume that stands out is now more important than ever. When writing anything, the most important thing to keep in mind is the audience you are writing for. With an SAP resume, the chances are high that the Traits of the, person who reads your CV at the start of most recruitment processes will be an SAP recruiter. Mother Synonym? As an definition, SAP recruitment agent with over synonym, 10 years’ experience, who has personally placed over election, 700 SAP Consultants in SAP roles, I’d estimate that I have probably read over 100,000 SAP CVs in my time, so I have a pretty good idea of what makes a top SAP CV. I’m going to offer an honest insider’s perspective into how most SAP recruiters actually read your SAP CV…let’s consider that on a busy day an synonym, SAP recruiter might have to globalize, recruit for three SAP vacancies, and may receive up to 50 applications for each position. Will they read 150 CVs word for word, end to end? Of course not.

The honest reality is that most recruiters (myself included) probably spend 30 seconds skim reading each CV and perhaps another 30 seconds crudely using the CTRL-F feature to mother synonym, search the CV for some other keywords. Bearing this in mind, along with other SAP recruiter insiders’ perspectives, I’m going to provide my advice on how to manipur election, write the synonym, perfect SAP CV. Below are my top 10 tips for a successful SAP CV and an SAP CV example / SAP CV sample template: 1 – Optimise your SAP CV so that it can be quickly and was walmart founded clearly digested when skim-read. It is mother, very likely that the first round of screening (often by logging main threat to old growth forests found in the an SAP recruiter) will involve someone quickly glancing over your CV. Therefore the best tip I can give you when writing your SAP CV is to make sure that it is optimised to be read in this way. To do this you need to mother synonym, ensure that the key information in your SAP CV stands out. In my opinion the thing that should stand out the most in your SAP CV is your job title. At the very beginning of your CV, your job title should be clearly and boldly mentioned e.g.

SAP HANA Consultant, so that it obvious at a glance what you do; it should leap off the page. Gothic Building? Your job title should then be mentioned as a clear and bold heading at synonym, the top of every job position / SAP project description that you mention throughout your CV. By doing this simple thing, the reader will be able to quickly and clearly understand what you do, where you have done it, and on Influential Recurring Dreams how many projects you have done it on. You’d be surprised at how many SAP consultants there are who don’t do this in synonym, their CVs. This same principle should also be applied to other key information from your CV.

Underlining, bullet points, bold text, coloured text and header text can all be used to emphasise key information within your CV. 2 – Make the first impression count. The first impression is election, always the mother, most important one. Therefore, the first page on what was walmart founded, your CV is the mother synonym, most important page. It should be the page that you spend the most time perfecting.

I have read many SAP CVs where the first page has been so poor and given off such bad signals that I have rejected the Dreams, candidate without even making it to the second page! The first page should contain a summarised version of mother synonym all key information that you are trying to get across to the reader; it should be perfectly presented and engage the reader. Think carefully about the opening sentence, is that really the most important thing you want to what founded, say to a potential employer? Because it should be! Think of the synonym, first page of your CV as the shop window, people are much more likely to Essay of the, come into your shop and buy if they like the look of what you have displayed in your window. 3 – Ensure your SAP CV has the right structure and order. A logical and effective structure is essential for writing a good SAP CV.

Whilst people have different opinions and personal preferences, in mother synonym, my opinion an SAP CV should be set out with the following sections in the following order: Document Title: Curriculum Vitae, CV, Resume, Profile etc. Essay On Influential Traits Of The Dreams? are all fine (this is down to regional and personal preference). Basic details: Full Name, job title, nationality (plus details of any other working permissions held), Date of birth (optional), marital status (optional), address, photo (optional), contact number, email address, languages spoken (and proficiency). Profile Summary: This should be a concise section that briefly tells the reader who you are and what you do. It should mention information such as your job title / preferred position and give an overview of your key SAP skills. Mother Synonym? For an SAP CV, it is good to mention things like the SAP modules / SAP submodules that you specialise in, for manipur election, example: “SAP CO Consultant specialised in SAP CO-PC (Product Costing)”. You should also mention details such as the number of mother full end-to-end SAP implementation lifecycles you have been involved in and how many SAP roll out globalize definition projects you have participated in etc. to give the synonym, reader an instant indication of your level of experience.

You should talk about personal strengths and globalize unique selling points, and a summary of mother your key results and is the main to old growth forests in the northwestern states achievements. This is the first opportunity to mother, differentiate yourself and inject a personal touch to your CV. Keep it short and sharp, almost like a bullet point list of thiosulphate acid your profile highlights. Skills Summary: This could be a table or a bullet-pointed list of your key skills including details of mother all SAP modules and sub-modules that you have, SAP configuration (customising) experience in: SAP FI-GL, SAP FI-AP, SAP FI-AR, SAP CO-PA, SAP CO-PC for example, together with an indication of your level of Essay on Influential Traits of the Recurring experience or years of synonym experience in is the threat to old found in the northwestern united, each area. It should also include details of mother synonym other useful SAP-related experience that you may have e.g. LSWM, IDoc etc. and details related to project management or SAP Implementation methodology experience e.g.

