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APA Essay Format: Help with Writing Your Essay Paper. An APA , American Psychological Association, style is The Namesake Essay, a standard of Essay, writing academic papers in Essay a variety of acres, subjects relevant to the social sciences. This allows to write essays and research papers according to the same generally accepted standard in Sociology, Psychology, Education, Political Science, Business and The Namesake, other disciplines. APA Style is notable for certain requirements related to paper format, font, margins and headings, as well as referencing. We designed this page to guide you through all the peculiarities of formatting a paper in APA style . Learning about APA style will be a very rewarding experience for you, as you will be able to reply it in all of moral, your next writing assignments. The Namesake Essay! Quick Navigation through the APA Essay Format Page: The Fundamentals of an APA Essay Format. What comprises the APA style ? Does it provide requirements only to referencing the love sources or to whole essay? In their published guide book, the American Psychological Association, provides APA standards on The Namesake Essay the following issues: Title page. Unlike MLA style which doesn#8217;t require a title page, it is a must in smart vs street smart APA essay format . It usually contains such standard elements as the title of the Essay paper, the define moral dilemmas student#8217;s name, teachers or course name, and The Namesake, the due date. The APA title page can be easily distinguished by the running header, the acres summaries page number on the title page and The Namesake Essay, two titles (a short one is followed by The Impact Upon Essays, the full title). Abstract . The Namesake Essay! Abstract is dilemmas, a single paragraph usually a half page long, and is written on a separate sheet.
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rpi thesis format The latest implementation of the F-RISC processor, F-RISC/G, has been designed for current-mode logic (CML) with GaAs/AlGaAs HBTs from Rockwell International. All on-chip wiring is differential with the The Namesake wires in each pair placed in of Charlemagne adjacent tracks to improve noise immunity. The CML switches are stacked three-high to allow high-functionality gates. The gates use a non-standard resistive current source. The low yield of Rockwell's HBT process forced us to partition the F-RISC/G central processor into five chips#151;an instruction decoder and a four-chip bit-sliced datapath. The caches, designed by another student, are direct-mapped with write-back logic. Essay? For the lowest possible inter-chip communication latency, the chips would be packaged in a thin-film MCM. A novel system for clock distribution, also designed by another student, employs feed-back to reduce chip-to-chip clock skew.
The bit-sliced datapath architecture caused some minor architectural changes including: a severely limited shifter, simplified protected-mode support, and new restrictions on interrupt handlers. Shortly after the publication of the Berkeley RISC processor, the of courtly love idea of a GaAs RISC was raised[Keir85]. The pairing seems natural. GaAs (and heterojunction) technologies, while providing faster devices than their silicon contemporaries, have much lower yields. The low yields, and Essay relatively high prices, had previously relegated GaAs mostly to a supporting role providing a few small, fast parts to speed up critical paths in Essay multi-chip designs. Recently, two GaAs super computers, the Cray-3 and the Convex C3, were introduced.
Each contains thousands of small GaAs MESFET chips[Cost93]. In volume, GaAs chips can be as inexpensive as silicon at the same performance due to the fewer processing steps required for the GaAs devices[Isco92]. Because RISC processors use only a fraction of the transistors included in a CISC design, RISCs require relatively few GaAs chips. In his book, Microprocessor Design for GaAs Technology, Milutinovic collects papers describing various GaAs microprocessors[Milu90]. Presently, there are many projects underway to develop GaAs RISC processors using MESFET, H-MESFET, and JFET devices[Mudg91] . However, GaAs bipolar devices seem to promise even more impressive performance figures. Also, since the The Namesake bipolar devices do not rely on the extremely fine-line lithography of modern CMOS, they may eventually surpass CMOS for yield and cost at high performance.
In 1990, DARPA awarded Rensselaer a contract to develop a GaAs/AlGaAs RISC machine that would run at a peak of 1000 MIPS. This machine was christened FRISC/G. The F-RISC architecture responds to this need and the F-RISC/G implementation serves as a test vehicle for the Spartan RISC ideas contained in the architecture. To achieve its 1000 MIPS performance goal, F-RISC/G needs the best available technology. Previous implementations of the F-RISC architecture had used silicon bipolar transistors[Greu90b]. Of Charlemagne Europe Essays? Also under development is The Namesake Essay, a version using an about Depression HMESFET technology jointly developed by Rockwell International and The Namesake Essay IBM[Tien91].
More recently, work has begun on and weaknesses, adapting the The Namesake F-RISC/G implementation for use in Xilinx FPGAs and book smart vs street smart Si/Ge HBTs. (Adapted from [Asbe89].) 3.1.1 Heterojunction Bipolar Transistors. The circuits in F-RISC/G use a AlGaAs/GaAs heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT) technology from Rockwell International[Asbe89]. The devices are formed in MBE-grown epitaxial layers on semi-insulating substrates as shown in The Namesake figure 3.1. Of Charlemagne Upon Europe Essays? The devices of The Namesake, primary interest have 1.4 mm ? 3 mm emitter stripes and a DC current gain as high as 400. Some key SPICE parameters are in table 3.1. Upon Essays? The Rockwell process uses two levels of gold interconnects formed by liftoff processes and Essay a polyimide dielectric.
AlGaAs/GaAs HBTs are useful because the heterojunction provides a high emitter injection efficiency with a high base doping. The high base doping lessens various effects that limit speed in homojunction bipolar transistors. Vs Street? The benefits include: low base resistance, less chance of punch-through, reduced Early effect, and lower emitter-base capacitance[Sze81]. 3.1.2 Current Mode Logic. F-RISC/G arranges the HBTs into differential current tree logic with differential wiring[Nah91; Greu91].
The building block of the gates is the current switch : two transistors with a common emitter terminal arranged as a differential amplifier. A simple gate with one current switch is shown in The Namesake Essay figure 3.2. The lower resistor, , acts as a current source. Depending on the input signal, the two transistors steer that current either through the left or through the right load resistor. Strengths? The resulting voltage difference is the output signal.
The voltage swing is fixed at 250 mV by the current source and the load resistors. The Namesake? This gives a current ratio between the on and off transistors of [Trea89]. The switching characteristics of this gate are shown in figure 3.3. Figure 3.2: Differential current switch The use of differential wiring provides three advantages. First, differential wires (if run in parallel) give common mode noise immunity and allow for the use of a lower voltage swing (250 mV). Second, the need to generate and distribute three reference voltages is strengths and weaknesses argument, eliminated. Finally, since inverting a differential signal incurs no penalty, logic design is simplified and the gate library can be reduced through the use of dual gates. On the other hand, differential wiring increases wiring area and average wire capacitance.
Each time one line in The Namesake a differential pair switches, the other line switches in the opposite direction. Since these lines are placed in proximity, (for noise immunity) the effective capacitance doubles. The area penalty of differential CML as compared to single-ended ECL is partially offset by the availability of more complex gates in the tradition love the CML family[Bari92]. F-RISC/G uses circuits with up to three levels of stacked current switches. This arrangement allows the realization of any gate with three or fewer inputs, many special-purpose gates of four or more inputs including a four-input multiplexer, and Essay latches with any two-input gate at the input. Strengths? Systematic techniques are available to translate a binary logic tree to a CML realization[Choy89]. Two examples of complex gates are shown in figure 3.4. The ALU gate, shown as Fig.
3.3(a), can generate the XOR, AND, and OR of its A and B inputs. It realizes the function: The lower portion of the circuit forms a 2-to-4 decoder. The two odd parity terms together become the XOR term. Then the upper portion of the circuit determines which of these terms should be included in the output. For addition operations, the XOR operation is selected, with the carry incorporated by the final XOR stage as shown.
The carry chain, explained in detail later, has its output forced to zero if an operation other than addition is The Namesake Essay, desired. In this case, the final XOR stage passes the ALU result unchanged. Carry propagation gate. Switching delays as low as 20 ps are possible from the book smart vs street top-level input to the output. Essay? The lower level inputs to a gate have longer delays because the signal must propagate through additional current switches. (These delays are summarized for high-powered gates in table 3.2.) Whenever possible, critical paths are arranged so that the latest signals arrive on the top level with the early signals setting up the lower levels ahead of time. This idea can be seen in orange the only the carry propagation gate of figure 3.4(b).
The critical carry-in signal arrives at The Namesake Essay the top level of the gate. In the less critical ALU gate, the levels for the A and B signals were chosen to be the same as in the carry propagation gate. To prevent the transistors from saturating, the signals to the three levels of the smart tree must have different voltage levels. As shown in figure 3.5, each level is offset from the adjacent levels by . Each gate generates, as its output, only one of the three voltage levels. In this way, the triple-level current switch logic complicates logic design significantly because signals cannot be arbitrarily connected to gates. Essay? Also, commonly available synthesis tools cannot handle triple-level current switch logic. Designers use level 1 (the top level) for data, and levels 2 and smart 3 for The Namesake, control and clocking. One unusual feature of the circuits used in F-RISC/G is the use of a resistive current source. This decision was prompted by The Impact Upon Essays, the high V BE of the Rockwell devices#151;1.35 V compared to 0.85 V for a typical silicon bipolar transistor[Greu91]. The required supply voltage depends on the V BE of the transistors as follows: for an The Namesake Essay active current source: for a resistive current source: where V S is the desired voltage across the supply resistor. If the usual transistor current source were used with a V S of 1 V, then a supply voltage of 6.4 V would be required.
For FRISC/G, we desired a power supply compatible with standard ECL parts. With the summaries resistive current source, a standard 5.2 V power supply is sufficient. Figure 3.5: Three-input NAND gate showing input voltage levels The most important circuit parameter for a CML gate is the current flowing through the tree. Essay? Figure 3.6 shows the of courtly delay behavior of Essay, a gate as the current changes. The upper chart shows the basic delay of the gate changing as the current changes. The gates simulated were loaded with one driven gate and a 50 fF load capacitance. The lower chart shows the gate's sensitivity to load capacitance. The higher this sensitivity, the Essay more the gate speed degrades as the fan-out or interconnect length increases. To allow the designers to make speed/power trade-offs, three power levels were chosen.
Each gate is available as high power, medium power, and low power. High powered gates use 1.6 mA; medium powered use 1.0 mA; low powered use 0.6 mA. Various authors have attempted to Essay, provide a theoretical framework in which to analyze the of courtly love behavior of The Namesake, CML and ECL gates. Ronald Treadway provides some interesting DC techniques[Trea89]. He gives equations for gate propagation, assuming that the current switch has zero delay. His values should correspond to the output sensitivities in my digital model. Table 3.3 shows the results of such a comparison. Notice that the CML sensitivities are estimated well, especially for high powered gates. (For gates with outputs at levels 2 or 3, the CML sensitivity refers to the sensitivity of the delay to the input capacitance of the emitter follower.) The ECL sensitivities are estimated rather poorly by Treadway's equation. I suspect that the is not difference is in the differential logic. Treadway's analysis considers only the falling edge of the output signal as this is the worst case for a single-ended ECL driver.
However, in CML, as one emitter follower is going through its worst-case falling edge, the other driver has a faster rising edge. The differential pair switches with an intermediate speed. Power, Output Level. Impact of Resistor Current Source. With the resistor current source, the Essay current through the gate is fixed by the signal voltage of the lowest input. For 2-input gates, this causes an smart ambiguity as the lower input could be either at level 2 or at level 3, depending on The Namesake, the circuit requirements, see figure 3.7. A Thousand? The source resistor will have a different voltage drop in The Namesake Essay each case. Thus, two versions of each 2-input gate are required, each with the appropriate source resistor for the expected voltage drop. Figure 3.7: Two configurations of 2-input gates The passive current source has an important disadvantage. The current through a gate (and thus its output swing) is not constant. From basic principles, where V I is the voltage of the lowest gate input and V EE is, in this case, the local supply voltage at the bottom of the current tree.
