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Nov 17, 2017 Software Program Piracy Essay,
How You Can Make Homework Easier for Piracy Students. A Social? this post was sponsored by itslearning, but the opinions are my own. Software Program Essay? When I started teaching, homework always involved papera worksheet, a poster, a written essay, or something else like that. Fort Wilderness? The problems associated with that approach were endless, including that students couldn#8217;t find the assignment, lost their notes, wrote the Program Piracy Essay assignment down wrong, left their notebook where they weren#8217;t so couldn#8217;t do it, the dog ate it. Even if they did it on a computer, I remember numerous before-school visits from students to thematic use my printer because theirs was broken, out of Program Piracy Essay inkadd your own dilemma to this list. Most of analyze communication. these reasons were true and Software Piracy Essay, I did feel for the students, but the construct end result was always the Program Piracy same: The student didn#8217;t get the benefit of castles the middle age what s/he would have learned from the Program Essay homework. Wilderness The Patriot? It didn#8217;t stop there. Piracy Essay? Because students couldn#8217;t access school-based materials at home (for reasons like no internet or no digital device), I had to assign homework that could be completed without school resources, by themselves. Group projects were nice, but getting everyone in the same library or house meant parents driving, schedules re-arranged, and is stem research ethical, time that could have been spent on learning was spent on making arrangements.
It seemed my biggest challengeas well as my studentswas managing workflow. Program? Thanks to a social Learning Management Systems, that#8217;s changed. Piracy? An LMS (Learning Management System) is a software application for the cherry orchard characters enhancing student performance by improving teaching and Software Piracy Essay, learning processes . It is sometimes known as a Course Management System, Virtual Learning System, and alec and tess chase, other names, but always infers a digitally-based system that provides an Software Piracy, education portal for ethical classwork and homework. Software Essay? The best emphasis the human connection, making it the heart of the education process.Features may include: Features may include: attendance calendar of events and and tess, due dates collaboration among students on Program projects and classwork differentiation for of effective unique student needs, meaning teachers can assign work based on student needto the entire class, a small group, or an individual digital communication (such as email, messaging, discussion boards, and/or forums) for Software Program Piracy real-time feedback on The American Hustle homework gradebook homework download, upload, and commenting integrated partner resources such as Google Apps and Khan Academy involvement of Essay all stakeholders in student learning including other teachers (outside of the one class) and parents quizzes and a social construct, polls resource library of teacher-generated materials, but also open-source educational content statistical evaluation of Piracy Essay student progress student tools such as their profile page and the effects communication., tracking of their work teacher ability to maintain a class roster, track student progress and submittals, evaluate class learning, and Piracy Essay, more whiteboard. Be aware: There are over the effects communication. 500 LMSs, varying from free Open Source to fee-based proprietary. There is Software Piracy great variety on what they offer so do your research before selecting one. Characters? How to decide which LMS works best for Software Program Piracy you. Cell? Here are five factors to consider as you establish your class or school LMS: cost : What#8217;s your budget?
Must you pay for Software Piracy bundled features you don#8217;t need? integrates with your existing system : Will it work with your favorite gradebook or math program? Find out. The American Essay? Often developers have ways to adapt to Program Essay the most popular partner sites. Research? intuitiveness : How easy is the Software LMS to alec use? If it isn#8217;t intuitive, do you have the personnel, funding, and time to train students and Software Piracy Essay, faculty to use the analyze LMS well enough to Software Program Essay achieve the message goals you wish to Piracy get? privacy: How secure is the from age site? What is the Software Program provider#8217;s record in the effects, this area? reliability : Is the LMS always up? There#8217;s nothing worse than assigning homework that students can#8217;t access because the Software Program LMS is down. A Social? Ask this question, and Software Program Piracy Essay, then verify the of effective answer. training : How much training is required for IT folks to Software keep the LMS up and running?
How much ongoing maintenance and thematic, support is Program Piracy required? The most popular reason for the cherry orchard using an LMS is to provide a blend of Software Program Piracy technology and castles from the middle age, traditional resources in class lessons. Essay? Without a central collection point for links, online websites, images, PDF, and communication., anything else digital, students have too many separate locations to visit when completing each lesson. Providing one-stop-shopping for all lesson materialsan LMSjust makes sense. Students access them from the Program Piracy security of a school portal and cell research, then submit homework the same way. No need for anything fancy, complicated, or expensive. Second: Paper-free classrooms are more and more popular. Program? Without a centralized, reliable LMS to the cherry orchard provide ways to Piracy Essay upload and The American Hustle Essay, organize all that material that used to be paper, that goal is daunting.
Many LMSs provide options for uploading worksheets and Software Program Piracy, images, annotating online materials, grading and commenting within the site. When it#8217;s time to thematic submit homework, students avoid all of the Software Program Piracy issues that normally defeat paper homework and a social construct, simply complete the work online (or upload a completed project) and then press Submit . Third : What#8217;s becoming popular is Software Essay using online LMSs to Essay replace days lost through snow days (or substitutes) . Teachers upload class materials to Program Essay the LMS, provide an introductory video to tell students what is expected of message them, and then students spend their day completing the Essay work. The American? When they finish, they submit it through the same portal. The teacher#8217;s dashboard tells them the Software Program Piracy Essay homework has arrived and the student is done for gender the day. This is Piracy popular in colleges, but is moving to the lower school classrooms to address the varied needs of is stem cell research all learners. Software Program Piracy Essay? You#8217;ve made your selection; now what? After making your selection, take time to from acquaint yourself, colleagues, and students with this program. Too many times, during teacher training classes I teach and coaching sessions I moderate, educators complain, #8220;We have an LMS, but I don#8217;t use it.#8221; Why?
See if these reasons sound familiar: I don#8217;t understand it. It seems more work than it#8217;s worth. I have to Piracy train students and I don#8217;t have time for analyze that. Everyone in my school uses a different LMS so students are confused. Roll out a new LMS by Software Piracy Essay training teachers. Then, retrain, answer questions, train some more, model its use, and throw in age, more training. Get teachers comfortable. Piracy? No matter how intuitive, teachers will stick with what they know until the LMS proves it will save time and improve teaching. Thematic? What does a typical homework assignment look like in Piracy Essay, an LMS school? Take a peak: Students access their homework by clicking on gender it in Program Piracy Essay, their calendar tool or personal dashboard.
Students access all required homework resources within the LMS (no other sites or links required). The teacher uploaded everything necessary from videos to documents, PDFs, links, images, and files and pushed it out to fort the patriot students. Program Piracy? Sometimes, to everyone; sometimes, differentiated for student needs. Students collaborate with classmates on and tess chase certain assignments via a Discussion Board or a chat function. Students ask clarifying questions as necessary via a built-in email or chat function. Students complete the Piracy homework. Wilderness The Patriot? This might be within the Program Piracy LMS or by using dedicated tools (like Khan Academy) that automatically import the the effects communication. data to Program the LMS. Fort Wilderness The Patriot? Students submit their homework to Program the teacher from the LMS and the effects communication., receive comments, grades, or feedback in their student dashboard. Software Program Essay? Does this sound futuristic? It#8217;s not. Using LMSs like itslearning, it#8217;s happening all over the world as teachers take advantage of the LMS learning environment.
Before you select one, check it out thoroughly so you pick the one best suited to your needs. Jacqui Murray has been teaching K-8 technology for from 15 years. Piracy? She is the thematic editor/author of over a hundred tech ed resources including a K-8 technology curriculum, K-8 keyboard curriculum, K-8 Digital Citizenship curriculum. She is an adjunct professor in Program, tech ed, CSG Master Teacher, webmaster for analyze communication. four blogs, an Amazon Vine Voice book reviewer, CAEP reviewer, CSTA presentation reviewer, freelance journalist on Software Piracy Essay tech ed topics, a weekly contributor to is stem research ethical TeachHUB, and Software, author of the tech thrillers, To Hunt a Sub and Twenty-four Days (a tech thriller). You can find her resources at Structured Learning. LMS software has many useful features, it helps learning and chase, teaching easier and Program Essay, more effective. Construct? The learning data is also stored without losing.
Thanks for sharing the Program information. Fort Wilderness? That #8216;stored without losing#8217; is Program such a big deal in schools. Now it#8217;s just remembering the passwords! Hello there! We are a group of message tech ed teachers who work together to offer you tech tips, advice, pedagogic discussion, lesson plans, and anything else we can think of to Software Program Essay help you integrate tech into thematic message your classroom.
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Nov 17, 2017 Software Program Piracy Essay,
medieval women essay A Case Study of Medieval Japan through Art: Samurai Life in Medieval Japan. Medieval Japan: An Introductory Essay. by Ethan Segal, Michigan State University. Medieval Japan may call to Software Essay mind honorable sword-wielding samurai and and tess in the, stealthy ninja assassins.
These figures, often seen in popular movies and games about pre-modern Japan, are only loosely based on reality. In fact, many different types of people helped shape the medieval period. Over 400 years, from the Software Piracy, late twelfth to in the the late sixteenth centuries, emperors and priests, women and merchants, poets and playwrights, and, of course, samurai created a complex yet fascinating society. Samurai governments administered the Software Essay, country in Hustle Essay tandem with the older imperial administration. Warriors’ rise to power led to Program Essay an increase in violence, and by the mid-fifteenth century, warfare was constant. But other aspects of society flourished in spite of the the cherry characters, breakdown in Program Piracy civil order.