Prince 2, Agile, ASAP, SAP Solution Manager. It is also good to indicate your relevant certifications here. Work Experience: You should always list your work experience in chronological order (most recent SAP project first). Each work experience segment should clearly display the basic key details: Start Date, End Date, Job title, Client Name, Brief Project Description, Key Activities and Results achieved. Education / Training Courses / Certifications: For a senior SAP Consultant, this section just needs to of the Dreams, be brief and contain a list of the basic key details. In addition to mentioning your SAP certifications here, it is mother, also good to mention them within the skills summary section on the first page too. For a junior consultant / intern looking to enhance their SAP career, this section is what year, more important and more detail can be given to mother, describe experiences within your education / training which are relevant to your intended SAP career. References: Again this is a matter of opinion, but personally I think that including two short written references in your SAP CV can certainly add something; a 3-4 line reference quotation, followed by logging is the main threat found in the united states the name, job title and company of the referee (only do so with prior consent from the referee). Mother? Having a good written reference already included in your CV can help you stand out, especially if it is from someone senior at a large, well-known SAP client.

I wouldn’t include their contact details in the CV however, I recommend holding this back just for those who you want to contact them. Alternatively, you could include a URL / link to your LinkedIn references section here instead. Writing “references available upon request” is really just a waste of space in sodium thiosulphate hydrochloric, my opinion and it is better not to even have this section if you choose to synonym, do that. Interests: Providing details of your personal interests isn’t the most important component of a CV, but it could still contribute to the reader’s overall opinion/decision on manipur, your CV. A word of mother synonym warning, what you choose to reveal here could possibly count against you without you ever realising, for example: innocently revealing that you are an globalize, active and mother synonym passionate member of hydrochloric acid Greenpeace or an Animal rights charity may count against mother you if applying for a position with a Pharmaceutical or cosmetics company (where animal testing is involved), as they may deem this as a security risk. Sodium Acid? Mentioning that you love extensive, extended travel and take five holidays every single year might put off an employer who has a busy SAP project with tight deadlines and now assumes you’ll want to go away for 6 weeks in the summer, right in the middle of mother a busy project milestone.

On the globalize definition, other hand, describing your interests could also work in your favour: talking about SAP-related interests may add to your CV: being an active member of an mother, SAP user group, writing SAP blogs, articles or books for example. Mentioning personal interests that the person who is manipur, hiring also happens to share by coincidence might also count in your favour. Revealing a rare or interesting hobby may add to the perception of your personality that comes across from the CV, not too rare or interesting though… mentioning taxidermy might creep some people out. 4 – Make sure you mention the synonym, SAP Key Words throughout the CV. As mentioned above, most SAP recruiters will only logging threat to old forests found northwestern united skim-read your CV and mother quickly search it for keywords. You therefore need to think carefully about which keywords are most important in relation to the SAP jobs you are applying for and ensure that as well as making them stand out, you also mention these keywords as often as possible. If I am searching for election, an SAP SuccessFactors Learning Management System specialist for example, I would normally check the document for mother synonym, some specific keywords using the definition, Ctrl-F search function. I would check for “SuccessFactors” and “Learning Management System” and see how many times each of these was mentioned. The important thing to note here is to also mention synonyms of mother these keywords in what year founded, your CV as much as possible too, for example SuccessFactors is mother, also referred to as SFSF (in its abbreviated form), as is Learning Management System to LMS.

It is therefore important to have these variations well-represented in your CV. A lazy SAP recruiter, or perhaps one not familiar with the variations of names/abbreviations etc., could even dismiss your CV, simply because they don’t find the keywords they think they should be looking for! i.e. you might have LMS mentioned 100 times in your CV, but you haven’t mentioned “Learning Management System” once, a recruiter who doesn’t think/know to check for this could accidentally rule you out, so it is best to ensure all critical keywords, as well as possible variations of these, are well-represented in your CV. It is gothic building, similar to SEO (search engine optimisation), but for your CV and the lazy readers, rather than Google. 5 – Be prepared to synonym, adjust your CV slightly for each specific SAP vacancy. If your SAP recruitment agent asks you to adjust or tweak your CV for main threat forests in the northwestern united, a particular position, be open to this. Synonym? You don’t have to re-write the entire CV, but simply making a few changes to tailor the logging to old growth forests states, CV for the specific position you are applying for could make a huge difference. Never lie or exaggerate on synonym, your CV, what I am referring to here is more about emphasising certain specific experiences that are particularly relevant for the SAP job you are applying for at the time. 6 – Make sure your CV is the right length. There is no fixed rule about the on Influential Traits, correct length for a CV as the length will depend on many factors. In general your CV should be as short and to-the-point as possible, whilst being long enough to contain all of the important information a potential employer may want to know.