Looking at is not the top of the tree, Equations 3.1 and 3.2 have some important implications for designers. Essay? First, control of the supply voltage across the chip is the tradition of courtly, critical to insuring consistent gate performance. A reduced V EE can cause slower gate operation (due to The Namesake Essay, reduced I S) and smaller noise margins (due to reduced V SW). Of Charlemagne? I have designed a CAD tool that models the The Namesake power rails on the chip and orange is not the only identifies regions where the voltage drops are unacceptably high. Second, common-mode noise, which would be rejected by the differential amplifier, can be detrimental to gate performance by reducing noise margins and slowing gate operations as described above. Among two-input gates, the top configuration (in figure 3.7) is less susceptible to Essay, this effect, due to its higher R S. Thus, designers are advised to choose the top gates whenever possible.
3.1.3 Advanced Packaging. If a multiple-chip system is to have a cycle time of smart, 1000 ps, then clearly the system requires advanced packaging. The Namesake? One possibility would be to use wafer-scale integration (WSI) techniques[Sauc86; McDo84]. Chapter? In WSI, each wafer contains all necessary chips for the multi-chip system plus extra chips for use as spares[Beus90]. The working chips are connected into a system using discretionary wiring or fusible links, like in Essay an EPROM. The wafer is packaged as a whole. Much has been written about the merits and demerits of such an approach.
If the inter-chip wiring could be fabricated using techniques similar to strengths of the, on-chip metalization, the process could be reliable and dense. However, such processes usually produce slow RC lines rather than the more desirable transmission lines. The thicker, wider lines needed to produce transmission lines and minimize signal losses due to the skin effect are less dense and require special processing techniques[Donl85]. For the F-RISC/G project, WSI would be unsuitable because of other concerns as well. First, the The Namesake low yield of the GaAs/AlGaAs HBT processes would preclude the fabrication of any wafers with sufficient chips to form a whole system. Also, the need to fabricate many chip designs on the only, the wafer, in differing numbers proportional to system requirements, would complicate the lithographic processes and require changing reticles during stepping operations. Finally, as we shall see later in this chapter, the timing constraints of the F-RISC/G module do not allow connections to remote spare chips to replace a malfunctioning die. The working chips must be positioned with minimal separation.
Multi-chip Module Packaging. The best packaging option for the F-RISC/G processor would be a thin-film multi-chip module (MCM) [Greu90b]. Similar to WSI, an MCM contains multiple chips in a single packaging. The primary difference is that the chips and the wiring substrate are fabricated and tested independently before assembly. The Namesake? Each can be optimized separately. The thin film dielectric provides the the tradition of courtly love required low dielectric constant needed for highspeed, transmission line interconnect. One disadvantage of MCM technology as compared to The Namesake Essay, WSI is that the working dies are separated from the wafer and of the ontological argument subjected to handling. Die breakage and Essay poor connections to the wiring substrate are important concerns[Donl86]. Initially, it was assumed that the package would be developed and of the ontological argument manufactured by The Namesake Essay, the advanced packaging group at Rensselaer. However, it is increasingly apparent that this will not be the case.
While much work is ongoing to develop wiring technologies for thin-film MCMs, Rensselaer does not have the expertise in-house to put together and characterize a complete packaging scheme. Items such as die attach, high-yield interconnect, and external connections remain difficult. The Tradition? Since the contract that funded the F-RISC/G development work does not provide for Essay, packaging, the implementation needed to be flexible to accommodate various alternatives. Some commercial and research vendors are developing such packages for high-speed applications. One possibility would be to use General Electric's High-Density Interconnect package (GE-HDI)[Hall93]. It is the only fruit, a commercial packaging scheme that has already seen various military applications and commercial test vehicles developed.
Chips in a GE-HDI package are mounted into recesses in a ceramic substrate, see figure 3.8. The dies are packed tightly with multiple chips in a single recess and attached using a glue that provides placement to within 1 mil of the desired location. Adaptive routing makes the proper connections once the exact locations of the chips have been measured. F-RISC/G is The Namesake, a multi-chip processor with a system clock of 1 ns. About? Because of the short clock cycle, inter-chip transfers cannot be assumed to Essay, be instantaneous, even on a high-speed, thin-film MCM. ECL poses especially difficult problems[Hamb93]. The floorplan of the proposed MCM is shown in figure 3.9. The cache memory has been simplified for the purposes of illustration. For a fuller treatment of the cache, see [VEtt93]. An important consideration in developing a timing strategy for F-RISC/G is the time spent transferring signals between and among chips.
The worst-case transfer within the central processor is a daisy-chain broadcast from the instruction decoder to is not the only, all four datapath chips, see figure 3.10. The minimum distance for a broadcast signal is: However, conditions do not often permit the minimum routing specified in equation 3.3. Essay? If the control signal must be broadcast early in the DE stage, then it is better to broadcast from the the tradition of courtly love left side of the The Namesake Essay instruction decoder. Strengths Of The Argument? Transfers on the MCM are faster than transfers across the chips. Also, pad layout restrictions may force the crossing of the instruction decoder or the The Namesake last datapath chip. In the average case, the book smart vs street smart distance for the broadcast signal is:
Figure 3.9: Floorplan of the The Namesake F-RISC/G MCM package Our initial studies in this area were with the assumption of using C4 (Controlled Collapse Chip Connections#151;IBM's flip-chip technology) to attach the chip to an MCM using a parylene dielectric. The signal propagation velocity on this MCM (with ) would be [Bako90]: The major question was: Could the broadcast depicted in figure 3.10 be achieved in book smart vs street a single clock phase? The criterion for a single-phase broadcast is: where D f is the maximum allowed clock skew between chips. Since the allowable clock skew is the dependent variable, a more useful form is: In my estimates, I allowed 70 ps for driver and receiver delay, 20 ps for each gate delay.
On the MCM, I assumed chips measuring 5 mm ? 8 mm were placed 1 mm apart. The allowable clock skew for a single-phase transfer was 20 ps, which is a barely acceptable skew. Thus, initially we assumed that most signal transfers within the The Namesake FRISC/G processor would complete in one clock phase. Later, we decided to use a mini-TAB package for the prototype, possibly on of Charlemagne Upon Europe Essays, polyimide dielectric. The inter-chip signal delays were recalculated. The Namesake? Two changes were made to the assumptions. First, the chip-to-chip distance increased to 3 mm. Also, the chip size increased to 8 mm due to the addition of boundary scan testing (see chapter 4) and the need for extra power pads to compensate for the increased inductance in the power leads.
Repeating the same calculation yields a maximum skew below zero. Is Not The Only? Thus, the system timing needed to be changed to allow two clock phases (500 ps) for any transfers of The Namesake Essay, this length. Transfers between adjacent chips could still be made in one phase of the clock. Figure 3.10: Distances for broadcast within F-RISC/G central processor More recently, we have been considering the GE-HDI package. This would again allow us to place chips only 1 mm apart, but the use of Depression, Kapton increases the dielectric constant to 3.5.
Invoking equation 3.4 gives , which is over The Namesake Essay, a 10% loss in propagation velocity. Strengths Of The Ontological? Taken together, the closer chip spacing has more effect. Using the results of equation 3.5, the new MCM is 20 ps faster in the average broadcast, 25 ps faster in the best-case, and about equal in The Namesake the worst-case adjacent chip transfer. The savings are not enough to allow single-phase broadcasts, but could allow an additional gate before or after the transfer. Table 3.4 compares the MCM technologies using 8 mm chips. 3.2 IMPLEMENTATION DECISIONS. The F-RISC architecture description leaves some latitude for adapting the architecture to the particular implementation technology. This section describes the book vs street major implementation decisions that were made during the design of F-RISC/G. Of course, since the F-RISC architecture was influenced by the intended HBT implementation, it can be said that some implementation decisions were placed into the architecture.
Figure 3.11: System diagram for GaAs/AlGaAs HBT implementation of F-RISC Figure 3.12 shows a diagram of the Essay F-RISC/G implementation with clock signals indicated for the major latches in the design. The RFA and RFB latches serve to hold the two register file results#151;they are required by the single-port register file. (Figure adapted from the tradition love, [Greu90a]) 3.2.1 Chip Descriptions. Due to The Namesake, the small capacity of the HBT chips, the architecture must be partitioned into multiple chips. Essay? This partitioning is shown in figure 3.11. The core processor is divided into The Namesake, two sections: the instruction decoder and the datapath. Two copies of a cache controller chip are needed, one serving as the instruction cache controller and the other as the data cache controller. The cache memories consist of sixteen memory chips#151;eight for each cache. The optional data alignment chip shown in figure 3.11 will not be present in the initial F-RISC/G prototype. It would have extracted bytes and half-words from the memory.
Clock management will be handled by a clock de-skewing chip, not shown in the system diagram. The low yield of the HBT devices forces a simplified cache implementation. A Thousand Chapter? FRISC/G will have direct-mapped caches. The Namesake Essay? The data cache will be write-back. (The instruction cache is the tradition of courtly, read-only in the F-RISC architecture.) Each cache will be divided into 32 lines. This choice of size was made so that the main register file memory can be copied and used directly as tag memory for The Namesake, the cache. The cache line size will be 16 words. To minimize the fruit time of bus transfers between the primary cache and the second-level cache, the bus will be 16 words wide. Thus the entire cache line can be refreshed in The Namesake one bus cycle. Instruction cache controller.
Data cache controller. The instruction decoder contains the pipeline controllers, state machines, register tags, and the tradition of courtly love control logic required to operate the F-RISC architecture. I designed and laid out this chip. The datapath contains the Essay ALU, the shifter, the program counter history, and the register file. To meet the yield expectations, the datapath is itself partitioned into four eight-bit slices. The advantage of a bit-sliced (or byte-sliced) approach is that few control signals are needed to communicate among the chips.
I designed and laid out the datapath chip, with the exception of the built-in register file (which was designed by Kyung-suc Nah). Each of the two caches will communicate with the the tradition love instruction decoder through its cache controller. The cache controller contains the tag memory, which is consulted to determine whether an access is a hit or a miss. Also, the instruction cache controller contains the remote program counter. This chip is being designed by John Van Etten.
Each memory chip contains eight copies of the Essay register file with added redundancy to improve yield prospects. Book Smart Vs Street Smart? This chip is being designed by John Van Etten. This chip performs the multiplexing, masking, and shifting necessary to extract bytes and half-words from a word read by the cache. Also, it inserts a byte into a word for STORE instructions. Because LOAD and STORE instructions use this chips at different points in The Namesake Essay their pipelines, it must be bi-directional and perform two operations simultaneously.
It is not being designed at present. Transmission of the 2 GHz system clock must be carefully managed to avoid excessive clock skew between any two chips. This function is handled by a special analog clock de-skewing chip, which is being designed by a thousand, another student (Kyung-suc Nah). The clock distribution system is The Namesake, discussed briefly in section 3.2.3. 3.2.2 Instruction Set Changes. After considering the orange is not technology choices and the partitioning, certain changes were made to the architecture and instruction set to allow an easier implementation. The complete instruction set of The Namesake Essay, F-RISC/G is documented in The Impact of Charlemagne Upon Essays appendix C. Contrast this with the full instruction set of the F-RISC architecture in appendix A.
Shifters are notoriously difficult to The Namesake, include in of courtly a bit-sliced implementation. The Namesake? The basic idea of a shifter involves communication among bits that are widely separated in the data word. Orange Fruit? To reduce the The Namesake impact of the shifter on the total hardware of the chapter summaries FRISC/G implementation, the scope of the shift instruction was greatly reduced. The shift amount and direction were limited to one-bit shifts right. This eliminated both the Essay need for orange is not the only fruit, the communication ports associated with a larger shifter and the need to decode the The Namesake Essay shift amount as specified in the SHIFT instruction.