Buddhism enjoyed the strong support of both samurai and commoners. The Cherry Orchard! Such new cultural traditions as the tea ceremony became popular. The arrival of Europeans in the sixteenth century forced the Japanese to Software Essay change their view of the thematic, world. The term medieval may seem curious, since it was originally applied to European history. It described a “middle” period between the Software Program Essay, fall of the the cherry orchard, Roman Empire and the start of the Renaissance. During this period, central government was weak and society was divided among feudal rulers.
Sixteenth-century Japan was divided among warlords known as daimy#333; , and Program Piracy Essay, Europeans who visited Japan at that time felt it resembled medieval Europe. Early twentieth-century Japanese scholars also saw these similarities. They adopted the term medieval to describe the period when Japanese imperial authority was weak and warriors played an gender a social construct important role in governing society. These were the years of Japan’s first two warrior governments: the Piracy, Kamakura (1185-1333) and the Muromachi (1336-1573) shogunates. What were those warriors like? What roles did they play in and tess Japanese history? To answer these questions, we must turn to Software Program Piracy the creation of thematic, Japan’s first warrior government in the 1180s. As late as the 1170s, no one could have guessed that warriors led by the Minamoto clan were about to establish an independent government. Most warriors served as middle-level officials in Software the provinces, working as managers on government-owned public lands or on private estates ( sh#333;en ). Hustle! They owed their positions to central government aristocrats and powerful temples.
If a warrior disobeyed his superiors, he would be labeled a rebel and his lands given to Program Piracy rivals. Thus, for most of the twelfth century, imperial officials controlled the warriors. By 1179, Kiyomori had made himself a virtual dictator. In 1180 he forced the gender a social, imperial court to make his grandson (the child of his daughter who had married an emperor) the next emperor. That same year, a disgruntled imperial prince, upset that he had been passed over for the throne, issued a call-to-arms. Yoritomo, exiled head of the Minamoto clan (and now an adult), mobilized warriors to join him in attacking the Taira. The Minamoto and Taira fought the Piracy, length of the country for five years in a conflict known as the Genpei War. When the thematic message, Taira were finally defeated, Yoritomo went on Program Piracy Essay to found Japan’s first warrior government. The real significance of the war, however, was the warriors’ first steps toward independence from the orchard, imperial government.
Yoritomo convinced many eastern warriors to follow him by promising to guarantee their lands and jobs. As a result, warriors who felt insecure under the old system chose to join the Program, Minamoto, even if they were not actually part of the Minamoto clan. In many cases, their local rivals joined the Taira side (even though they weren’t members of the Taira family) just to oppose them. So the Genpei War was, more than anything, about warriors asserting themselves against is stem research neighbors and the central government. The imperial court, at a loss to stop such violence, turned to the only warrior capable of restoring peace: Yoritomo. In exchange for helping to bring order to the countryside, Yoritomo secured authorization for his own warrior government in the eastern city of Kamakura. His government is Program Piracy, known as the Kamakura bakufu or shogunate. Its primary duties included supervising warriors and deciding lawsuits.
Yoritomo rewarded loyal warriors by appointing them as jit#333; (military land stewards) on private estates. These jit#333; served as police and the cherry, tax collectors. While jit#333; worked on individual estates, Yoritomo later began appointing other warriors as shugo (military governors) over entire provinces. Shugo investigated major crimes (such as murder or treason), summoned warriors for Piracy Essay, guard duty, and collected information for Kamakura. Yoritomo himself held several titles, including shogun. Later that title would be passed on to the head of the warrior government. Of Effective Communication.! When Yoritomo died in 1199, his sons succeeded him, but they proved to be weak leaders. Real power was maintained by the family of Yoritomo’s wife, H#333;j#333; Masako. Together with her father and brother, Masako created the position of regent for the shogun. Program Piracy! Male members of the H#333;j#333; family served as regents from 1203 until 1333.
Masako herself was never regent, but she was a very influential person wielded much authority in Kamakura. For much of the thirteenth century, the Kamakura government kept the peace. It never eliminated the imperial government in Kyoto, but instead shared power. Kamakura managed warrior affairs while Kyoto supervised the aristocracy, temples, and civilians. The bakufu also created an advanced legal system. Trials relied on testimony, cross-examination, written documents, and precedent. Outcomes could be appealed. Although it was a warrior government, great energy went into keeping warriors off the battlefield.
In 1221, however, a retired emperor tried to muster an army to destroy Kamakura. His forces were defeated and he was exiled, leaving the warrior government even stronger. Another threat came in the late 1260s, when the Mongol leader Kubilai Khan tried to intimidate the Japanese into submitting to his empire. Japan’s warriors rejected Kubilai’s diplomatic efforts, so Mongol-led armies attempted to invade Japan in message 1274 and 1281. In each case, samurai defenders fought off the invaders with some help from typhoons. Because the Japanese believed the bad weather was sent by the gods to defend Japan, they called those storms kamikaze (divine winds).
Samurai of the Kamakura Period. Medieval war tales and other accounts tell us a lot about the early samurai. Program Essay! Leading warriors were usually mounted archers. Orchard Characters! Although they carried swords, they valued the bow and arrow over Piracy, other weapons. These samurai were quite independent.
They supplied their own weapons, armor, provisions, and attendants. Thematic Message! There was no “samurai code” at this time, and you can find tales of bravery as well as treachery among Kamakura warriors. Many fought in order to earn fame and rewards. For that reason, they often wore distinctiveeven colorfularmor and Software Piracy, clothing to gender enable others to Software Piracy Essay easily recognize them. Warriors were witnesses for each other so that reports of battlefield valor could be confirmed and brave warriors rewarded.
Consider, for example, the personal account of Takezaki Suenaga, a samurai who fought against The American Hustle Essay the Mongols. In his version of events, he makes no mention of fighting to defend Japan. Instead, he fought to Essay make a name for himself, be witnessed, and construct, earn rewards. Since most battles were fought between Japanese, it was relatively easy to reward the winnersthey would receive the property or positions of the losers. But the Mongol invasions proved much more challenging. Kamakura’s samurai fought off the invaders, but they did not capture any Mongol lands they could claim as rewards. Meanwhile, the Software Program Piracy, economy started to expand, and many warriors found themselves in financial difficulties. Some had to use their lands as collateral to borrow money.
If they failed to the cherry orchard repay loans, they had to forfeit their property. At the same time, the H#333;j#333; family took advantage of the Essay, invasion crisis to further solidify its own hold on a social government, excluding members of other warrior families from top positions. These problems led many samurai to become increasingly frustrated with Kamakura by the early fourteenth century. New Directions in Buddhism. Religion underwent significant growth and change during Japan’s medieval period. The major Buddhist temples and Software Program, Shint#333; shrines controlled estates in is stem ethical the provinces. In earlier times, they relied on Program Piracy the taxes from those estates for much of their income.
Samurai, however, started interfering with temples’ ability to collect tax income. As estate taxes became increasingly unreliable, religious houses needed to find additional sources of the effects of effective, income. Some sects, such as Pure Land Buddhism, found new ways to appeal to the common people. Others, such as Zen, gained popularity among the warriors. Of course, religious thought also played an Program Essay important role in the evolution of Japanese Buddhism. Alec In The Chase! Many people believed in the cycle of rebirth (reincarnation) as a form of cosmic justice. Depending on how you had lived your previous life, your soul might be reborn into better or worse circumstances. The goal was for each person to attain enlightenment ( nirvana ) and be freed from the cycle of rebirth. Software Program! However, another influential idea was that Japan had entered mapp#333; , the final days of the law. Mapp#333; was a degenerate age in which the teachings of the historical Buddha were so distant that people were no longer able to fully comprehend them. Therefore, it was almost impossible for message, individuals to achieve enlightenment on Program Piracy their own.
For many Japanese, medieval warfare and the breakdown of civil order were proof that they were living in degenerate times. One response was Pure Land Buddhism. Pure Land came from the teachings of a religious reformer named H#333;nen. Unlike the Buddhist establishment, H#333;nen saw little value to study in the age of mapp#333; . The Effects Of Effective Communication.! He taught his followers to place complete faith in the Buddha Amida. Program Piracy Essay! Amida had vowed to save others before achieving enlightenment. Thus, Pure Land practitioners believed that by repeatedly expressing their faith in him, they would be reborn into Amida’s western paradise. Anyone could say the thematic message, phrase (known as the nembutsu ) that professed beliefyears of training were not requiredso Pure Land became quite popular among common people. Program Essay! Shinran, one of the cherry orchard characters, H#333;nen’s students, took this logic a step further. He claimed that repeating the nembutsu was unnecessary, since that still meant that salvation depended on individual effort. True faith in Amida’s mercy was the only hope for mankind. Therefore, according to Shinran, one absolutely sincere expression of belief was all that was necessary.
His teachings became True Pure Land Buddhism and gained widespread acceptance, especially among the peasantry. Nichiren was another important Buddhist who taught that salvation came through faith. Program! A nationalist, he taught that, although Buddhism had originated in India, it would achieve its highest form in the cherry orchard characters Japan. He valued the Lotus Sutra above all other Buddhist scriptures. Nichiren openly criticized other Buddhist schools and was very dogmatic; this led to his eventual exile. But his conviction won him followers, and his sect remains popular in Japan even today. Zen Buddhism also won acceptance in Japan during the medieval period.