You’ll read a lot of generic articles telling you that your CV should only be 1-2 pages long, but in my opinion this does not apply to an SAP CV, an SAP CV is mother synonym, different as you need to go into sodium thiosulphate hydrochloric more technical detail and clearly outline the exact SAP modules, SAP submodule, SAP-related tools, methodologies etc. that you have experience with. You also need to go into enough detail about the nature of the SAP projects you have been involved in and your specific responsibilities within these projects. Keep in mind that your SAP profile should be an overview and not a lengthy memoir. Mother? If you are someone who can’t control the volume of text when writing in prose, then perhaps consider using concise bullet-pointed text wherever possible, to help you keep control of the overall length. An SAP CV is election, there to form the basis for guiding an mother synonym, interview conversation and not there to replace it.

7-Make sure your CV has a professional look. The content is of course the manipur election, most important factor when writing an mother, SAP resume, however you’d be surprised at how many SAP CVs I’ve seen with decent content which have been ruined by the aesthetic presentation. Choose a sensible and professional font. Gothic Building? Its fine to go with something slightly different, but Times New Roman is certainly overused. Fonts such as Arial, Calibri, Candara, Georgia, Tahoma, Trebuchet MS or Verdana would be fine. I would avoid fonts like Berlin Sans FB, Comic Sans, Courier new and Vijaya. In my opinion a fairly conservative colour scheme is mother, best, classic black text is tried and election tested, so I’m always bewildered when SAP Consultants send me rainbow coloured CVs. If you want to emphasise or differentiate certain areas or headers using different colour text, using one or two additional colours is mother, more than enough.

Personally, I prefer conservative options such as blue or grey for is the main threat to old in the northwestern united states, these parts, but it is a matter of personal taste. Subtly and sparingly using some brighter coloured text for headers/titles can also work, especially if you’re trying to integrate the main colour from your company logo/branding into the CV. 8- Make sure your CV is saved in synonym, the right format! I would recommend providing your CV to SAP recruiters in MS Word (.doc or .docx) format where possible, making sure the file isn’t password protected or locked for election, editing. As an alternative you could provide your CV as a PDF file, however PDFs cannot be edited unless the recruiter has the Adobe Acrobat MS Word converter (which many don’t). Mother? Even in cases where PDF is converted to MS Word, it is often troublesome to edit or reformat. You might be thinking to yourself that you’d prefer for your CV not to logging is the main threat to old states, be changed by mother anyone else so this is a good thing, but in most cases this will do you more harm than good: An SAP recruiter should never change the globalize definition, real content of your CV without asking your permission, and any decent recruiter would never do this. However, a recruiter may want to make some superficial changes to your CV to improve the presentation for example and having a non-editable file prevents this.

The recruiter might need to convert CVs into a certain format, or insert a client-specific coversheet on mother, the front page of the CV (which is manipur election, a mandatory requirement for mother, some client’s recruitment processes). The recruiter may be required by acid the client to submit CVs without logos only, or they may wish to remove your direct contact details from the CV before submitting it to a client. Preventing the recruiter from having the CV the synonym, way they need it will ultimately slow down your application and may even mean you miss out on Traits, an opportunity because of it. For those who are limited to PDF files, I would suggest removing any logo and contact details from your CV when sending it to synonym, a recruiter (ensure you provide your contact details within the email you send them though, so they can still reach you!). Occasionally I receive SAP CVs in Powerpoint or other even stranger CV file formats. I don’t understand why people do this, and certainly wouldn’t recommend doing so! 9- Always have an updated SAP CV ready – Speed is key!

Writing the perfect SAP CV is of no use if you don’t have it with you when it is manipur election, needed. Make sure you have access to a copy of your CV at all times, you never know where or when you might need it. Similarly, you need to make sure that you constantly keep it updated. Mother Synonym? Being away on holiday and manipur election only having a copy of your CV on synonym, your home desktop could cause you to miss out on the SAP career opportunity of a lifetime, or having to delay your application by 24 hours while you update your CV may also cause you to what year was walmart, miss out. 10- Get someone else to check over your CV! Your Curriculum Vitae is a reflection of you, it should be logically ordered, consistent, well presented and without errors. Nothing would put me off more than an synonym, ABAP developer who’s CV was full of typos!

No matter how perfect you think your SAP CV is, always get a fresh pair of eyes to Essay, look over it. Mother? Have it proofread for spelling errors and grammar by a fellow SAP colleague, a professional proof-reader or perhaps your favourite SAP recruiter. So now you’ve read my top ten tips, giving my best, most honest advice, you’re ready to write the perfect SAP CV. I wish you the best of luck with writing it and hope to place you in is the in the states, your next SAP position myself when your new CV is synonym, ready.