While the programming rules indicate that a fixed shift amount of one bit right should be specified in all cases, the actual amount specified is ignored by the hardware. A one-bit left shift is available through the addition operation. To support extended ( 32-bit) shifts, the /SHEX flag on a SHIFT instruction will cause the contents of the C flag (in the PSW) to about, be placed in the MSB of the result. Also, the LSB of the The Namesake Essay operand will be available as the the tradition of courtly new C flag. PSW Bits for Logical Operations. The F-RISC architecture does not define the carry (C) and overflow (V) flags in the PSW after a logical instruction (AND, OR, XOR, ANDI, ORI, XORI) with the Essay /SCC flag. The F-RISC/G implementation guarantees that these flags will be zero. Thus, the /AT flag has no effect on these logical instructions as an overflow trap cannot occur. As noted in the chapter covering the F-RISC architecture, the write-back cache in F-RISC/G requires the and weaknesses argument STORE instruction to occupy the cache for two cycles. Thus, the instruction following a STORE instruction cannot be a LOAD or a STORE.
The F-RISC architecture provides a protected mode for use in interrupt handling. This mode has two purposes. First, it freezes the program counter history so it can be read and stored for interrupt recovery. During the beginning of an interrupt service routine (ISR) the Essay history registers should point into the interrupted program#151;not into the ISR itself. Second, protected mode disables external interrupts so that ISR code is smart, not interrupted during critical sections. In addition, internal interrupts are redirected to alternate interrupt vectors to indicate that the processor was in protected mode when the interrupt occurred. ISR code should be written to avoid triggering any internal interrupts. The code should be locked into memory to avoid page faults. Protected mode is automatically entered upon an interrupt. When the ISR has successfully saved the The Namesake Essay state of the processor, it exits protected mode using the /RES flag on a JUMP instruction.
Later, when the ISR is preparing to resume the interrupted program, it must re-enter protected mode because the interrupt recovery code cannot be restarted if it is interrupted. A Thousand Chapter Summaries? The F-RISC architecture provides for a /SPM (set protected mode) flag on the MPSW instruction to force the The Namesake Essay processor into protected mode. Acres Chapter? The /SPM flag must only The Namesake, function if the code is operating in supervisory state, because user programs must not be allowed to turn off external interrupts. In F-RISC/G, the protected mode bit is maintained on the instruction decoder and and weaknesses the supervisor mode bit is maintained on Essay, a datapath slice. Thus implementing the The Impact of Charlemagne Upon Europe Essays /SPM flag would require an additional communication path between these two chips. Instead, in F-RISC/G the The Namesake Essay /SPM flag is disabled under all conditions. Book Smart? The ISR should re-enter protected mode with the TRAPI instruction and a specific value of the trap code. The operating system must then only The Namesake, allow supervisory processes to use that trap code. The INTPC instruction is used to read the value of PC_DW during interrupt processing. The F-RISC/G implementation places some restrictions on the use of this instruction. These rules stem from the fact that the program counters are advanced late in the D1 stage of the pipeline.
Since the PC_DW register is read early in the DE stage of an INTPC instruction, this results in a three-cycle latency from one INTPC to the next. In other words, the two instructions following an INTPC cannot be INTPC instructions themselves. This time can be used to orange is not the only, store the result of the INTPC instruction into memory. The second rule comes from the fact that once the INTPC instruction enters its D1 stage, the program counters will advance even if a preceding instruction has an interrupt in its D2 or DW stage. Thus, the operating system must insure that the The Namesake instructions surrounding an INTPC are never interrupted. This provision should be straightforward as all external interrupts are disabled in protected mode (when INTPC is executed) and is not the operating system can insure that no page faults or user-requested interrupts (such as TRAP instructions or arithmetic faults) can occur. All external interrupts, except page faults, experience a three-cycle latency between the raising of the interrupt line and the recognition of the interrupt by the processor.
This latency results from the inclusion of a three-cycle synchronization delay between external interrupt signals and the processor state machine. Likewise, the ID bit in the PSW (which disables user interrupts) has an additional latency of three cycles after it is changed by The Namesake Essay, an MPSW instruction. Overflow of Remote Program Counter. The F-RISC architecture provides memory protection by forcing the most-significant bit of all addresses generated by user processes to one. Thus, the user cannot LOAD from or STORE to book smart, addresses with a most-significant bit of zero. The Namesake? Also, user mode processes cannot BRANCH or JUMP to instruction addresses with the most-significant bit reset. However, the The Impact of Charlemagne Europe Essays remote program counter can complicate matters. If a user process is executing at address FFFFFFFF (hex), the RPC will increment to 00000000 (hex) for the next instruction. This address is in the supervisor space.
Because the supervisor flag is maintained on The Namesake, a separate chip from the remote program counter, no error condition will result. This would appear to be a hole in strengths and weaknesses the security. However, there is, in fact, no potential for Essay, mayhem. Location 00000000 (hex) must be a NOOP to provide for proper interrupt recovery. The instructions between 00000001 (hex) and 00000003 (hex) could include a JUMP or a BRANCH to is not fruit, prevent the code from falling through to the error interrupt service routine.
This JUMP will be subject to the memory protection features, and thus will result in a jump to a location in the user's space. Another possibility is to disable the The Namesake Essay carry into the most-significant bit of the RPC. While this would prevent the situation from occurring, it would also allow code that would not be portable onto a F-RISC machine with a larger address space. In the end, however, the point is about, moot for an engineering prototype such as F-RISC/G. Because of the limited fan-in of CML gates and our desire to The Namesake, reduce the complexity of the F-RISC/G instruction decoder, the F-RISC/G CPU has some implementation-specific initialization requirements. 1. The Only? RESET interrupts always use the protected mode interrupt vector, 20 (hex), regardless of the previous state of the processor. 2. After a RESET interrupt, before any registers are referenced (as either the source or the destination of an ALU operation), a LOAD instruction must take place. The Namesake? This LOAD instruction will serve to reset the latch tag on the DIN latch. The student designing the strengths and weaknesses ontological argument register file has determined that a single-port register file is the best choice for F-RISC/G based on considerations of transistor count, speed, area, and power consumption.
To support the F-RISC architecture, this register file must be read twice and written once during a cycle. To accomplish this and to control other events in the processor, the system clock is divided into four phases, as shown in figure 3.13. Each of the Essay phases is nominally 250 ps. The phases are not guaranteed to be non-overlapping. They may overlap slightly or be slightly disjoint. The register file is read during each of f 2 and f 3. Book Smart? The address is set up for the write in the beginning of f 4 and The Namesake Essay the write occurs during the end of f 4 and the beginning of f 1. The system clock is distributed at Europe 2 GHz with a special circuit within each chip generating a phase change for each transition of the The Namesake Essay input clock.
The chip-to-chip transmission of the system clock uses a novel approach to The Impact of Charlemagne Upon Europe Essays, reduce the skew among the chips. A central clock distribution and deskew chip generates a clock signal for each system chip and The Namesake Essay applies a controlled phase shift to each signal. Each chip receiving a clock echoes it back along adjacent tracks in the wiring substrate. The Tradition? Phase-lock loops in the deskew chip adjust the phase shifts to keep all clocks synchronized. The deskew scheme is being designed to provide 2 GHz clocks to eight chips with a maximum 30 ps of skew among them. That is, each signal may differ from the ideal by only 15 ps. The system's clock distribution scheme requires that all chips have the same delay between the 2 GHz input clock and The Namesake the four on-chip clock phases[Nah92].
Only in and weaknesses of the ontological this way can we insure that f 1 occurs at the same time on all chips in the system. Therefore, the on-chip clock buffering is critical to the proper timing of The Namesake, events within the F-RISC/G system. Figure 3.14 shows various clock buffering schemes. In each case, some initial buffering logic generates the The Impact of Charlemagne Essays clock, which is The Namesake, then distributed to multiple loads. Each of these loads is a super-buffer that drives five to eight loads. The loading capacitances are estimates based on average wiring distances. They do not include the book active loads of the driven gates#151;this loading is calculated separately. The first circuit uses a standard buffer to drive the distribution network. As the The Namesake Essay clock distribution is performed at levels 2 and 3, this buffer has an emitter follower at its output. The emitter follower provides a lower sensitivity to capacitive fanout than a level 1 buffer would. The circuit in figure 3.14(b) adds a super-buffer to increase performance in high-fanout conditions.
The standard emitter follower cannot handle loads of more than one super-buffer without rise-time degradation. In (c) the initial buffer is replaced by a super-buffer. This serves only to reduce the total delay. Finally, circuit (d) uses a special clock buffer (developed for the boundary scan testing scheme described in Essay chapter 4) for additional drive capability. This would be ideal for the highest fanout conditions. Figure 3.14: Various clock buffering schemes If the fanout were always constant, only one of these circuits would be necessary. However, in practice the number of The Namesake, super-buffers driven in the final stage can vary from one to five.
Thus different buffering schemes are used to balance the delays between differently loaded clock lines. Table 3.6 shows the initial estimates of delays using the various schemes. The delays were calculated from the digital gate parameters for each circuit. Of Courtly? Both the capacitive loads shown and the applicable active loads are added. The standard buffer has different performance figures for level 2 and level 3 signals. Thus, these cases are treated separately. Some uninteresting cases are omitted.
The cases marked with a dagger (#134;) are chosen for initial use in F-RISC/G chips. The Namesake? The basic delay time is fixed by the high-fanout cases. In these cases, the extra power consumed by the clock buffer is of Charlemagne, tolerable because it is the only way to obtain good signals with high fanout. The Namesake? Other cases are chosen to closely match these times while expending the minimum power possible. These figures and designs should be taken as starting points only. Of Courtly? The loadings on the various buffers will change based on the locations and numbers of The Namesake Essay, loads. Only through repeated post-route digital simulation can the on-chip clock skew be reduced to is not the only, acceptable values. #134; Configuration chosen for F-RISC chips. There is considerable communication between and among the chips in the F-RISC/G architecture. An understanding of this communication is essential for a complete understanding of the implementation. This section and the following one on The Namesake, timing should be read in parallel.
No one said this would be easy. Only the most important and interesting signals will be explained here and in the next section (Timing). The following sub-sections divide the signals into Essay about, categories. Where a given signal could fall into more than one category, it is repeated in all applicable categories. All signals are differential.
3.3.1 Datapath Control. Most of the communication lines within the CPU are used by the instruction decoder to control the datapath chips. These signals are listed in Essay table 3.7. The B operand inversion signal needs to go from the instruction decoder to two locations on and weaknesses of the ontological argument, the datapath. The Namesake Essay? The first, the actual B operand inverter, is covered by the INVB signal. The second destination is the is not the only adder carry-in on The Namesake, the least significant slice (to perform two's complement subtraction). This signal needs to be active later than INVB , and cannot be handled internally in the datapath slice (to avoid putting extra logic on the critical carry chain). A separate line, CINLSS , was added to the instruction decoder for The Impact of Charlemagne Upon Europe, this reason. The SPECIAL signal controls some miscellaneous special functions on two instructions. On SHIFT instructions, this signal indicates that the C flag in the PSW should be used as the bit shifted into the result.
On JUMP instructions, SPECIAL indicates that the The Namesake S and Upon Europe Essays OS bits should be reset#151;this copies the /RES flag on the instruction. Write into register file. Ripple shift signals. Extended shift operation. Processor stall signal. 3.3.2 Condition Evaluation, Branching and Essay the Processor Status Word. Another area of communication between the instruction decoder and the datapath is in strengths of the the evaluation of conditional branches. The signals for this function are listed in table 3.8. The BRA signal is generated on the DP3 chip. The Namesake Essay? This signal must be distributed to the other datapath slices (so they can store the previous result as the new PC_I1 value), to of the ontological argument, the instruction decoder (so it can flush instructions as necessary), and to the instruction cache controller (so it reads the address bus).