It was based on Chinese Ch’an Buddhism, and Piracy Essay, the great Japanese Zen priests Eisai and message, D#333;gen both trained in China. The faith they brought back to Japan promoted meditation ( zazen ) and the contemplation of Program Essay, questions with no logical answers ( k#333;an ) as paths to The American Hustle enlightenment. The emphasis on self-reliance and discipline appealed to many warriors, and the samurai became some of Zen’s most loyal patrons. The warrior capital of Kamakura contained many Buddhist temples, some of which still stand today. A major shrine, dedicated to the Shint#333; war deity, was built at the heart of the city. Numerous Zen temples were constructed during the thirteenth century.
Women were just as involved as men, and one famous temple, T#333;keiji, became a site of Software Program Piracy, refuge for women seeking divorces. The proliferation of temples reflected sincere religious devotion, but the dedication in 1252 of thematic, a bronze Buddha figure over 40 feet high was surely also intended to rival the great Buddha at T#333;daiji Temple in Nara. Essay! The building that housed the Kamakura Buddha was swept away by a tidal wave in the late fifteenth century, but the bronze figure remains, sitting outside ever since. Poetry remained the most important literary form. Members of the imperial court were the best educated and most skilled, but samurai also began to take an interest. The third shogun, Sanetomo, was considered a very skillful poet. Analyze The Effects Of Effective! His teacher, the courtier Fujiwara Teika, compiled one of Japan’s greatest imperial poetry collections, the Shinkokinsh#363; . Prose literary works reflected the Buddhist influence of the medieval age. The Tale of the Heike was the most popular. It described the Software Piracy, Genpei War and the Taira clan’s downfall. Its stories are quite exciting and seem to offer an of effective intriguing view of twelfth-century warfare.
But the tale cannot be read as an accurate account of the war. Buddhist chanters composed the tale many decades after the war had ended. Software! They sang it as they played biwa (stringed instruments similar to thematic message lutes) to Program Essay illustrate Buddhist themes of impermanence and show how the mighty will fall. Similar themes can be found in Kamo no Ch#333;mei’s philosophical essay, “An Account of My Hut.” Few works by The American Essay, women have survived. A notable exception is the memoir of Lady Nij#333;, a court attendant. Her work is lively, frank, colorful, and offers a valuable view of life in Kyoto and the provinces. Painting and sculpture reflected the influential roles of Buddhism and the samurai in society. Illustrated scrolls ( emaki ) used pictures to Software Program Piracy Essay show how temples were founded and how violent conflicts destroyed parts of The American Hustle Essay, Kyoto. Takezaki Suenaga, the samurai mentioned above who fought against the Mongols, even commissioned an illustrated scroll to tell his tale. Another important art form was raig#333; , paintings that showed Amida welcoming people who had just died to Software Piracy Essay his western paradise. The influential Kei school of sculptors used graphic realism in and tess chase their work.
Their famous guardians at Software Piracy T#333;daiji look quite intimidating, even hyper-masculine, with detailed bulging muscles, fierce expressions, and crystals set in the eyes to make them look real. Kamakura’s Demise and the Muromachi Bakufu. The Muromachi bakufu was never as stable as Kamakura had been. The shogun was not powerful enough to and tess chase rule the Program Piracy Essay, country by his own force of arms. Eastern Japan and the island of The American Essay, Ky#363;sh#363 were both semi-autonomous. The shogun’s authority was contingent on his maintaining the support of a strong coalition of shugo . These shugo were much more powerful than their Kamakura period predecessors.
Their posts were now hereditary, and one individual could rule more than one province at a time. They also had the right to levy special taxes on estates to cover their military expenditures. Three of the most powerful shugo familiesthe Hosokawa, Hatakeyama, and Software Program Piracy Essay, Shibaalternated in serving as deputy shogun ( kanrei ), a position designed to help mediate between the shogun and cell, his shugo . Yet the shugo needed the legitimacy that they gained from the shogun’s support to Piracy help them fend off local warriors in the provinces under their control. Yoshimitsu is widely recognized as the strongest and most successful Ashikaga shogun. He ended the warfare of the message, divided imperial court and Software Piracy, crushed those shugo who opposed him. He reopened diplomatic relations and official trade with China. Gender A Social Construct! Yoshimitsu was an accomplished poet and a great sponsor of the arts. His patronage of a particular performing troupe helped give birth to Noh theatre. He also is credited with constructing the Golden Pavilion, one of Japan’s most famous medieval buildings.
Yoshimitsu took it over as a retirement villa in the 1390s, covering it with real gold leaf (it is Software Piracy, part of a Zen temple today). His other great construction project, the Palace of Flowers, reflected Yoshimitsu’s ambitions to outdo, and perhaps replace, the ethical, emperor. The shogun’s palace was built across the Software Program Essay, street from the imperial palace but was twice as large and far more sumptuous. Perhaps Yoshimitsu’s most controversial decision was to construct accept the title “king of Software Program Piracy, Japan” from the Chinese emperor. In the Chinese view of foreign relations, only one ruler could have the title “emperor,” and that was the emperor of China. Other rulers had lesser titles, such as king. When Yoshimitsu attempted to re-establish formal relations and gender a social, trade with China, he agreed to take the Software Piracy, title king of Japan. Many Japanese of the time objected since it implied that Japan was subordinate to China. Yoshimitsu’s motives are not entirely clear.
Some suggest that he did this in order to bolster his legitimacy at home. Others think that he was so eager to trade with the Chinese that he ignored the political implications of the title. Another theory is that he hoped to monopolize foreign relations as part of his plan to replace the Japanese imperial family with his own line. Yoshimitsu died before he could realize any plans to replace the imperial family, and his son backed away from his father’s bold policies. But shogunal authority remained strong until 1441, when the cell ethical, sixth shogun, Yoshinori, was assassinated. Software Program Piracy! After Yoshinori, only the eighth shogun, Yoshimasa, stands out as a memorable figure.
He ruled for over 20 years and was a great sponsor of the arts, including Noh theatre and the tea ceremony. He built the Silver Pavilion, another important cultural property in Kyoto, but plans to cover the villa with silver leaf were never carried out. Yoshimasa may have matched his grandfather Yoshimitsu’s flair for architecture and the arts, but he lacked Yoshimitsu’s skill at the effects communication. politics. It was during Yoshimasa’s tenure as shogun that an 11-year civil war broke out, heralding the end of strong central government in Software Program Japan for over a century. Muromachi Arts and a social, Culture.
In earlier times, the arts were dominated by the emperor and his courtiers. This changed in the Muromachi period, however, as other groups brought new ideas to Piracy the cultural landscape. Many samurai, now living in Kyoto, developed a taste for the arts. Elite warriors joined aristocrats in sponsoring painters, playwrights, poets, and other men of gender a social, talent. The growth of trade and the economy enabled merchants to participate in the world of culture too. As the unstable political situation brought men of different classes together, aristocrats, warriors, and Software Essay, merchants interacted to create new cultural traditions. Previously unthinkable mixingsuch as a nobleman renowned for his calligraphy collaborating with a painter of humble originsled to some of the great art of the Muromachi period. Warriors, including the Ashikaga shoguns, became important patrons of the arts. They hosted lavish parties at Hustle which the attendees participated in linked verse poetry competitions or contests to distinguish among similar things ( monoawase ). Tea was also quite popular. Eisai, who founded an important Zen sect, is credited with having made tea popular in Japan.
By the fourteenth century, warriors were hosting tea parties in large banquet halls in order to display their prized Chinese tea implements. Merchants responded by favoring native Japanese wares. The grass-hut style of Program Piracy Essay, serving tea, which we associate with the tea ceremony, emerged in Hustle the fifteenth century. It is attributed to Murata Shuk#333;, who may have served tea for Ashikaga Yoshimasa. He and other late medieval tea masters emphasized simplicity, humility, and self-awareness. Properly serving tea demanded discipline and offered spiritual fulfillment, resembling Zen practices.
People began to speak of Software Piracy, a Way of Tea. The most famous master, Sen no Riky#363;, came from gender a merchant family but taught tea to the great warlord Toyotomi Hideyoshi. Riky#363; served tea in a small, rustic hut. The entranceway was purposefully tiny so that everyone, regardless of status, had to crawl inside. Essay! All participants were required to prepare and serve the Hustle, tea.
Riky#363;’s student, however, saw things differently. Eager to display his wealth and power, Hideyoshi had his own tea hut gilded in gold. Noh theater was another new cultural tradition that benefited from samurai patronage. It drew upon Program Piracy, many performing traditions, including court comics and peasant farm songs. In the late fourteenth century, Kan’ami’s troupe attracted the notice of Ashikaga Yoshimitsu. Kan’ami and his son, Ze’ami, became two of Noh’s most important playwrights. Noh performances incorporate spoken dialogue, dancing, and music. Few props are used. An actor might simply state that he is analyze communication., leaving for a long journey and, with a few stamps of his feet, quickly announce that he has arrived. Piracy! The plays generally illustrate such Buddhist themes as the dangers of pride or lingering attachment.
The main character might be a once-beautiful old woman who cannot forget her youth, or the ghost of The American Hustle, a warrior who cannot let go of Program Piracy, his military glory. Other plays centered on Buddhist priests overcoming demons. Thematic! Often several plays were performed over Piracy, the course of a full day, with short comic pieces called ky#333;gen staged between the major Noh plays. The Medieval Japanese Economy. The Japanese enjoyed a growing economy during the medieval period. Markets began to develop around the country. These were often at crossroads or near rivers so that sellers could easily bring their goods to the markets. They also were often located near temples in hopes of avoiding interference from political or military figures. In the Essay, Kamakura period, markets met infrequently.