If this distribution were handled as one daisy-chained line to each recipient, it would travel a long distance. The Namesake Essay? Thus, the signal is sent twice from the DP3 chip. One path, BRA1 , goes to the other datapath slices; the other path, BRA2 , goes to the decoder and cache controller. The zero flag in the PSW is the OR of The Impact, signals from each datapath slice. These signals converge on The Namesake Essay, DP3 from the other slices. The function of the of courtly love SPECIAL signal is described in the previous sub-section. Condition Evaluation, Branching, and the Processor Status Word. Branch taken (goes from BRAOUT1 on DP3 to BRAIN on DP0, DP1, DP2) Branch taken (originates from BRAOUT2 ) Leave supervisor mode on JUMP.
Many signals go to and from the caches. They are listed in table 3.9. Many of these lines are time-critical as the cache misses are closely synchronized with the processor. Essay? The address bus and IOCTRL signals may go to other I/O devices as well as to the cache. These other I/O devices may wish to book, decode the STALLM signal to The Namesake, detect stalls in the other cache. The WDOUT signal is generated by the instruction decoder during STORE instructions. It activates the OUT_EX latch (see figure 3.12) which holds the data to be sent on of Charlemagne Essays, the DBUSO lines. 3.3.4 Interrupts and Traps.
The communication lines for Essay, interrupts and traps, listed in table 3.10, primarily consist of those lines used to indicate that a trap should be taken. Of Courtly? A few signals bear mentioning here: The ERROR , RESET , INT , and INT_U signals are used to signal external interrupts. They activate the Processor Reset, System Error, Device Interrupt, and User Interrupt conditions (described in table 2.16), respectively. The INT and INT_U signals are ignored if the processor is in protected mode. INT_U is The Namesake, also ignored if the INT_DIS (disable user interrupts) signal is high.
The INT_DIS signal comes from the UO line on the lowest datapath slice. The user can set the value by using the orange is not fruit MPSW instruction. The PROT signal is sent from the instruction decoder (which maintains this line as part of the processor state machine) to the UI line on the lowest datapath slice. In this way, the The Namesake Essay PROT signal appears in the PSW and the tradition of courtly can be accessed by users. 3.3.5 Clock, Synchronization, and Configuration. The clock deskew scheme requires that all modules that receive the The Namesake master clock return a copy of it to summaries, the deskew chip. The signals used for clock distribution and Essay deskew are listed in table 3.11. The deskew chip adaptively removes the clock skew using a control scheme that will not be described in love this thesis. Each datapath chip has two configuration signals that indicate which of the four sites a particular die is in.
Datapath configuration signals. Clock synchronization signal. #134; Single-ended ECL signals. 3.4.1 Datapath Timing. This section will describe the The Namesake operation of the processor during the execution of an ADD instruction. Later sections will describe the operation of Essay about, features specific to other instructions such as the BRANCH, LOAD, and STORE. A diagram of the F-RISC/G ALU timing is Essay, shown in figure 3.15; the system diagram is in figure 3.12. By the time they are needed during the middle of the I1 stage, the program counter on about Depression, the datapath and the remote program counter have been incremented to calculate the instruction address. If this instruction is the target of a BRANCH instruction, then the address bus ( ABUS ) from the datapath will contain the instruction address by f 3 of Essay, I1 . The instruction address is then transferred from the instruction cache controller to the instruction memory chips which read the desired instruction. Simultaneously, the instruction cache controller checks the tags to insure that there is no cache miss. Assuming there is the tradition of courtly love, no cache miss, the instruction is transferred from the instruction memory to The Namesake, the instruction decoder beginning in f 3.
When the instruction arrives at the instruction decoder, the most urgent task is to send the register file addresses to about, the datapath chips. The operands themselves must be ready by f 4 of the DE stage. To accomplish this, the B operand is read from the register file during f 2 with the A operand read during the The Namesake next phase. The bulk of the instruction bits arrives at the instruction decoder at of courtly the beginning of the DE stage. The portion of the instruction containing the B operand address (RFB) arrives early (f 4 of I2 ), so it can be ready on the datapath slices by the end of f 1 of DE . The instruction fields are designed so the same bits are always used for RFB. The cache chips for those bits should be the closest to the instruction decoder to Essay, reduce the path time. The A operand register file address (RFA) is slightly more complex as it can be in one of two locations in strengths the instruction. (See figure 2.13.) For short immediate instructions, RFA is located in the second half of the instruction, near the immediate constant. For long immediate instructions, RFA is located in The Namesake the same field as the and weaknesses of the argument destination register file address (DEST).
Thus, in these instructions RFA and DEST specify the same register. Figure 3.15: F-RISC/G timing during an ALU instruction While the transfers of RFA and RFB proceed, the instruction decoder determines whether one of the tagged latches contains a more recent value for the selected registers. The Namesake? The results of and weaknesses of the argument, these decisions are transmitted to the feed-forward multiplexers and the register file output latches on the datapath (as the FFRAH , FFRAL , FFRBH , FFRBL , MBYA , and MBYB signals). Also, the immediate constant fields are decoded and transferred. The instruction set provides three different types of immediate constants (compare the ALU, ALUI, and The Namesake Essay STORE instructions). Book? The need for interrupt response adds a fourth source for the constant#151;the trap vector. Also during this time, the The Namesake control signals for the operand selection multiplexers (i.e., OPAH , OPAL , and OPBL ), the B operand inverter ( INVB ), and acres chapter the ALU or shifter ( ALUOPH and ALUOPL ) are generated on Essay, the instruction decoder and broadcast to the datapath chips. The datapath selects the the tradition love operands and prepares them for The Namesake, the start of the ALU cycle at f 4. When f 4 arrives, the result register latches the previous cycle's result and the OPA and orange is not the only OPB latches open to present the operands for the current cycle. The calculation then begins in the ALU. The ALU completes the calculation of the The Namesake instruction result by the end of f 3. During the next phase, the result is stored in acres chapter the RES_EX register as the next instruction begins its calculation.
At this time, three of the four condition code flags (NCVZ flags), namely N, C, and V, are available on The Namesake Essay, the most significant slice of the datapath (DP3). A Thousand Acres Chapter Summaries? The fourth condition code flag, Z, is yet to be computed as it must combine information from The Namesake, all four slices. The recording of the NCVZ flags is optional and is controlled by /SCC flag on many instructions. Acres Chapter? If this flag is set, the instruction decoder sends the SCC signal to the DP3 chip, which records the The Namesake flags. During the execution of the MPSW instruction, which updates all PSW flags, the SCC signal is sent to force the recording of the new NCVZ flags. In this case, however, these flags are copied directly from the top four bits of the ALU result. N and C are the acres chapter summaries MSB of the result and the carry out of the fourth slice, respectively. The Namesake Essay? The N flag can come from either the ALU result or the shifter result. The V flag represents an addition overflow and is a combination of two adder carry bits[Greu90a]. This flag is transferred to the instruction decoder (as the smart smart ATRAP signal) in case the instruction requested an arithmetic trap on an overflow (the /AT option).
Because they are ready immediately, the N, C, and The Namesake V flags can be latched when the result is. However, the orange is not fruit Z flag is more complex as it requires a synthesis from all 32 bits of the result. During f 4 of the EX stage, an 8-input OR of each slice's result is calculated. During the first two phases of D1 , these results are placed on The Namesake, the ZOUT output from each datapath slice. These signals travel to the ZIN0 , ZIN1 , and ZIN2 lines on the most-significant slice.
This slice reads the The Impact Upon Europe three signals and forms the Z flag. As described above, during the beginning of the D1 stage, the Z flag is calculated and stored. At f 3, the result continues its progress toward the register file, moving from RES_EX to RES_D1. One phase later, the PSW is copied into PSW_D2 to preserve it in case the instruction must be restarted because of an interrupt. In the middle of The Namesake Essay, this cycle, the is not the only instruction decoder decides whether the instruction will complete. Either an arithmetic trap (from an Essay ALU overflow) or a problem in of Charlemagne Upon Europe Essays the preceding instruction (in its DW stage now) would cause the instruction to abort.
If the instruction aborts, then its result will not be saved into the register file. The interrupt mechanisms, described in Essay the architecture chapter, would take over. During the Upon Essays D2 stage, the The Namesake destination address (DEST) is transferred from the instruction decoder to the datapath slices. It is and weaknesses of the, held in preparation for the register file write at the end of the cycle. Again, during f 3, the result moves to the last feed-forward register, RES_D2. One phase later, the PSW is copied into PSW_DW. Once the result is positioned into RES_D2 and the DEST address has been transferred, the register file write can begin. During the beginning of f 4, the register file is addressed. Essay? Then, about 150 ps later, the write pulse occurs so that the register file is written to. Smart? After the 250 ps long write pulse, the register file is given 100 ps of settling time before the next address change occurs.
The only thing that happens in the DW stage of an addition instruction is the completion of the register file write cycle. 3.4.2 BRANCH Instruction Timing. The differences between a BRANCH (or JUMP) instruction and The Namesake an ALU instruction are that a BRANCH must check the and weaknesses of the ontological argument condition code to see if a condition branch will be taken, flush instructions in the latency region, and update the program counters. Also, the The Namesake Essay BRANCH and JUMP instructions do not write their result into the register file. The complete operation of a BRANCH instruction can be seen in figure 3.16. The fetching and preparation of operands for a BRANCH instruction are the same as for any other instruction, and have been described previously.
During a BRANCH instruction, the a thousand summaries ALU operation (always addition) calculates the target address of the BRANCH. Instead of being stored in the result register, the target address is stored in the ADDR register for transfer to Essay, the cache if the branch is taken. To Branch or Not to Branch. One of the clear differences between a BRANCH instruction and an ADD instruction is that BRANCH instructions can change the orange the only fruit flow of instructions into the processor. The condition code flags (NCVZ) in the PSW are evaluated using the condition code field in the instruction to form a branch condition #151;in other words, to decide whether or not to branch. In figure 3.15 (the ADD instruction timing diagram), notice that the NCVZ flags are settling during the first half of the D1 stage. If the instruction preceding the BRANCH sets these flags, then the flags are settling during the EX stage of the BRANCH. Simultaneously, the instruction decoder transmits the condition code field of the BRANCH instruction to the datapath. Only the most significant slice (MSS) of the datapath need receive this because only there is the BRA signal calculated.
To simplify the design of the The Namesake Essay datapath, during non-BRANCH instructions the instruction decoder sends 0000 (meaning don't branch) as the condition code. Thus the datapath never needs to be explicitly signaled when a BRANCH is argument, taking place. The piece of information available latest during the evaluation of the branch condition is the Z flag, which is computed using information from all four datapath slices. The evaluation logic is arranged to require the Z flag as late as possible. For this reason, the condition code field is sent earlier than would be required otherwise. Figure 3.16: Timing of the F-RISC/G BRANCH instruction The transmission of the BRA signal is Essay, critical as it must go from the datapath MSS to the other three datapath slices (the datapath slices need to Essay about, be told to copy the new address into the PC_I1 register) and to the instruction cache controller (to update the remote program counter) as well as to The Namesake Essay, the instruction decoder.
Among its other responses to a BRANCH being taken, the instruction decoder must flush some or all the instructions following the orange is not the only fruit BRANCH (depending on the /LAT field of the BRANCH instruction). When the instruction decoder receives the The Namesake Essay branch result, the most advanced of these instructions is midway through its EX stage. By this time, it is too late to the tradition, block transmission of the condition code for that instruction (in the case of Essay, two back-to-back BRANCH instructions) or the SCC and summaries WPSW signals for Essay, PSW manipulation. This problem is solved by having the instruction decoder send a FLUSHDP signal that indicates that SCC , WPSW , and branch conditions should be ignored if a successful BRANCH has just occurred. If the branch is taken, then the instruction cache must immediately begin fetching instructions from the new location. Upon Europe? The result of the The Namesake Essay addition operation is stored in book smart vs street the ADDR register and broadcast over the ABUS to the instruction cache controller. The cache controller monitors the BRA signal to determine whether the address on the ABUS is a valid instruction address. 3.4.3 LOAD Instruction Timing. The LOAD and STORE instructions access the F-RISC/G data cache.
The LOAD instruction is illustrated in figure 3.17. The STORE instruction will be covered in The Namesake the next section. The sequence of a LOAD instruction diverges from that of an the only fruit ALU instruction during the last phase of the EX stage. The Namesake? At this point during a LOAD, the datapath places the calculated address on the address bus. The instruction decoder anticipates the cache operation by raising the VDA line during f 3 to indicate that the a thousand chapter summaries data cache should read the address bus. The data cache controller reads the address. It then begins the process of reading the memory and checking the tags. If there is The Namesake, a cache miss, the MISS_D signal is sent to the instruction decoder by the end of the D2 stage.
Figure 3.17: F-RISC/G timing for a LOAD instruction Before being sent to the datapath, the orange is not the only fruit data from the data cache is Essay, transferred to the byte operations chip. This chip takes care of extracting byte and of the ontological argument halfword values from the full word read from memory. It aligns the desired halfword or byte in the lower halfword or lowest byte of the result. Essay? All unused upper bits are set to zero. The byte chip is controlled by the /IOCTL field of the LOAD instruction.
This chip is not being designed at this time. As has been explained earlier, the data from the of courtly LOAD instruction does not arrive at The Namesake Essay the datapath in time to be saved directly into summaries, the register file. A special latch, DIN, is included to hold the result of a LOAD until it can be saved into the register file. The contents of the DIN latch are written into the register file during the next LOAD instruction. In other words, during the The Namesake D2 and DW stages of this LOAD instruction, the result of the previous LOAD instruction is being stored into that instructions' destination register. 3.4.4 STORE Instruction Timing. The timing of a STORE instruction is shown in figure 3.18.
The data cache address is calculated and transferred to the data cache as in the LOAD instruction. The B register output, which is to be the stored value, is placed into a series of two pipeline registers, OUT_EX and OUT_D1. During the Essay about D1 stage, this value is sent to the byte chip for alignment and masking. The result is then sent to the data cache to be stored into the memory. Since F-RISC/G has a write-back data cache, the cache tags must be checked before storing data. This ordering is important because the cache line may be dirty and thus need to be moved to main memory before being overwritten with the new data.
Therefore, F-RISC/G first reads the Essay cache tags and data from the a thousand acres chapter cache as if it were performing a LOAD operation. The extra reading of the cache data will speed up the processor in The Namesake Essay the case of a cache miss on dirty data. Certain paths determine the final speed attained by the processor and are thus called critical. When designing an implementation, the designer must be aware of what operations are critical in the particular implementation. These paths are then given extra attention and priority in the rest of the design. A few such paths have been described in the preceding sections: the Essay Depression BRA signal loop between the instruction decoder and The Namesake the datapath (on page ). 3.5.1 Adder Carry Chain. In most processor designs, the adder carry chain is on the critical path. In the case of FRISC/G, with its datapath partitioned over four chips, this is especially true. Carry propagation schemes that include random logic or high fan-in gates are at a disadvantage in triple-level CML because of signal level considerations. Carry look-ahead is especially hurt by the many ways in of Charlemagne Upon Europe which the same signals are combined.
It is difficult to assign voltage levels to Essay, signals in this case. The chosen configuration is a carry-select adder with eight-bit blocks. A Thousand? These blocks correspond to the datapath slices. The eight-bit carry chains are implemented as ripple-carry chains with one gate per bit. This gate is The Namesake Essay, shown in figure 3.4 (a); the whole scheme is in figure 3.19. Essay Depression? The top of figure 3.19 is a depiction of the eight-bit carry-select adder on each of the four datapath slices. Essay? The lower half of the figure shows the four datapath chips wired together to form the 32-bit adder. Orange Is Not The Only? The performance of this adder is clearly affected by the partitioning. There are three chip crossings on the 32bit carry chain. The components of the The Namesake adder path delay are shown in a pie chart in figure 3.20. The multi-chip implementation of the adder accounts for of Charlemagne Upon Europe, 42 % of the The Namesake Essay delay.
This indicates that substantial savings could be realized if the datapath could be implemented with fewer than four chips. Figure 3.19: Carry select adder used for smart vs street, F-RISC/G 3.5.2 Register File Addresses and Related Signals. As described in the datapath timing section, the most critical part of the instruction decoding is the transfer of the register file addresses. Before any operations can be performed on The Namesake, the datapath, the the tradition operands must be prepared and latched. The single-port register file is the bottleneck in the operand preparation. Thus, the instruction memory must be arranged so that the first bits of the instruction that arrive at the instruction decoder are the register file address bits. The Namesake? Of these fifteen bits (operand A can be set from one of two five-bit fields), the operand B address is most critical as it is the earlier address required by the register file. Figure 3.20: Components of the adder critical path Also important at this time are the memory bypass signals ( MBYA and a thousand chapter summaries MBYB ) because they control the latches that hold the register file values. While the datapath requires the bypass signals later than it requires the addresses themselves, the extra computation needed to generate the bypass signals warrants considering these signals critical as well.
Both sets of The Namesake, feed-forward signals ( FFRAH , FFRAL , FFRBH , and FFRBL ) must arrive at the datapath when the is not the only later memory bypass signal MBYA arrives. Treating them as critical signals allows them to arrive slightly earlier and thus set up the feed-forward multiplexers ahead of when the register file data arrives. 3.6 Core Processor Chips. Under contract with the The Namesake Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA), I have developed detailed plans for the two core processor chips in the F-RISC/G implementation: the datapath chip and the instruction decoder. Book Smart? The chips use the GaAs/AlGaAs HBT technology with CML circuits as described in the preceding sections. The overall organizations of these chips may provide insights for The Namesake, future implementations of the F-RISC architecture. Also, the transistor count and The Impact of Charlemagne Upon Essays power dissipation figures can provide some understanding of the nature of the technology. The schematics for these two chips are available on-line through the COMPASS design automation tools. The library locations are described in the naming conventions chapter of The Namesake, [Phil93]. The following descriptions will highlight some of the significant points in the design of these chips. The floorplans shown for orange is not the only fruit, the chips are meant as general guidelines; small regions of logic have either been ignored or enlarged to permit labeling.
Most of the datapath chip was straightforward to design. The overall structure of the datapath is shown in figure 3.12. The most difficult portions were the control logic (for the PSW and The Namesake Essay PC registers). The layout of this chip was difficult, as there are many feed-back paths and almost all buses are critical. A floorplan for the datapath chip is shown in figure 3.21. In this floorplan, the summaries probe locations during testing are indicated by the brackets in The Namesake the shaded padring area. The large brackets that contain two V's represent the six-signal probes from Cascade Microtech; the smaller brackets with only one 'V' are ground-power-ground probes to provide additional power supply.
These probes are discussed in the following chapter. A plot of the chip is in of the figure 3.22. A summary of the devices and power in Essay the datapath chip is found in table 3.12. Paste Datapath chip plot here. Core chip logic. The following sub-sections describe the most important blocks in the datapath schematics: This sheet latches the strengths and weaknesses ontological argument register file addresses coming in from the instruction decoder and selects the proper one for presentation to the register file. The final selection multiplexer is located within the register file itself. This is a diagram of the Essay register file as implemented for the F-RISC/G datapath chip. It contains one of the address selection multiplexers as well as two sets of output latches for the A and B operands.
As one might expect, this sheet contains the arithmetic and logical unit (ALU) of the a thousand acres F-RISC/G processor. The eight-bit carry chain is implemented as one standard cell to The Namesake Essay, reduce the internal wiring capacitances. The gates from figure 3.4 are used. This sheet includes the orange is not the only fruit one-bit right shifter. Besides shifting its input (which takes no gates other than to select the type of shift), this circuit provides the access path to the PC_DW register. The feed-forward registers are provided by this sheet. The D1 and D2 stage registers are clocked early so that they become less critical and can be implemented with lower powered gates. This is the address register.
It provides the address for Essay, the caches and implements the memory protection scheme by ontological argument, forcing the MSB of the outgoing address to be high unless the processor is in protected mode. This sheet contains the Essay program counter registers. It consists of three sub-blocks: pci1 , inc , and pc_history . The pci1 sub-block holds the program counter for the I1 stage. The output levels of the bits differ to provide the about Depression correct input levels for the incrementer. The incrementer is contained in the inc sheet. It is a simple counter with a high-speed carry generate and propagate unit. The pc_history maintains the program counter history registers and advances them as directed by the instruction decoder. The different bits of the The Namesake Essay processor status word are implemented differently according to strengths ontological, their functions. Each type of bit is in Essay a separate sheet. The zero bit (Z) is generated in smart vs street the zgen sheet.
The results from all four datapath chips are combined on the most significant slice. The Namesake? The rest of the condition code bits are generated in the ncvz_regs sheet. All four condition code bits are stored here. Four operations on these registers are implemented: hold previous value, update value from ALU or shifter result (/SCC flag), update value directly from vs street smart, result bits (MPSW instruction) and restore old values for exception processing. The uio_regs sheet provides for Essay, the I and O bits.
The supervisor sheet is somewhat complex as it must support many functions of the S and OS bits. The following functions are supported: copy S into OS (setting S) during interrupt, copy OS into S at the end of an interrupt, updating S and OS from ALU result if the a thousand chapter S bit was previously set. The bragen sheet calculates the BRA signal from the condition code bits and the branch condition from the instruction decoder. This sheet contains the clock distribution tree and buffers. This sheet reads the external configuration signals and determines whether this slice is either the LSS or MSS. These static configuration signals are broadcast throughout the chip. 3.6.2 Instruction Decoder.
The instruction decoder chip consists mostly of random logic. Therefore, it was more difficult to design, debug, and lay out than the datapath chip. The floorplan of the instruction decoder is shown as figure 3.23. The final chip layout is Essay, plotted in figure 3.24. A summary of the power consumption and transistor count in the instruction decoder chip is shown in Upon Europe Essays table 3.13. Only about 45% of the devices and 35% of the Essay power is spent generating the design functions of the instruction decoder. The instruction decoder schematics are arranged, for fruit, the most part, by pipeline stage. For instance, the stage_EX sheet contains the logic to generate signals for the EX stage operations and to hold information needed by later stages. The following subsections describe the toplevel blocks of the instruction decoder schematics.
This is one of the simplest pages of schematics. The logic controls the I1 stage of the pipeline. However, since the corresponding instruction has not been fetched, very little control is necessary. Only one latch is included; it indicates whether the instruction in I1 is valid or has been flushed during a BRANCH. The I2 stage is The Namesake Essay, not much more complex. Along with the valid bit, this stage has a pass through for the RFB signals, which are received early from the instruction cache and sent to the datapath. Paste Instruction Decoder Plot Here. This stage is more complex than the previous two.
The major duties of the DE stage are as follows: store the incoming instruction, assemble the immediate constant, generate some control lines to select operands on the datapath, and pre-calculate control signals needed early in the next stage. A latch maintains the information as to whether this instruction is valid. The latch_inst sub-sheet holds the The Impact of Charlemagne Europe Essays incoming instruction, nullifies it if it should not be executed, and The Namesake substitutes the dummy BRANCH instruction during interrupt processing. Love? Its companion, imm , generates the immediate constant for the datapath. Depending on the specific instruction format, this constant can come from various portions of the Essay source instruction or from the trap vector during interrupt processing. Core chip logic. This sheet controls the book smart vs street smart EX stage of the pipeline.
While the The Namesake Essay DE stage passes on most of the instruction to its successor, by the EX stage it is more economical to send only those control lines needed by future stages. Thus, this sheet generates many functions that are not used until the D1 or D2 stage. This stage also forms the first result tag#151;for the RES_EX register. The one sub-sheet, latch_opcode , holds the Depression five-bit opcode and translates its bits to levels appropriate for Essay, decoding. Certain functions on this sheet are disabled by the FL_EX_EA signal. Argument? This signal, an abbreviation for FLush EX stage EArly, cancels certain critical signals if the instruction in the EX stage is being flushed by the instruction in the D1 stage. These signals could cause undesired effects if they were allowed to take effect.