For example, they might be opened only on days ending in Essay fours (i.e., the 4th, 14th, and 24th of the month) or another number. But over time, markets became increasingly common and the effects of effective, were open on more days of the month. Improvements in agriculture also contributed to the expanding economy. New strains of rice better resisted drought and disease. Improved fertilizers allowed double cropping of fields, and better irrigation techniques helped farmers produce more. In addition, the spread of metallic money made it easier for Program Piracy Essay, estates to sell extra produce in thematic the marketplaces. Essay! Starting in the twelfth century, Japanese began importing copper-alloy coins from China. The round coins had square holes in the middle so they could be strung together in units of 1,000 for large purchases. Metallic money had several advantages over alec and tess chase, rice, silk, or other goods the Japanese used as money in Heian times.
Coins were easier to transport, more durable, and rarely led to disputes over quality. By the Muromachi period, most urban residents used coins. Even many rural estates paid their taxes in cash. The Ashikaga shoguns’ desire for more coins played an Software Program Piracy Essay important role in is stem ethical the re-opening of formal relations with China in the fifteenth century. The Muromachi bakufu , and later several major temples and daimy#333; , sent merchant ships to China in hopes of Software Essay, obtaining copper coins. In exchange, the Japanese sold raw materials including lumber and sulfur, some finished art objects such as lacquerware, and swords and armor. Chinese officials regulated the trade by requiring Japanese boats to carry government-issued tallies; merchant vessels without the tallies were turned away from Chinese ports. On the whole, merchants did well during the medieval period.
The breakdown in central authority may have reduced the power of political authorities to the cherry orchard characters tax and Software Program Piracy, regulate them. In some cases, such as the city of Sakai, merchants were able to form their own communities and even enjoy a limited form of research ethical, self-government. Women’s Status in Medieval Japan. Over the course of the medieval period, women seem to have lost many rights. In ancient times, women served as rulers. By the Heian period, women had few official roles in Software Program government, but aristocratic women were educated, could own and manage property, and could choose their own heirs. Message! Married couples often lived at the home of the Software Essay, wife’s family or maintained two residences; the wife’s family usually helped raise the children. Female writers of the Heian period created some of pre-modern Japan’s greatest works of prose and message, poetry. But conditions gradually began to Software Essay change. In the early Kamakura period, women of samurai families held jit#333; posts. As violence became more common, however, women were no longer allowed to hold warrior posts or manage their own property.
And as land became increasingly difficult to acquire, families began bequeathing property to only one heir, usually the eldest son. Married women were expected to join the family of their husbands. Of Effective Communication.! Lady Nij#333;’s memoir from the early fourteenth century is one of the last important literary works by a woman of the Software Piracy, medieval period. Not even Buddhism offered much hope, since most Buddhist sects taught that women faced more obstacles to enlightenment than men. By the end of the medieval period, women retained almost none of the rights they had enjoyed earlier. The #332;nin War and the Age of Warring States. From 1467 to 1477, rival coalitions of powerful samurai fought in a protracted conflict known as the #332;nin War.
The violence began when leading shugo families supported different candidates to succeed Yoshimasa as shogun (as well as for some other important posts). The violence centered on Kyoto, and much of the a social construct, city was destroyed during the war. After some time, the issues became irrelevant, as seen by leading warrior families on each side switching to support other candidates. Yoshimasa felt that the shugo were beyond his control and, rather than make serious efforts to stop the conflict, he retired to his villa to enjoy the arts. Essay! The war solved nothing and left all central government institutions extremely weak. By the late fifteenth century, the shogun had little real power outside of the central Japanese provinces that he directly controlled. The last century of the Muromachi period, from the #332;nin War to 1573, is known as the Hustle Essay, Age of Warring States.
During this time, provincial and regional warlords known as daimy#333; dominated Japan. Software Program Piracy Essay! Some daimy#333; families had formerly been shugo , others had been lieutenants or deputies, and some were truly self-made men who had risen through the ranks. These new warlords differed from shugo in that they did not owe anything to the shogun or emperor. During the Warring States period, warlords could only claim authority over lands they could actually defend. They had to be continually vigilant against their neighbors as well as their subordinates.
The age is orchard characters, sometimes characterized by the term gekokuj#333; , which means the lower replacing the higher (or those of humble origins replacing their superiors). This period, perhaps more than any other, seemed to resemble the feudalism of medieval Europe. Central authority was weak and divided, men survived by strength of arms, and Software, warlords rewarded loyal samurai with appointments and lands. Portuguese sailors blown off course in gender a social construct the mid-sixteenth century were the first Europeans to set foot in Program Essay Japan. The Spanish soon followed, and eventually the Dutch and gender a social construct, the British found their way to Japan too. Software Piracy Essay! European merchants established a flourishing trade by buying and selling goods amongst the characters, various Asian nations. Software Piracy Essay! Missionaries also came to Japan, hoping to convert the of effective, Japanese to Christianity.
They enjoyed some success in the southwestern island of Ky#363;sh#363;, where a few daimy#333; became Catholic and ordered those living in their domains to convert as well. The Europeans were strange curiosities to the Japanese, and folding-screens of themknown as namban by#333;bu show them as Japanese artists saw them, with balloon pants, high frill collars, long noses, and people of color attending them as slaves. Christianity did not last in Japan. Opposition by Hideyoshi and Ieyasu (see below) led to Program the persecution and elimination of most Christians by the early seventeenth century. But the Europeans did affect Japanese society. Thematic! First, they introduced new shipbuilding techniques, firearms, eyeglasses, mechanical clocks, and other devices. Second, Europe’s existence forced the Japanese to change their view of the world. Software Program! Maps from the time reflect the shift from seeing a world including only Japan, China, and India to seeing one extending far beyond Asia. Third, interest in that world led Japanese merchants to begin trading in Southeast Asia. Some Japanese even emigrated, establishing communities in the Philippines, Cambodia, Siam (Thailand), and Annam (Vietnam). From Medieval to Early Modern Japan.
Three warlords succeeded in analyze communication. unifying the country and bringing an end to the violence of the Warring States period. Program Piracy Essay! They are often referred to as the “three unifiers”Oda Nobunaga, Toyotomi Hideyoshi, and Tokugawa Ieyasu. Nobunaga ruled a small domain in central Japan, but his brilliance as a strategist enabled him to defeat much larger armies. Essay! He was the first warlord to successfully use firearms to win a battle. His innovations in castle development also led to the emergence of Piracy Essay, grand Japanese castles, with stone ramparts, donjons (central structures), and more.
In 1573 he took Kyoto but kicked out the last Ashikaga shogun, bringing the Muromachi bakufu to an inglorious end. Many believe that only Nobunaga’s assassination at the hands of a vassal in 1582 kept him from bringing the whole country under his rule. Hideyoshi came from a peasant family, but rose through the ranks to become one of Nobunaga’s top generals. Characters! He avenged his lord’s death and finished the job of unifying the country. However, Hideyoshi did not succeed through force alone. He used marriage alliances, political treaties, and Program, other means to secure his position and bring peace to the country. Many of his policies paved the way for early modern growth and The American, stability. For example, he carried out new land surveys so that proper rates of taxation could be determined. He also ordered all peasants to Program Piracy Essay turn over their weapons, creating for the first time a sharp distinction between warriors and farmers. In his later years, Hideyoshi set out to conquer China. When the King of Korea refused to analyze of effective help him, Hideyoshi sent armies of Essay, samurai to invade Korea.
The result was the devastation of the Korean peninsula. Alec And Tess In The! The Japanese invasion was only called off upon Hideyoshi’s death in 1598. Ieyasu had been allied with each of the two previous unifiers, but his patience (and long life!) clearly proved a great asset. Software Program Piracy Essay! In 1600 he maneuvered warlords loyal to The American Essay Hideyoshi’s young son into Piracy, a major battle at Sekigahara. Ieyasu’s forces won that battle, making him the most powerful daimy#333; in Japan.
In 1603 he was proclaimed shogun and established the last of Japan’s major warrior governments, the the effects communication., Tokugawa (or Edo) bakufu . The unifiers’ policies, and the peace that followed in Software Program Essay the seventeenth century, led to profound changes in Japanese society and the start of what most scholars refer to as the early modern period. Copyright 2008 Program for thematic message, Teaching East Asia, University of Colorado. Permission is given to reproduce this essay for classroom use only. Other reproduction is Program, prohibited without written permission from the The American Hustle Essay, Program for Teaching East Asia.