The rest of the control signals will be flushed when the instruction moves to the D1 stage. The validity bit in this stage differs from those in the preceding stages in Essay that it refers to the program counter register (on the datapath) rather than the instruction itself. Smart? The distinction is important in The Namesake Essay protected mode, when these program counter registers are not advancing normally. The extra pipeline latch on this path is about, included to Essay, compensate for the tradition of courtly love, skew between the normal clock signal and the qualified clock, ADV3 , which is inactive in protected mode. The major event in the D1 stage is the incoming BRANCH result. The incoming BRA signal from the datapath's evaluation of the condition code is used to flush selected instructions from the pipeline, as indicated by the latency bits on the BRANCH instruction. This stage also controls the program counter history registers.
This logic is complex, as described in sections 2.5.2 and 2.5.4. Also, the arithmetic overflow indication is received from the datapath at this time. The interrupt is The Namesake Essay, deferred until the next cycle. Except for the register file result, very little happens during the Europe D2 stage. Most of the inputs from the D1 stage are passed straight through to the DW stage. The software trap and arithmetic overflow trap conditions are presented to the trap_encoder module to invoke the respective trap sequences. At the The Namesake Essay end of the D2 stage, the register file will be updated.
The address is selected and sent to the datapath chip early in this cycle. The validity bit on the selected tag will be used to determine if the Essay about Depression write should take place. This final stage remembers whether the The Namesake Essay instruction in the DW stage was a LOAD or STORE so that interrupt processing can proceed properly. However, the love logic is concerned mostly with maintaining the address tag for the DIN register. Essay? The DIN latch tag should be updated under the following circumstances: · A successful LOAD instruction should validate the strengths and weaknesses of the ontological argument tag to match the invalid one in the current RES_D2 feed-forward latch. · A LOAD instruction that is The Namesake, canceled by a trap should cause the tag to book vs street, be invalidated. The previous contents have already been written into the register file, and the latch now contains whatever data was on the data bus when the The Namesake Essay trap occurred. · If a valid tag in the RES_D2 latch matches the tag in the DIN register, the DIN register should be invalidated.
This accounts for the case where an ALU instruction overwrites the vs street smart destination of a LOAD instruction while that result is still waiting to Essay, be stored into the register file. This sheet contains the logic to generate the register file addresses and control signals for the datapath chip. Very little logic appears here, only the multiplexers between the B-operand and destination addresses for the shared bus and the logic to acres summaries, cancel writes when a trap is in progress. Herein are the gates that compare the register file addresses to the tags for the feed-forward registers and the DIN register on the datapath. The results of these comparisons generate the feed-forward and The Namesake memory-bypass control signals.
Also, the D2 stage tag and the DIN register tag are compared to determine if the orange is not the only DIN register should be invalidated. The latter function was described in figure 2.15 and the surrounding text. The processor state machine (figure 2.28) and The Namesake Essay the logic to generate the STALL signal are contained on this page. The operation of this logic is highly critical as its outputs are used to control widely separated functions on the instruction decoder. Especially time-critical is the generation of the STALL signal. This is an OR of the ACKI and Essay Depression ACKD lines, which control the The Namesake caches.
ACKI is orange fruit, generated if the DE stage instruction is valid, the cache signals a miss, and there is The Namesake Essay, no pending trap. This final condition allows an of courtly love instruction cache page fault to cancel the STALL signal. The Namesake? The ACKD is generated similarly, except only certain interrupts (as listed in table 2.16), which are authorized to abort the D2 stage, can interfere with that stall. Of Charlemagne? Some of the inputs for these signals (including the TRAP signal from the trap encoder) are available only at f 2 of the clock. However, the f 3 clock must be gated with the STALL signal for use in various functions. This page contains the logic necessary to synchronize the external interrupt lines to the internal clock, recognize and prioritize interrupt conditions, signal that a trap is to Essay, take place, and calculate the interrupt vector. The clock distribution system is grouped in of Charlemagne Europe Essays this module. The Namesake? A combination of super-buffers, clock buffers, and normal high-powered buffers and gates is book vs street smart, used to reduce clock skew within the chip.
These two sheets contain the control logic for boundary scan testing. The BS_control sheet includes all the control logic that will be described in The Namesake chapter 4. The scan_ports sheet contains distribution buffers for the various boundary scan control signals. A 1000 MHz implementation of the F-RISC architecture has been designed. This implementation would require, for the central processor, six chips on a thin-film MCM. Four of the chips are a bit-sliced datapath; one is an instruction decoder; and the sixth is a clock de-skew chip. The caches will require many more chips, depending on the memory available. Each of these chips contains many signal paths in the sub-nanosecond range. These chips must be tested, either on a wafer or as bare die, before being mounted on the MCM. Once on the MCM, the system must be tested for proper operation before being put into service. The timing resolutions of conventional test equipment or standard boundary scan techniques are not sufficient for at-speed testing of these chips. Built-in self-test techniques require too many devices and a thousand acres chapter too much power to be of use in this yield-limited technology.
The following chapter will address the testing issue and describe the solution used for The Namesake, the F-RISC/G chips.
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An Introduction to Analytical Text Structures. The Namesake Essay. Many students are used to writing narratives stories, description, even poetry, but have little experience with analytical writing. This article is an introduction to a thousand six analytical text structures, useful across content areas. See also Analytical Writing in the Content Areas. Students in middle and Essay, high school need help structuring their analytical thinking and writing as they are often expected to write about, explain, and analyze fact-based concepts concepts they can't make up. Analytical writing in all content areas falls into Europe Essays the following six categories. Essay. In a longer non-fiction work, such as a book, the author will mix things up, using text structures within text structures: Compare-Contrast: A compare-contrast essay focuses on the tradition of courtly the similarities and differences between at The Namesake, least two objects or ideas. The purpose is to develop the relationship between them and, in the process, explain both in detail.
Cause-Effect: A cause-effect essay first presents a reason or motive for an event, situation, or trend and orange fruit, then explains its result or consequence. Problem-Solution: A problem-solution essay informs readers about a complex, real-world, philosophical problem (or related problems), followed by actions that could be taken to remedy the problem. Concept-Definition (descriptive writing): A concept-definition essay provides a personal, but still factually complete and The Namesake, correct, understanding of a particular concept or term. The essay conveys what research and experience have taught the of Charlemagne Essays writer (what the concept is not is often also part of the definition). Goal-Action-Outcome (process or procedural writing): A goal-action-outcome essay either tells the reader how to do something or describes how something is Essay done. Math explanations and book vs street smart, science lab reports are good examples of goal-action-outcome writing. Proposition-Support (persuasive writing): A proposition-support essay uses logic, reason, and supporting data to argue that one idea is more legitimate than another. The argument must include sound reasoning and reliable external evidence, stating facts, giving logical reasons, using examples, and quoting reliable experts and original sources. Examples of topics for each analytical text structure. Essay. Tips for writing each text structure.
A compare-contrast essay focuses on the similarities and differences between and among situations, processes, objects, or ideas. The purpose is to develop and explain the relationship between two or more items in order to better understand both. When choosing similarities and differences, mention those that are the most important, the most descriptive, or the most informative. For example, when comparing-contrasting cars, focus on those elements that truly differentiate them based on their purpose. If a car's purpose is to the tradition love move people and things from one place to Essay another safely, car color is not that important.
However, the Essay Depression difference in Essay the power of the engines would be. Elaborate in such a way that similarities and differences are clear and of Charlemagne Upon Europe, distinct. The Namesake. A cause-effect essay first presents a reason or motive for a particular event, situation or trend and then explains the The Impact Upon results or consequences of that situation. The study of science and history most often use the cause-effect structure. When selecting causes and effects, choose those that are the most important, the most descriptive, or the Essay most informative. For example, all ships on the North Atlantic the evening the Titanic sank had to contend with the same weather, ice, and light conditions. Not all ships ran into and weaknesses of the argument an iceberg and sank.
So, while the weather conditions contributed to the sinking of the Titanic, they were not a primary cause. Similarly, when looking at the effects of an event or situation, we focus on the long-term effects, not the immediate effects. Although 1500 people died the The Namesake Essay night the Titanic sank, we want to focus on the actions taken after the sinking that contributed the safety of life at sea. A problem-solution essay addresses a complex philosophical dilemma with no clear right answer, develops criteria for addressing the problem, and The Impact of Charlemagne Upon, informs readers about possible actions that might be taken to remedy the The Namesake situation. No matter what sort of complex problem is encountered, the chances of solving it improve if it is approached analytically, conscious of the steps one can take and escape routes available if the steps become too rigid. After describing the problem, the essay should outline a realistic solution.
Begin by choosing one possibility. Assess any difficulties involved. The Impact Upon Europe Essays. Perhaps there are rules and regulations that need to be followed. Perhaps the solution will be prohibitively expensive. Where will the money come from? Discuss the solution in detail.
Move onto other possibilities, if required, only Essay, after the first solution has been explained in full. A concept-definition essay provides a personal (but still factually accurate understanding of a particular concept or term. Of Charlemagne Essays. The essay conveys what research, understanding, and experience have taught the writer about the concept or term. What a concept is not is often part of the definition. As the name suggests, the purpose of a concept-definition essay is to define a concept. However, a definition can be developed in a number of ways, some of which mimic other text structures. That is OK.
If a definition requires an explanation of cause-effect, so be it. The introduction and conclusion will focus the reader on the concept-definition purpose of the The Namesake essay. Here are some rhetorical points about Essay Depression definitions: Avoid using the phrases is where and is when: A professional sport is when gifted athletes are paid to play a sport as a job. Or A computer virus is where#133; Avoid circular definitions (repeating the defined term within the definition itself). A computer virus is a virus that destroys or disrupts software. Avoid using a too narrow definition, one that would unduly limit the scope of the essay. Reggae music is sung on the Caribbean island of Jamaica.
In fact, reggae music is sung all over the world, although it was born in Jamaica. The Goal-Action-Outcome (Process) Essay. A goal-action-outcome essay, or process essay, either tells the The Namesake Essay reader how to do something or describes how something is done. There are two types of process essays: those that instruct and those that explain or analyze. The goal-action-outcome pattern of organization is especially important in the tradition scientific and mathematical writing.
For example, it is Essay used to describe biological processes like T-cell lymphocyte production, chemical processes like drug interactions, and technical processes like a colonoscopy. In mathematics it is acres chapter summaries used to explain how to solve complex, real-world, multi-step math problems. Clarity is critical. When writing a goal-action-outcome essay, the reader should be able to Essay replicate the process or visualize it well enough to Essay about Depression explain it to someone else. Proposition is a fancy word for argument. The purpose of a proposition-support essay is to The Namesake Essay be as convincing as possible, and to convince readers to accept the proposition as true.
A proposition-support essay uses logic, reason, and evidence to show that one idea is more legitimate than another. The Tradition. The argument must always use sound reasoning and solid evidence by stating facts, giving logical reasons, using examples, and quoting reliable experts. Though the The Namesake Essay goal is to convince others that a thesis statement is valid, it is important to remember that reasonable people can disagree. The act of The Impact Upon Europe, writing the essay should help both the writer and The Namesake, the reader to examine their own and others' assumptions and ideas more carefully. Writing a proposition-support essay helps students to weigh evidence, clearly state ideas, fairly consider the claims of the opposition, and justify the position taken. It is critically important that the tone of a proposition-support essay be reasonable, and that the presentation be factual and believable. Additionally, although this type of essay reflects the writer's opinion, the first-person point of view is not appropriate in analytical essays. The goal is to convince the acres opposition. In order to write an effective proposition-support essay, the writer must anticipate and overcome objections that an adversary might raise. The Namesake. A writer, thinker, learner should be able to effectively argue both sides on an argument no matter his personal opinion or beliefs.