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History Department – Essay Writing Guide. This guide is intended to provide you with information about the Program Piracy, skills of essay writing, including how and the cherry characters, when to use footnotes or endnotes, presentation requirements and Program Essay, how to reference different kinds of sources (books, articles or web pages, for instance) and in the, with more general advice about planning, introducing and developing your essays as coherent and effective arguments. The most important point to remember in working through this guide is that writing good essays and communicating your ideas effectively are skills you can learn, develop and build. One of the most important skills developed in an Arts degree is the Program Essay, ability to communicate your ideas in writing clearly and effectively. This involves numerous other skills, including the ability to summarise and paraphrase the work of other writers, the development of arguments and conclusions, and the effective use of evidence to support a case. Essay writing in History is particularly aimed at of effective helping you progressively develop your skills in research, analysing different forms of source material, using different kinds of evidence, and Software Program, writing strong, critical and clear arguments. In most History subjects, you will be asked to produce different kinds of writing. Short tutorial and document exercises usually address specific skills or tasks (locating sources, analysing a documents point of analyze of effective, view, or assessing how particular images or words help us understand historical context, for instance), while examinations assess your knowledge of the Program Piracy Essay, content covered in particular subjects. Essays provide you with an opportunity to explore a particular issue or theme in more depth. Gender? In general, the Software, functions of an essay are: to introduce an analyze of effective argument, or contention, based upon the question or problem you choose to tackle; to develop and defend that argument or contention by discussing and Piracy Essay, analysing a range of appropriate evidence, and by thematic critically assessing the interpretations of Program Piracy, other historians; and to propose conclusions.
The best essays have a clear line of argument, and they present a thesis. In other words, they state a position, defend that position, and arrive at strong, clear conclusions. They have a well-defined introduction which identifies the central problem or issue and introduces the argument, a body which logically develops the argument point-by-point, and a conclusion which sums up the argument. There are no simple instructions for good essay writing. In The? As you progress through your university course, you should be developing skills in research, analysis and communication which will not only allow you to write good essays, but to effectively communicate your ideas in other situations as well. The tutors assessment of your essays provides you with feedback on your progress in these different skills. The desired outcomes of essays in third-year subjects include formulating research projects and acquiring independent research skills; presenting a sustained argument, based mainly on substantial primary sources; placing secondary sources in their cultural, ideological and epistemological context by showing where they fit into the current state of historical knowledge; and greater awareness of the ongoing debates about the philosophy and practice of history.
The desired outcomes of essays in second-year subjects include developing skills in the use of Software Program Essay, bibliographies and other reference material, critical reading, putting more independent thought and reflection into and tess in the chase, essays; greater understanding of documentary criticism and interpretation, and the critical analysis of Software Piracy Essay, secondary interpretations by other historians. The desired outcomes of essays in first-year subjects include: helping you learn to argue your own position against other points of view; development of the conventions of good historical essay writing, such as rigorous documentation and footnoting; awareness of the variety of representations of the past; familiarity with the different ways historians use evidence; and the ability to recognise, analyse and summarise an historical argument. Do not assume that you should target your arguments for particular lecturers or tutors. For a start, your predictions may be inaccurate. Orchard? Moreover, arguing what you think you ought to argue is Program, a lot more complicated and a lot less interesting than arguing what you come to believe as you gather information, review different interpretations, and form your own perspectives on an issue or problem. Any teacher can tell you that some of the best essays they read develop arguments they don’t agree with at all, or arguments which challenge their own interpretations. Writing is easier if you imagine an audience: a person you want to convince of something, a person who wants to know about your ideas and perspectives. Your task, however, is not to tell your audience what they think, but to tell your audience what you think, and give them reasons and evidence which show why your conclusions are significant, interesting and thematic message, convincing. 3. Choosing and comprehending the question or topic. Choose a topic or question you find interesting and challenging: it is easier and much more enjoyable to develop and defend a strong argument on something which interests and intrigues you than on something you find boring or simple.
Writing is not the outcome or the finished product of Piracy Essay, learning: it is Hustle Essay, a vital part of learning. It is a way of Program Essay, sorting out and clarifying your interpretations, trying out construct your ideas, and discovering new ways of thinking about an issue. Think about the question or topic in these ways: what is the problem it suggests? what is the ‘angle’, the issue, which makes it interesting? what is my first reaction to the question: yes, no, maybe? do I agree or disagree with the contention or interpretation the topic suggests? what ideas and Software Program Piracy, issues can I explore by answering this question? is there a simple answer, or might it be more complex than it looks? what kinds of information is the question asking me to use? what themes can I explore? It is also important to is stem cell, look at the question and ask yourself: do I understand what the question or topic is asking me to Software Program, do? Have I interpreted the question correctly?
If you are not sure, or if you want to check that the approach you are taking does address the question, talk to your tutor. Essay topics are designed to draw on the subject content developed in lectures and tutorials, and on reading you have completed. Reading the the effects of effective, works of other historians, such as those suggested in reading lists, will help you see how others have approached that problem or issue. Historians often disagree on the importance or the meaning of events of evidence, or use different kinds of evidence to challenge and amend prior interpretations. They will take different approaches to the same question, and suggest different ways of examining an issue, be it gender relations in medieval Europe or the reasons for the collapse of the Soviet Union or the Software Piracy Essay, impact of colonial rule in India. Gender A Social Construct? What you will see, however, is that all of these writers state a position. They address a problem. Piracy Essay? They answer a real or implied question. You should trace their strategies for developing arguments and drawing conclusions.
As you do your introductory reading, review your lecture notes, and construct, read more widely, think about your point of view, your own position in relation to Program, other writers, and your own response to a problem. Characters? Examine and evaluate the Essay, evidence: what conclusions can you draw? Which interpretations do you think best fit the available evidence? Your interpretations and conclusions do not have to analyze of effective communication., be new to be original, challenging, and convincing. You should argue the case which you think emerges most clearly from the Piracy Essay, evidence and gender construct, from your critical review of other historians work. You’ve read the books and articles recommended in the handbook or by Program Piracy Essay your tutor. You’ve come up with some ideas about how you might approach the question, and you’ve got a pretty good idea about how other historians have interpreted the issues and addressed the is stem research, topic. You’ve collected some evidence from a range of different sources and you’ve tried mapping out some preliminary ideas and arguments on paper. You’ve looked again at the major themes of the subject and Software Program Piracy, thought about how you might address them in this essay. In order to plan your essay, you now need to come up with an argument, a point of view which will guide your writing towards a conclusion.
Would you agree with the argument that respect for the natural environment is a recent discovery for residents of Mars? Having read a variety of sources, you should be able to state your thesis (your answer) in a sentence or two. Yes, because prior to analyze, the environmental movements of the 1960s, the majority of Software Piracy, Martians were more interested in exploiting than respecting the natural environment. No, because Martians have persistently respected their version of the in the chase, natural environment, because natural environments are always viewed in a romanticised and Software Piracy, idealised form. No, it is difficult to draw a simple, general conclusion on this issue, as the evidence suggests that different groups of Martians have interpreted and viewed the ethical, environment very differently over time, and no clear trend is visible even now. When you begin planning your essay, you should always be able to state your thesis in a fairly straightforward way, based on your initial reading and research for the topic. This sentence or two states your case. Broadly, your essay is the Software Program Piracy Essay, exposition and defence of that case: it shows the cell research, reader how, and why, you have arrived at Program Piracy those conclusions. To write a good essay, you must first decide what your central argument is going to be, and then plan your essay to construct, develop that argument. Of course, as you write your first draft, you may find that the argument changes and develops in a direction you did not anticipate.
Few writers are completely sure of their final conclusions before they begin drafting: the Program Piracy Essay, task of writing down and defending the argument often reveals unanticipated problems, or challenges and changes your first thoughts, or leads you toward one interpretation more than another. Often, too, you might need to go back to your sources, read through some of your notes, or do some further reading to clarify and expand an emerging point. However, the basic thrust and content of your argument or thesis should be clear enough to allow you to plan the stages of your argument before you begin drafting. The American? Perhaps the Piracy Essay, single best way of the effects, ensuring a successful essay is Piracy, having a good plan . The plan should lay out your argument, for instance in point form, and you can also use it to the cherry orchard, indicate where you will use certain items of Software Piracy, evidence and supporting arguments. introduction: state the case for no: Martians have persistently respected their version of the natural environment, because natural environments are always viewed in orchard characters a romanticised and idealised form explain the Piracy, thrust of the argument : dispute recent discovery, my essay focuses on previous century to show that respect for environment is always based on historically variable assumptions and preconceptions about the effects, beauty, usefulness and worth of nature explain idealisation/romanticisation of the natural environment (summarise Smith’s theory of idealisation, discuss paintings, use examples from Connor and Jones) list and give examples of different idealisations of natural environment in the nineteenth century and show different assumptions about beauty and usefulness behind each one (use examples from Software Program Piracy Essay, Green and cell research ethical, Brown) show how these different ideals were sometimes contradictory or came into conflict (use example of forestry in Program Mars Forest) case study: the Martian garden legend (discuss the garden stories); argue that an environment under exploitation also increasingly romanticised (review the different interpretations of Green and construct, Red, show why I think Green fits better with the evidence) summarise above points about previous century; what is Piracy, respected in the recent past: argue that this is another idealisation (evidence: Martian tourist brochures); conclusion: restate the case , and argue that understanding respect for natural environment always means analysing the idealisation of analyze communication., natural environments. In the short essays common in first year, your plan is likely to be less complex, and Program Piracy, may only have four or five main points. As you progress into second and third year, you are expected to develop more sophisticated arguments, which makes good planning even more important. 6a. Introducing and developing the argument. In your introduction , you should state your case and, as in the example above, set out the basic structure of communication., your argument . You might also briefly summarise two or three of your main points. Program Essay? If you have decided to adopt a particular focus (for instance, using case studies from a particular time or place, or narrowing the topic to concentrate on a particular theme), you should explain this in the introduction as well.
Developing the argument : The example above shows how an of effective communication. argument is then developed towards its conclusion. Basically, each stage of Program Piracy Essay, your argument should be developed and defended in turn, by message showing your interpretation of the appropriate evidence, by critically reviewing the work of other historians, and by Piracy Essay using example, case study and explanation. A good way of thinking about this is to imagine that you are building your argument in is stem blocks . Each paragraph is a block which builds your argument towards a conclusion. Each block is introduced and described, and then its place in the whole structure is shown. Block 1: stage of the argument. On Mars in the 1850s, the beauty of Program Piracy Essay, nature was usually associated with wild, untouched landscapes. Research Ethical? Painters rarely drew human figures. If there were humans, nature towered over Program Piracy Essay, them, as in Rembrandt’s Martian Mountains. In her book Environmental Perception on Mars, Joan Brown argues that painters in the 1850s focused on how nature was being conquered.
However, Ash clearly shows that mid-nineteenth-century Martians usually depicted an idealised nature which was to be protected from the characters, threats posed by civilisation. Block 2: next stage of the argument. The most crucial changes occurred after the Martian titanium rushes of the 1870s showed the potentially lucrative returns of mineral exploration and exploitation. Certainly, by the 1880s, most representations of the natural environment showed nature being tamed and civilised. Even mining sites appeared in nature paintings, and the work of Essay, Joseph Smith is alec and tess in the chase, a good example of how even the most intensive forms of exploitation were represented as beneficial intrusion for the landscape. Block 3: brief summary, and introducing the next stage of the argument. By the 1880s, therefore, the idealised untouched nature of the 1850s had been invaded by Software Piracy humans, and an ideal natural landscape was now represented as one which was productive and bountiful. Humans did not threaten nature; they unleashed its potential. The American Essay? It was important for Martians, Smith argued in 1883, to Essay, feel relaxed and comfortable about the past and future of the Martian environment. Yet representations of an construct ideal environment as one conquered and populated by Software Program humans never completely replaced the thematic, older tradition of mourning the degradation of another form of ideal environment, the Martian garden.
This alternative version became popular again in the 1890s. The body of your essay, therefore, uses evidence, examples and Piracy, explanation to develop your case point by point. Each paragraph has a point to is stem research ethical, make, and occasional summary sentences guide the reader through the argument. 6b. Using different kinds of evidence. In developing your case, you will need to make decisions about the kinds of sources you will refer to, and the best ways to Software Program, use them. Sources can generally be defined into communication., two broad types: primary or documentary sources (usually written at the time by an eyewitness, direct participant or close observer) secondary or scholarly sources (usually interpretations and explanations written after the fact by someone analysing the primary or documentary sources) For example, a book containing the Software Program Piracy Essay, collected speeches of Charles de Gaulle is a primary source; an analysis of characters, them by a political scientist or historian is a secondary source. An article in the Age of 30 June 1900 about the bubonic plague epidemic which affected Sydney during that year is a primary source; an article in the Age on 30 June 1990 discussing the impact of the epidemic on public health policy in Australia is a secondary source.
Broadly, the primary or documentary sources are the raw material used by Software Program Piracy historians , the subject of your argument, while the secondary or scholarly sources provide examples of how others have analysed and interpreted the problem or issue at cell hand. The distinction is not hard and fast, and there will always be exceptions. For instance, if you are writing an essay about historians’ representations of race in Piracy Essay Britain, the secondary sources of the historians are in fact your primary documentary source. In most essays, you will be expected to critically analyse the interpretations of other historians in this way. In any event, these different types of alec chase, sources should both be read critically: analysed for their point of view, for the assumptions, ideas and understandings which inform them, and for the strategies writers use to advance their arguments. Don’t take anything on trust: be a critical reader of all kinds of sources and texts , and use your critical analysis of both primary and secondary sources in your essay. You also need to make decisions about how to use evidence: in Software Piracy the form of quotation, or in the form of a social construct, summarising. It is Program Piracy Essay, best to use quotation strategically and sparingly : quote phrases or passages which best illustrate the research, point you are trying to Software, make, or which really help you give your reader the flavour of the evidence you are using. If you use a quotation, make sure it fits with the stage of the argument you are advancing.
Refer to the language, analyse the analyze the effects, assumptions or strategies it reveals. In other words, use quotation when the actual words are the Software Piracy Essay, single best way of providing the evidence and developing your case. Cell? If the quotation is Program, less than about thirty words, combine it with your text, as in this example where I am quoting the following phrase which is not very long. “You must always use quotation marks to Essay, indicate the separation between your words and the words of someone else.” If it is longer than this, you should separate it from the Program Piracy Essay, text, and indent it: This is an example of a much longer quote. It contains a few sentences, and needs to be distinguished from the cell research, body of the essay. When you are indenting a quote like this, note that you do not have to use quotation marks; as it is already separated, there is no need to indicate that by the use of such symbols. In general, use very little quotation from secondary or scholarly sources.
It is better to Program Piracy, say what you mean in your own words, quoting another historian or interpreter only where the phrase is particularly wonderful or where you need to The American, show precisely how that writer made their point in order to criticise, defend or develop it. In all other cases, it is best to Essay, summarise. Write reflective summaries of what others have written, relating those interpretations to your argument. You might find that the example paragraphs on orchard the previous page gives you a more concrete idea of how a writer can use a mix of summary and direct quotation from different kinds of Piracy, sources to analyze the effects communication., develop their argument. In your conclusion, you should restate your case strongly and clearly by summarising your main points. It is also possible to raise issues and Essay, problems in your conclusion, especially broader questions which are beyond the and tess, scope of Piracy, your essay. You might reflect on what your interpretation implies for contemporary debates or discussions, write briefly about the broader implications of your position, or consider what your interpretations tells us about the role and nature of message, history itself.
Use your conclusion to argue for the significance of your argument and your interpretation. Be careful, though: a poorly developed argument followed by sweeping speculations on the nature of the universe or the human condition is unlikely to be either effective or convincing. Again, as you develop your skills in formulating, developing and defending arguments, you will also develop your ability to write more reflectively and to use essays to open up these kinds of complex questions. 7. Piracy? Writing clearly and effectively. The best single rule is to always use clear expression: write simply and with clarity and avoid complex sentence constructions . Use definite, specific and concrete language. Don’t use unnecessary words, and make sure you understand the words you are using. Writing problems often occur when people try to thematic, use very complex language and syntax. A better idea is to establish a simple and clear style first, and then gradually develop more complex sentence forms and means of expression. As you develop your writing skills, vary your sentence structures and lengths to add variety. Short sentences often add emphasis to a particularly important point. Software Piracy Essay? Spelling, punctuation and grammatical errors detract from an argument, whatever its quality: careful editing of your draft is very important.
It is also important to is stem research, use accurate language, which is one good reason for using non-discriminatory language. For instance, the statement that men adapted themselves to Program Piracy, these new conditions should lead any critical reader to ask what women were doing at thematic that time. It is a reasonable and Program Piracy Essay, accepted convention that all forms of public communication, including journalism, business language and academic writing, should use non-discriminatory language. There are at least five effective ways of improving your writing. Message? Always read your own work.
what is Piracy Essay, my main idea, my contention, my argument? am I getting it across to the reader? Take responsibility for critically assessing your own writing . Look at the comments made on your previous essays, and work out analyze the effects of effective whether this one repeats the strengths and overcomes the weaknesses of your previous work. If you need to, speak to the person who assessed your work, and ask them for more guidance. Reading other writers. As you read, evaluate the styles of different writers.
What makes them more or less effective? What is most important to you as a reader, and what makes good writers better to read? Practice. Like any other set of skills, writing improves with practice and Software Piracy, with constructive assessment, by yourself and by others. Read your own work out loud . You do not need to comprehend the rules of grammar or the intricacies of syntax to know when something sounds clumsy, or when a sentence needs punctuation, or when a long paragraph has completely lost its drift.
Reading your draft out loud is also a good way to add variety and oomph to the effects of effective communication., your language. If its boring you to tears, or if you have no idea what it means, it might be time for redrafting. Let other people read what you write . It is Software Piracy Essay, particularly good to give your essay to someone who is not an expert in the area you are writing about. If it doesn’t make sense to them, your argument might need clarification. If they struggle to read it, you might need to edit more carefully. University teachers will not usually be able to read drafts of students work, but there are plenty of other people who can give you feedback. Swap essays with fellow students. Gender? Get the people you live with to read them.
Distribute them on buses. 8. Referencing Instructions for Essays. Decisions about when to cite sources can be difficult. Effective referencing is another writing skill your university work aims to develop. The reader should, in theory, be able to retrace your steps in gathering evidence for your argument. Software? In other words, you provide citations as a kind of road map that shows readers how you came to these conclusions, shows readers where you derived your information and, if relevant, shows readers where you derived the ideas or interpretations that you are paraphrasing, adopting or challenging. Therefore, you need to provide citations in the following instances: where you directly quote someone else’s words; where you are directly summarising someone else’s argument and ideas; where you are summarising arguments and gender, ideas derived from a number of Software Program Piracy Essay, sources; to point your readers to the source of information; to translate words or phrase in a foreign language that a reader cannot reasonably be presumed to understand. In general, you need to The American Hustle, provide sources for statements that are problematic or debatable in the context of your argument, or that a reasonably well-informed person would not be expected to know. Again, the ability to successfully make these judgements is a skill you will develop with practice and experience. If you offer a translation of a word or phrase in a foreign language, the basis of your decision should be whether a reader could reasonably be presumed to know the meaning of the Software Program, phrase or word already. Alec And Tess? There is no need to translate coup d’etat or Sultan or Blitzkrieg, for instance.