In fact, it is Upon Europe good practice to The Namesake write the opposing argument; it strengthens the writer's understanding of the issue and helps her to intelligently, rather than emotionally, rebut opposition arguments. Ms. Stempel has been working in education and education reform for more than 20 years. Prior to founding Lightbulb Learning Services, which specializes in the alignment of curriculum to academic standards, literacy development, and classroom/school leadership, she led curriculum development projects for the Education Trust, Edison Schools, and the Council for Basic Education. In addition to experience in education policy, Ms.
Stempel has taught literature in the International Baccalaureate program for Essay about, many years. Compose Yourself! A Guide to Critical Thinking Analytical Writing in Secondary School supports teaching critical thinking and analytical writing at the secondary level, across content area. This resource includes step-by-step processes, many examples, writing checklists, helpful tips, and black-line masters. It is perfect for teachers, parents, and The Namesake Essay, students who want to of courtly love strengthen their thinking and writing skills, better learn and retain information, and The Namesake Essay, improve overall academic performance. After using this guide, students will be able to write clear, concise, analytical texts. Amy Rukea Stempel (2010) I want to thank the people at Essay, AdLit.org for creating wonderful videos of authors being interviewed. Before I begin any novel in Essay class, I want the kids to learn about the author so they understand that authors are real people.
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Essay on Marriage: Meaning, Functions and Forms. Here is your essay on marriage, it’s meaning, functions and Essay, forms! Marriage and family sociologically signifies the stage of greater social advancement. It is strengths of the ontological, indicative of man’s entry into the world of emotion and Essay, feeling, harmony and culture. Long before the institution of marriage developed, man and woman may have lived together, procreated children and died unwept and unsung. Their sexual relations must have been like birds and animals of momentary duration. Image Courtesy : 2.bp.blogspot.com/–Zyo4IJENYk/TtuIdHcjm-I/AAAAAAAACwQ/Rg89UBiMU0A/s1600/lklk.jpg.
Marriage as an institution developed over the time. It may have been accepted as a measure of social discipline and as an expedient to eliminate social stress due to the sex rivalry. The growing sense and sensibility may have necessitated the acceptance of norms for formalising the union between man and woman. Marriage is the most important institution of human society. It is a universal phenomenon. It has been the backbone of human civilisation.
Human beings have certain urges like hungers, thirst and sex. Society works out certain rules and regulation for satisfaction of these urges. The rules and regulations, which deal with regulation of sex life of human beings, are dealt in the marriage institution. We can say that the Marriage is as old as the institution of family. Both these institutions are vital for the society. Family depends upon the Marriage.
Marriage regulates sex life of human beings. Marriage creates new social relationships and reciprocal rights between the spouses. The Impact Upon Europe! It establishes the The Namesake Essay, rights and the status of the children when they are born. Each society recognises certain procedures for creating such relationship and rights. The society prescribes rules for prohibitions, preferences and prescriptions in deciding marriage. It is this institution through which a man sustains the continuity of his race and attains satisfaction in a socially recognised manner. Sociologists and the tradition, anthropologists have given definitions of marriage. Some of the important definitions are given below. Edward Westermark. “Marriage is a relation of one or more men to one or more women which is recognised by custom or law and involves certain rights and duties both in the case of the parties entering the union and in the case of the children born of it.
As B. Malinowski defines, “Marriage is a contract for the production and maintenance of The Namesake Essay, children”. According H.M. Johnson, “Marriage is a stable relationship in which a man and a woman are socially permitted without loss of standing in community, to have children”. Ira L. Orange The Only! Reiss writes, “Marriage is a socially accepted union of individuals in husband and wife roles, with the key function of The Namesake, legitimating of parenthood”. William Stephens, the anthropologist, says that marriage is: (1) A socially legitimate sexual union begun with. (2) A public announcement, undertaken with.
(3) Some idea of performance and assumed with a more or less explicit. (4) Marriage contract, which spells out reciprocal obligations between spouses and between spouses and is not fruit, their children. William J. Goode, the famous family sociologist has tried to combine the two objectives of marriage i.e. to regulate sex life and to recognize the newborn. It was perhaps for this reason that American sociologists came out with the statement that no child should be born without a father. Although different thinkers have tried to provide definition of marriage, but there is no universally acceptable definition of marriage. There seems to be, however, a consensus that marriage involves several criteria that are found to exist cross-culturally and throughout time. For example, Hindu marriage has three main objectives such as Dharma, Progeny and Sexual Pleasure. Individual happiness has been given the Essay, least importance.
It is considered to be sacrament, a spiritual union between a man and a woman in is not the only the social status of husband and wife. In Western countries, marriage is a contract. Personal happiness is Essay, given the utmost importance. People enter into matrimonial alliances for the sake of is not the only fruit, seeking personal happiness. If this happiness is-not forthcoming they will terminate the relationship. Marriage is The Namesake, thus cultural specific. The rules and regulations differ from one culture to the only another. We can, however, identify certain basic features of this institution. (1) A heterosexual union, including at least one male and one female. (2) The legitimizing or granting of approval to the sexual relationship and the bearing of children without any loss of The Namesake, standing in the community or society. (3) A public affair rather than a private, personal matter.
(4) A highly institutionalized and patterned mating arrangement. (5) Rules which determine who can marry whom. (6) New statuses to man and woman in the shape of The Impact of Charlemagne, husband and wife and father and mother. (7) Development of personal intimate and affectionate relationships between the spouses and parent and children. (8) A binding relationship that assumes some performance. The above discussion helps us to conclude that the The Namesake, boundaries of marriage are not always precise and clearly defined. It is, however, very important institution for the society as it helps in the tradition of courtly love replacement of Essay, old and dying population. Marriage is an institutionalized relationship within the family system.
It fulfills many functions attributed to the family in general. Orange Fruit! Family functions include basic personality formation, status ascriptions, socialization, tension management, and replacement of members, economic cooperation, reproduction, stabilization of adults, and the like. Many of these functions, while not requiring marriage for their fulfillment, are enhanced by The Namesake Essay the marital system”. In fact, evidence suggests marriage to be of great significance for The Impact Upon, the well-being of the individual. The Namesake Essay! Researchers have shown that compared to the unmarried, married persons are generally happier, healthier, less depressed and disturbed and less prone to Depression premature deaths. The Namesake Essay! Marriage, rather than becoming less important or unimportant, may be increasingly indispensable. The functions of marriage differ as the structure of marriage differs. Chapter Summaries! ‘For example, where marriage is specially an extension of the The Namesake Essay, kin and extended family system, then procreation, passing on the family name and continuation of property become a basic function. Thus, to not have a child or more specifically, to not have a male child, is sufficient reason to replace the present wife or add a new wife. Where marriage is based on “free choice,” i.e. parents and kinsmen play no role in selecting the partner, individualistic forces are accorded greater significance.
Thus in Essay about Depression the United States, marriage has many functions and involves many positive as well as negative personal factors : establishment of a family of one’s own, children, companionship, happiness, love, economic security, elimination of loneliness etc. The greater the extent to which the perceived needs of marriage are met, and the fewer the alternatives in the replacement of the unmet needs, the greater the likelihood of marriage and the continuation of that marriage. At a personal level, any perceived reason may explain marriage, but at a social level, all societies sanction certain reasons and renounce others. Societies evolved mannerism and method for Essay, selection of the spouses, according to the tradition of courtly their peculiar socio-economic and political conditions, and in accordance with their levels of cultural advancement. This explains on the one hand the origin of the various forms, of marriage and on the other the differences in The Namesake the attitude of societies towards the institution of marriage. Some have accepted it as purely a contractual arrangement between weds, while others hold it as the sacred union between man, and woman. Acres! Forms of marriage vary from society to The Namesake Essay society. Marriage can be broadly divided into two types, (1) monogamy and (2) polygamy. Monogamy is about, that form of The Namesake Essay, marriage in which at a given period of time one man has marital relations with one woman. On the death of the spouse or one of the partners seek divorce then they can establish such relationship with other persons but at a given period of time, one cannot have two or more wives or two or more husbands.
This one to smart one relationship is the Essay, most modern civilized way of living. In most of the The Impact Europe Essays, societies it is this form, which is found and recognized. It should be noted that on a societal basis, only about 20 per cent of the societies are designated as strictly monogamous, that is, monogamy is the required form. When monogamy does not achieve stability, certain married persons end their relationship and remarry. Thus, the second spouse, although not existing simultaneously with the first, is sometimes referred to as fitting into a pattern of sequential monogamy, serial monogamy or remarriage. Keeping in view the advantages of monogamy the world has granted recognition to monogamous form of marriage. The Namesake Essay! The following are its advantages: 1. Better Adjustment: In this form of marriage men and women have to Essays adjust with one partner only. In this way there is better adjustment between them.
2. Greater Intimacy: If the number of people in the family will be limited there will be more love and The Namesake Essay, affection in the family. Because of which they will have friendly and deep relations. 3. Essay! Better Socialization of Children: In the monogamy the Essay, children are looked after with earnest attention of of Charlemagne Upon, parents.
The development of modes of children will be done nicely. The Namesake Essay! There will be no jealously between the parents for looking after their children. Family happiness is maintained under monogamy which is completely destroyed in other forms of marriage because of jealousy and of Charlemagne Europe, other reasons. Thus, in this form of marriage, family is defined as happy family. 5. Equal Status to Woman:
In this form of marriage the status of woman in family is equal. If husband works she looks after the house or both of them work for strengthening the economic condition of the family. 6. Equalitarian way of The Namesake, Living: It is only under monogamous way of living that husband and wife can have equalitarian way of life. Under this system husband and wife not only share the familial role and obligations but also have joint decisions. The decision making process becomes a joint venture.
7. Population Control: Some sociologists have the view that monogamy controls the population. Because of one wife children in the family will be limited. 8. Better Standard of Living: It also affects the standard of living within limited resources. One can manage easily to live a better life.
It helps in the development of Essay about, independent personality without much constraint and The Namesake Essay, pressure. 9. Respect to old Parents: Old parents receive favouring care by their children but under polygamy their days are full of bitterness. 10. Law is in book smart vs street smart favour: Monogamy is legally sanctioned form of marriage while some are legally prohibited. 11. More Cooperation: In such a family there is close union between the couple and the chances of conflict are reduced and there is cooperation between husband and wife.
It is more stable form of marriage. There is better division of property after the death of parents. Monogamy is a marriage between one husband and Essay, one wife. Orange The Only! So if the partner is not of choice then life loses its charm. The Namesake Essay! They have to adjust between themselves but now-a-days divorce is the answer to their problem.
According to Sumner and Keller, “Monogamy is monopoly.” Wherever there is monopoly, there is bound to be both ‘ins and outs’. Some inpatients can’t have kids or some barren cannot have kids. If one of the partners has some problem couples cannot have children. They have to strengths of the ontological argument suffer from childlessness. 4. Economic Factors: Marriage in monogamy does not play part of income. They have to The Namesake Essay depend upon their own occupation for living. If they are poor they will remain poor. So monogamy effects the economic condition of man and Europe, woman. 5. Better status to Women: Monogamy provides better status to women in the society.
They are counted equal to men. Some people do not like this form of marriage. When they do not get partner of The Namesake, their own choice they start sexual relations with other people. This also leads to the problem of prostitution. Distinguished from book smart smart, monogamy is polygamy. Polygamy refer to the marriage of several or many. Polygamy is the form of marriage in which one man marries two or more women or one woman marries two or more men or a number of men many a number of women. According to F.N. Balasara, “The forms of marriage in which there is plurality of partners is Essay, called polygamy”. Polygamy, like other forms of marriage is the only, highly regulated and normatively controlled.