The use of citation to Program Piracy, refer readers to the work of other writers is occasionally useful, but for the most part, your citations refer only to books, articles and other material you have used directly. Only cite information that you have actually looked at yourself, or: always SIGHT what you CITE . It is fine to cell, use a second-hand reference (like a quotation or a summary in a book from a source to Program Essay, which you do not have access), but you should indicate that in your citation. An example of how to do this is provided in the next section. You can also use citations to clarify specific points, or add a small amount of additional information or supporting evidence. You should not use footnotes or endnotes as a sort of second argument, nor to provide paragraph after paragraph of new information. If it is not important enough to put into the body of the essay, then leave it out. 8b. Numbering and placement of footnote and endnote numbers. When providing footnotes or endnotes, number notes consecutively throughout the text. Thematic Message? Put these numbers at the end of sentences, if at Program Piracy all possible, and distinguish them from the text either by superscripting (raising above the line) or placing them in brackets.
If you use material from cell research ethical, two different sources in Software Piracy the same sentence, it is often possible to combine the two citations in The American Hustle Essay one footnote, using a semi-colon to separate them. Piracy? Usually, you will refer to orchard, information or material at Software particular places in a larger work so you will need to show the page (p.) or pages (pp.) on which the material is located. This text produces the and tess in the chase, following footnotes: On Mars in the 1850s, the ‘beauty’ of nature was usually associated with wild, untouched landscapes. Painters rarely drew human figures. If there were humans, nature towered over them, as in Rembrandt’s ‘Martian Mountains’. 1 In her book Environmental Perception on Mars , Joan Brown argues that “painters in Software Essay the 1850s focused on how nature was being conquered”. 2 However, Ash clearly shows that mid-nineteenth-century Martians respected an idealised nature which was to The American Hustle Essay, be kept separate from civilisation.
3. 1 K. Float (ed.), The Magical World of Ken Rembrandt , New York, 1965, p. Software Program Piracy? 68. 2 Joan Brown, Environmental Perception on Mars , Sydney, 1995, p. Hustle Essay? 13. 3 Ann Ash, Joan Brown is Wrong , Sydney, 1996, pp. 1-23.
8c. Citing different kinds of sources. The following rules should help you through most situations. The absolute rule is to be consistent. Inconsistency drives readers crazy, and is not a good tactic when you are attempting to convince those readers of the accuracy of your interpretations and arguments. Program? There are also specific rules for the citation of of effective communication., classical texts like the Bible, the Koran and Software Program Essay, so on. If you are studying subjects in gender construct which these texts are used, your tutor will provide you with the information you need to cite correctly.
Please note: Some areas of history, especially those published by European and English publishing houses (and now more often Australian publishers), follow the Software Piracy, conventions set out in the MHRA (Modern Humanities Research Association’s) Style Guide (available electronically at http://www.mhra.org.uk/Publications/Books/StyleGuide/download.shtml, see section 10.2.2). The guide differs to the above in construct that it adds the publisher to the publication details, and is formatted differently. For example: Peter Burke, The European Renaissance: Centres and Peripheries (Oxford: Blackwell, 1998), pp. 54-56. It is now common practice to Software Program, use full stops only where the abbreviation of the Hustle Essay, word does not contain the Piracy, last letter of the word. So, editor becomes ed., but editors becomes eds. Doctor is Dr, but Professor is Prof.. Also, where an abbreviated title is the cherry orchard, used very commonly, you do not need to put in full stops: for instance, ALP, ACTU or UNESCO . Primary or documentary material cited by another author. If you need to refer to a quote or to a piece of evidence which you accessed in a secondary or scholarly source rather than the original source, use these examples as a guide: R. G. Menzies, speech in the House of Representatives, 23 March 1943, cited in Judith Brett, Robert Menzies Forgotten People, Melbourne 1992, p. 47.
Letter from Lewis Mumford to Frederic Osborn, 2 April 1937, cited in Program Alison Ravetz, Remaking the Urban Environment, London 1980, pp. 148-9. The general rule is is stem cell ethical, that if the original source is available, you should go to Program Essay, and use that original source, rather than borrowing your evidence from another writer. Author of document (first name, last name), name of document (use italic or underline), in editor (ed.) or editors (eds), title of Hustle, collection (use italics or underline), place and date of publication, page or pages. John of Salisbury, Policraticus , trans. J. Dickinson, in J.B. Program Piracy? Ross and M.M. McLaughlin (eds), The Portable Medieval Reader , Harmondsworth, 1977, pp. 251-2.
(Note: ‘trans.’ is the abbreviation for ‘translated by’.) If your area of the effects of effective, history follows the MHRA Style Guide , this item in your bibliography would follow the same convention outlined earlier, namely: John of Salisbury, Policraticus , trans. J. Dickinson, in The Portable Medieval Reader , ed. by J.B. Ross and M.M. McLaughlin (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1977), pp. 251- 2. If the document was not published but has a title (for instance, an unpublished paper or a speech or an article), use single inverted commas around the name of the document. If it was not published and has no title (a letter, for instance), there is no need for any marking. For instance:
Friederich Engels, ‘The evils of capitalism’, in K. Kharkov (ed.), The Collected Speeches of Engels , Moscow, 1954, pp. 23-8. Yves of Narbonne, letter to Gerald of Program, Mallemort, c. 1241, in Walter L. Wakefield and Austin P. Orchard? Evans (eds), Heresies of the High Middle Ages , New York, 1991, pp. 185-7. If you are going to be using documents in archives, or other unpublished material, consult your tutor for assistance with citation rules. If you are referring to normal newspaper writing (news of events, editorials, and Program, so on), you need only provide the characters, name of the newspaper and the date: The Age , 25 April 1996. If you wish to refer to a specific article, usually by an invited contributor, or to a significant special feature (say, a four-page special report or a report in a weekly magazine), use the same format as for articles in journals or magazines. Author (first name, last name), title (use either italics or underline), place and date of publication, page (p.) or pages (pp.) of the Program Piracy Essay, information to which you are referring. So: Tim Bonyhady, The Colonial Earth , Melbourne, 2000, p. 13. These publication details are always on alec in the chase one of the first pages of the book (and usually on the page after the main title page): these details list the publisher and the place of publication, and give other information, most of which you don’t need to provide (though see the note below).
It is important to check if this is the first edition of the book, as subsequent editions may contain major revisions, which your reader will need to know in order to follow your research trail. If the Software Essay, book is a second or subsequent edition, put that information behind the title. Some further examples: Joanna Bourke, Dismembering the Male: Men’s Bodies , Britain and the Great War, London, 1996, pp. 98-104. John Kasson, Houdini, Tarzan, and the perfect man: the white male body and gender construct, the challenge of modernity in Program Piracy Essay America , New York, 2001, p. The American Essay? 231. Thompson, Paul, The Voice of the Past: Oral History , 2nd ed., Oxford, 1988, pp. 53-76.
Again, for those following the MHRA style of referencing (see above), the Program Essay, publisher is is stem cell research, included in the publication details. For example: Peter Burke, The European Renaissance: Centres and Peripheries (Oxford: Blackwell, 1998), pp. 54-56. Place of publication is always a city or town, not a state, province, region, nation or continent. Author (first name, last name), title of chapter (use single inverted commas around title, lower case), in Program editor (ed.) (or editors (eds)), title of book (use either italics or underline), place and date of publication, pages to which you are referring. Roger Cooter, ‘War and Modern Medicine’, in gender a social W. Program Piracy Essay? F. Bynum Roy Porter (eds), Companion Encyclopedia of the message, History of Medicine , London, 1993, p. 156. E. Essay? Zinkhan, ‘Louisa Albury Lawson: feminist and is stem research ethical, patriot’, in D. Adelaide (ed.), A Bright and Fiery Troop , Melbourne, 1988, 27-8. Estelle Freedman, ‘”Uncontrolled Desires”: The Response to the Sexual Psychopath, 1920-1960’, in Kathy Peiss Christina Simmons (eds), Passion and Power: Sexuality in History , Philadelphia, 1989, pp. 187-99. Please note: for those following the MHRA Style Guide (see above), and Software Piracy, are including the name of the publisher, a footnote reference would be styled like this example:
Eve Salisbury, ‘ “Spare the Rod and Spoil the Child”: Proverbial Speech Acts, Boy Bishop Sermons, and Pedagogical Violence’, in Speculum Sermonis , ed. by chase Georgiana Donavin, Cary J. Software Piracy? Nederman, and orchard, Richard Utz (Turnhout: Brepols, 2004), pp. Program Piracy Essay? 141-55 (p. The Cherry Orchard? 153). (Here ‘pp. Software Piracy Essay? 141-55’ indicate the page span of Salisbury’s contribution to alec and tess chase, the volume, and the bracketed ‘(p. 153)’ indicates the specific page reference.)
Articles in journals or magazines. Author (first name, last name), title of Program Piracy Essay, article (use single inverted commas around title, lower case), title of journal or magazine (use either italics or underline), volume or number, year of publication, pages covered by the article, specific page(s) to thematic, which you are referring. Phil Scraton, ‘Policing with Contempt: The Degrading of Software Program Essay, Truth and Denial of Justice in the Aftermath of the Hillsborough Disaster”, Journal of Law and Society , vol. Research Ethical? 26, 1999, pp. 273-97, p. 275. Emily K. Abel, ‘Valuing Care: Turn-of-the-Century Conflicts between Charity Workers and Women Clients’, Journal of Women’s History , vol.
10, 1998, pp. Software Program Piracy? 32-52, pp. A Social Construct? 34-5. You will find information about Software Piracy Essay, volume number on the title page of each journal. If there is both a volume and an issue number, just the volume number will usually do (for instance, American Historical Review , 102 (1995), or Australian Historical Studies , 26 (1994-5)). Most journals continue numbering pages throughout one volume, even if that volume has several separate issues or numbers. So a reference would read: Katherine Lowe, ‘Elections of Abbesses and Notions of Identity in Fifteenth- and Sixteenth-Century Italy, with Special Reference to Venice’, Renaissance Quarterly , 54 (2001), 389-429 (p. 390). Director (last name, first name), dir, Name of the film (use either italics or underline), year of release. Hicks, Scott, dir, Shine , 1996.
Hitchcock, Alfred, dir, The Birds , 1963. Name of the program (in single inverted commas) and, if this program is part of a series, the specific title of the program and the name of the series (use either italics or underline), location of the program, date of the program. Aboriginal Land Rights: A Special Report, ABC Radio National, 11 December 2002. Interview with John Howard, 3LO, 8 February 2003. ‘Golly Gee, I’m Interviewing a Famous Person’, Sixty Minutes , Nine Network, 13 February 2001. ‘The Reckoning’, The Frontier House , ABC Television, 27 April 2003. Author of the document (if known), name of the document (if relevant), date of the document (if known), at full WWW address, date on analyze the effects communication. which you accessed the page. ‘Social Conditions in Seventeenth-Century France’, at http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/17france-soc.html, accessed 31 March 2003.
‘Suffragists Picketing the White House, January 1917’ (photograph), at http://teachpol.tcnj.edu/amer_pol_hist/thumbnail291.html, access 17 April 2003. Sojourner Truth, Narrative of Sojourner Truth, a Northern Slave, Emancipated from Bodily Servitude by the State of New York, in Software Program Piracy Essay 1828 (1850), at http://docsouth.unc.edu/neh/truth50/truth50.html, accessed 16 April 2003. Using Resources From the Internet and a social construct, WWW. While there are some very useful sites for historians, including homepages describing research, or containing documents, photographs and interpretive materials, or providing primary documents like speeches, transcripts or debates, you need to be as critical and careful in your use of WWW resources as in your use of Software Essay, any other kind of evidence . A good deal of the material on the web is cell, not ‘screened’ in Software any way: it is not edited, reviewed by others, or subject to any control. Gender? This is its greatest strength and its greatest weakness as a medium, and makes the task of Piracy Essay, critically assessing and using sources even more important. For the The American Essay, citation, you need to give your reader enough information so that they can easily locate your source: in this case, the full web site information. You also need to tell your reader when you accessed the Program Essay, page: because web pages are updated, the information may have changed location or been removed. In fact, it is a good idea to print out a copy of the page(s) you are using: you can use them more easily, and you have a copy of the information should it subsequently disappear from the alec in the chase, web. Citing something for the second time: use of abbreviations and short titles. Once you have given full information in the first footnote, you should use abbreviations and Piracy, short titles to refer to the same source again. What will usually suffice is the the cherry characters, authors last name and a short title (i.e. the first few significant words of the title, as below).
Ibidem (always abbreviate as Ibid.) indicates in the place just described, but it must follow directly from the previous citation. 1 Joanna Bourke, Dismembering the Software Essay, Male: Men’s Bodies, Britain and the Great War , London, 1996, pp. 98-104. 3 Roger Cooter, ‘War and Modern Medicine’, in W. F. Bynum Roy Porter (eds), Companion Encyclopedia of the History of Medicine , London, 1993, p. 156. 4 Bourke, Dismembering the Male , pp. 126-9.
5 Cooter, ‘War and Modern Medicine’, p. 158. In endnote 6, the information is contained on the same page as endnote 5, and research, therefore you do not need to repeat the page number. Again, keep in mind the principle of Program, giving the reader the amount of information they would need to find the material for themselves. There may be particular conventions which you should observe for particular units: you will be provided with these where necessary. In general, historians do not use the chase, Harvard referencing system. Archaeology students, whose discipline does employ this system when referencing, should follow the Software Program Piracy Essay, norms of history referencing when writing history essays. Similarly, history students should use the Harvard referencing system when writing archaeology essays. Students need to analyze the effects communication., be aware that in archaeology/ancient history a variety of styles is used: Harvard, Oxford and Software Essay, MHRA. Students in construct the Centre for Archaeology and Ancient History must be able to use all of Software Program Essay, them correctly; they also use unpublished materials of the types outlined for history and reference them in is stem ethical footnotes. In the end, it is a matter of communicating your understanding of your evidence in the style appropriate for your discipline and task.
Unit coordinators will advise you if you are unsure. 9. Forming a bibliography and an annotated bibliography. Your essay should include a bibliography of all sources. If you have used a wide variety of Program Piracy Essay, different types of sources, it is helpful to cell ethical, put them into different sections: for instance, the documents or texts (primary sources) you have used might be separated from the historical scholarship (secondary sources). In general, follow the same conventions described above with the exception that authors’ surnames precede their forenames/initials to allow for easier alphabetisation (as in the example below). List your sources alphabetically within each section. However, you do not need to include the Software Piracy, page numbers for specific information or citations in your bibliography.
Films, television and the cherry orchard, radio shows and documents from web sites should be included: if there is Software Program Piracy, no author, put them at the front of the list and order them alphabetically by title. Newspapers should be listed, but you do not need to gender a social construct, provide the dates. Note: those following the Software Piracy, MHRA conventions will include the publisher’s name, along with slightly different formatting, as given in examples above (e.g. Burke, Peter, The European Renaissance: Centres and Peripheries (Oxford: Blackwell, 1998)). Contemporary documents and texts. John of Salisbury, Policraticus , trans. J. The Cherry Orchard Characters? Dickinson, in J.B. Ross and Software, M.M. McLaughlin (eds), The Portable Medieval Reader, Harmondsworth, 1977.
Truth, Sojourner, Narrative of Sojourner Truth, a Northern Slave, Emancipated from Bodily Servitude by the State of New York, in 1828 (1850), at http://docsouth.unc.edu/neh/truth50/truth50.html, accessed 16 April 2003. The Birds, dir. Alfred Hitchcock, 1963. ‘The Reckoning’, The Frontier House, ABC Television, 27 April 2003. Abel, Emily K., ‘Valuing Care: Turn-of-the-Century Conflicts between Charity Workers and Women Clients’, Journal of alec and tess chase, Women’s History, vol.
10, 1998, pp. 32-52. Kasson, John, Houdini, Tarzan, and the Perfect Man: The White Male Body and the Challenge of Modernity in America, New York, 2001. All sources which you have used in order to Piracy Essay, assist your interpretation of your evidence (the historical scholarship, or secondary sources), should be annotated, when an the effects of effective annotated bibliography is required in the unit. Annotation tells the reader what role a particular source played in developing your argument. A statement of two or three sentences is Program Piracy Essay, usually ample.
For instance: Joanna Bourke, Dismembering the Male: Men’s Bodies, Britain and the Great War, London, 1996. Bourke’s argument about the changing meaning of ‘disability’ provided a very important perspective on the links between wartime and postwar debates over masculine vulnerability. Essay? Her interpretation of what ‘shell-shock’ taught doctors about manhood was particularly valuable for my argument, as was her discussion of Piracy Essay, dress reform movements during the 1920s. One of the most important skills in effective communication is formatting and presenting your work in construct ways which help rather than hinder your reader. The impression of clarity, fluency and organisation created by good formatting is very important; conversely, a good essay written without regard for the eye as well as the mind is an ineffective piece of communication. Some general guidelines: observe the word length, or at least a margin of error of about 10 per Software Program Essay, cent: one of the cell, skills of writing is to Software Piracy, write to a target, and to gender construct, tailor your argument to suit the demands of that target. A short 1500 word essay on Software Piracy Essay wartime politics in Nazi Germany or criminality in nineteenth-century Australia is meant to be a short essay, not a major thesis. Adapt your case, and the ground you will cover, so that you can write something effective and orchard characters, convincing within the Program, word length; include a word count with your essay. type, print or handwrite the essay on one side of the paper only, using standard A4 paper, and number each page.
For essays of Essay, 1500 words or more, it is reasonable for your tutor to expect a typed or printed copy, though handwriting is fine for shorter exercises; double or one-and-a-half spacing is required, because it leaves more room for Software Program, comments and corrections; leave a 4cm margin on the left hand side, and a 1.5cm margin on the right, again for comments and gender a social construct, ease of reading. Ensure that you use at least a 12-point font. attach a cover sheet (standard cover sheets are available in the pigeonholes under the counter of the School of Historical Studies’ General Office, W604). You must tick all the boxes on the reverse side of the cover sheet before signing off under the plagiarism and collusion statement on the front of the sheet. ensure that your essay stays together: staples, paper clips, a plastic folder, whatever (we do not grade essays by weight, so go easy on the staples).