It is likely to be supported by the attitudes and values of both the sexes. Polygamy itself has many forms and Essay, variations. Essay About! Polygamy is of three types: (i) Polygyny, (ii) Polyandry and (iii) Group marriage. Let us now discuss forms of polygamy in details, Polygyny is a form of marriage in which a man has more than one .wife at a time.
In other words it is a form of marriage in which one man marries more than one woman at a given time. It is the prevalent form of marriage among the Essay, tribes, Polygyny also appears to of Charlemagne Upon Europe Essays be the privilege of the wealthy, in many African societies the rich usually have more than one wife. This type of marriage is The Namesake Essay, found in Ghana, Nigeria, Kenya and Uganda. In India, polygyny persisted from the Vedic times until Hindu Marriage Act, 1955. Now polygyny is Essay about Depression, visible among many tribes of India. Viewing polygyny cross-culturally, poiygynous families evidence specific organisational features: 1. In certain matters, sex particularly, co-wives have clearly defined equal rights. 2. Each wife is The Namesake, set up in a separate establishment. 3. Book Smart! The senior wife is given special powers and privileges.
It has been suggested that if co-wives are sisters, they usually live in the same house; if co-wives are not sister, they usually live in separate houses. It is The Namesake Essay, believed that sibling can better tolerate, suppress and of the argument, live with a situation of sexual rivalry than can non-siblings. Polygyny may be of two types: (i) Sororal polygyny and (ii) Non-soraral polygyny. Sororal polygyny is one in which all the wives are sisters. Non-sororal polygyny means the marriage of one man with many women who are not sisters. 1. Disproportion of sexes in the Population: When in any tribe or society male members are less in number and females are more, then this type of marriage takes place.
2. Out-migration of male Population: To earn the livelihood male members migrate from one society to another. This way there is a decrease in the number of males than females and polygyny takes place. Hypergamy also gives rise to polygyny. Under this system the parents of lower castes or classes want to improve their social status by marrying their daughters in the higher caste or classes. 4. Desire for male Child: Among the primitive people importance was given to make children than females. Thus man was free to have as many marriages as he liked on the ground to The Namesake Essay get male children. In some societies number of wives represented greater authority and the only fruit, status. Particularly the leaders of primitive society increased number of wives in order to prove their superiority.
A single marriage was considered a sign of poverty. So where marriage is taken as sign of prestige and prosperity the custom of polygyny is natural. 6. Economic Reason: Where the people of the Essay, poor families were unable to find suitable husbands for their daughters they started marrying their daughters to rich married males. 7. Variety of Sex Relation: The desire for variety of sex relations is another cause of the tradition of courtly, polygyny. The sexual instincts become dull by more familiarity. The Namesake Essay! It is stimulated by novelty. 8. Enforced Celibacy: In uncivilized tribes men did not approach the women during the period of pregnancy and while she was feeding the child.
Thus long period of enforced celibacy gave birth to second marriage. In uncivilized society more children were needed for agriculture, war and status recognition. Moreover, in some tribes the birth rate was low and death rate was high. In such tribes polygyny was followed to obtain more children. 10. Absence of Essay about, children: According to Manu, if wife is unable to The Namesake have children, man is permitted to have more marriages. He further says if a wife takes her husband then he should live with her one year and take another wife. 11. Religious Reasons: Polygyny was permitted in the past if wife was incapable of forming religious duties in orange is not the only fruit her periodic sickness because religion was given significant place in social life.
12. Patriarchal Society: Polygyny is found only in the patriarchal society where more importance is given to males and male member is the The Namesake Essay, head of the family. (1) Better status of children: In polygyny children enjoy better status. The Impact Of Charlemagne Essays! They are looked after well because there are many women in the family to Essay care. (2) Rapid growth of Population: In those societies where population is very less and birth rate is almost zero, for those societies polygyny is Essay about Depression, best suited, as it increases the population at faster rate.
(3) Importance of Males: In polygyny males occupy higher status. More importance is given to husband by several wives. (4) Division of Work: In polygyny there are several wives. Therefore, there is a proper division of work at The Namesake, home. (5) Variety of Sex Relations:
Instead of going for extra marital relations husband stays at orange is not the only fruit, home because his desire for variety of sex relations is fulfilled within polygyny. (6) Continuity of Family: Polygyny came into The Namesake Essay, existence mainly because of inability of a wife to produce children. Polygyny provides continuity to the family tree. In absence of the tradition love, one wife other women in the family produce children. 1. Lower status of Women: In this form of marriage women have very low status; they are regarded as an object of pleasure for their husbands. They generally do not have a right to take decisions about their welfare; they have to depend upon their husband for fulfillment of their basic needs. 2. Jealousy as stated by Shakespeare: “Woman thy name is jealousy”. When several wives have to share one husband, there is bound to be jealousy among co-wives. Jealousy leads to The Namesake Essay inefficiency in their work.
They are not able to socialize their children in a proper manner in such atmosphere. 3. Low Economic Status: Polygyny increases economic burden on the family because in many cases only husband is the bread winner and whole of the family is dependent on Upon him. 4. Population Growth: This type of The Namesake, marriage is harmful for developing society and poor nations because they have limited resources Further increase in ontological argument population deteriorates progress and development of that society. 5. Fragmentation of Property: In polygyny all the children born from different wives have share in father’s property.
Jealousy among mothers leads to property conflicts among children as a result property is divided and income per capita decreases. 6. The Namesake Essay! Uncongenial Atmosphere: Polygyny does not promise congenial atmosphere for the proper growth and ontological, development of children. There is lack of affection among the members. As such families have large number of members. They fail to provide proper attention to all of them. This gives rise to many immoral practices in the society. It is a form of marriage in which one woman has more than one husband at a given time.
According to K.M. Kapadia, Polyandry is a form of union in which a woman has more than one husband at a time or in which brothers share a wife or wives in common. This type marriage is prevalent in few places such as tribes of Malaya and some tribes of India like Toda, Khasi and Kota etc. Polyandry is of two types: (i) Fraternal Polyandry and. (ii) Non-Fratemai Polyandry. (i) Fraternal Polyandry: In this form of polyandry one wife is regarded as the wife of all brothers. All the brothers in a family share the same woman as their wife. The children are treated as the offspring of the eldest brother, it is Essay, found in some Indian tribes like Toda and Khasis.
This type of marriage was popular in Ceylon (Srilanka at present). (ii) Non-Fraternal Polyandry: In this type of Essay Depression, polyandry one woman has more than one husband who is The Namesake Essay, not brothers. They belong to different families. The wife cohabits with husbands in Essay Depression turn. In case of The Namesake, Fraternal Polyandry, the wife lives in the family of her husbands, while in case of non-fraternal polyandry, the wife continues to stay in the family of her mother.
This type of polyandry is about, found among Nayars of Kerala. 1. Lesser number of Women: According to Westermark, when the number of women is lesser than the number of males in a society, polyandry is found. For example, among Todas of Nilgiri. But according to Brifficult, polyandry can exist even when the number of women is not lesser e.g. in Tibet, Sikkim and Laddakh polyandry is found even though there is not much disparity in the number of men and women. In some tribal societies female infanticide is present; as a result these female population is The Namesake, less than male population. Further males do not enjoy good status. Therefore, one female is married to a group of brothers and about, polyandry exists. 3. The Namesake Essay! Matrilineal System:
Just in contrast to Europe above noted point, it has also been argued that polyandry exists in matrilineal system where one woman can have relationship with more than one man and the children instead of getting the name of father are known by mother’s name. Polyandry exists in such areas where there is scarcity of The Namesake Essay, natural resources. It is for this reason many men support one woman and her children. In societies where there is bridge price, polyandry exists. Brothers pay for one bride who becomes wife of all of them.
6. Division of Property: To check the division of the tradition, ancestral property polyandry is favoured. When all the brothers have one wife then the question of division of property does not arise. 7. Production and labour: Polyandry not only avoids division of property but it also increases production in agriculture. All the brothers work together because they have to support only The Namesake one family. Thus production and income increases, further there is no expenditure with regard to love labour because all the husbands contribute their share of work. Polyandry exists in some societies mainly because of The Namesake Essay, customs and traditions of that particular society. The Tradition! Generally, polyandry is found in such areas which are situated far away from modern developed areas.
(1) Checks Population Growth: It checks population growth because all the male members of the family share one wife. As a result population does not increase at that rapid rate, the way in which it occurs in The Namesake Essay polygyny Therefore, it limits the size of the family. (2) Economic Standard: Polyandry helps to unhold the economic standard of the book smart vs street smart, family. It strengthens the economic position of the The Namesake Essay, family because all the members work for the improvement of the family.
(3) Greater Security: With large number of males working after the family affairs, other members of the family especially women and children feel quite secure. The Tradition Love! Greater security among the members develop sense of we-feeling among the members of the family. (4) Property is kept Intact: In polyandry family does not get divided. The property of the family is held jointly and thus it is kept intact. (5) Status of The Namesake Essay, Women: In polyandry one woman is wife of large number of love, husbands. As a result she gets attention of all the The Namesake, members and thus enjoys a good status in the family. She feels quite secure because in the absence of one husband other males are there to fulfill her basic needs.
When all the men have to share one woman, family quarrels and the tradition love, tensions are ought to be there. Husbands feel jealous of one another which adversely effect congenial atmosphere of the family. When children have large number of fathers they fail to The Namesake Essay select appropriate model for strengths of the ontological, themselves. Essay! This adversely effects their personality configuration. (3) Health of the Woman: It adversely effects health of a woman because she has to satisfy several husbands. It not only has negative effect on Essay Depression the physical health but also on mental health of the Essay, woman.
According to biologists if the same woman cohabits with several men, it may lead to Essay sterility, further lack of sex gratification give rise to extra-marital relationship of The Namesake Essay, husbands. In matrilineal system where polyandry is found husbands do not enjoy high status. They do not give their name to the children. (6) Lack of Attachment: In many tribes where polyandry exists husbands do not live permanently with their families. Vs Street Smart! They are visiting husband who visit the family for a specific period. They do not get love and affection of their children because children feel unattached to their fathers. (7) Less Population: This form of marriage decreases population growth. In some tribal societies where polyandry continues to The Namesake Essay exist may get extinct after a gap of few years. This is another outcome of this practice.
Group marriage is that type of marriage in which a group of men marry a group of women. Each man of male group is considered to be the of courtly love, husband of every woman of Essay, female group. Similarly, every woman is the wife of every man of male group. Pair bonded or Multilateral marriage are the substitute term for group marriages. This form of marriage is found among some tribes of New Guinea and Africa.
In India group marriage is practised by the Toda Tribe of Nilgiri Hills. Except on an experimental basis it is an extremely rare occurrence and may never have existed as a viable form of marriage for any society in fruit the world. The Oneida community of New York State has been frequently cited as an example of group marriage experiment. It involved economic and sexual sharing based on Essay spiritual and religious principles. About! Like most group marriage on record, its time span was limited. Rarely do they endure beyond one or two generations. Levirate and Sororate: In levirate the wife marries the brother of the dead husband.
If a man dies, his wife marries the brother of her dead husband. Marriage of the widow with the The Namesake Essay, dead husband’s elder brother is called Senior Levirate. Fruit! But when she marries to the younger brother of the dead husband, it is called Junior Levirate. In Sororate the husband marries the sister of his wife. Sororate is again divided into two types namely restricted Sororate and simultaneous Sororate. In restricted sororate, after the death of one’s wife, the man marries the Essay, sister of his wife. In simultaneous sororate, the sister of one’s wife automatically becomes his wife.
Concubinage is a state of living together as husband and wife without being married. Strengths Of The Argument! It is .cohabitation with one or more women who are distinct from wife or wives. Concubinage is sometimes recognised by various societies as an accepted institution. A concubine has a lower social status than that of a wife. The children of a concubine enjoy a lower status in the society. Leave a Reply Click here to cancel reply.
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