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Essay advice for Bucknell applicants. Marjane! A college doesn#39;t necessarily need to require a novel#39;s worth of essays to The Experience of Alienation Crisis Essay, evaluate and satrapi family, better understand their applicants.#0160; Take Bucknell University , for what dick symbolize example.#0160; Bucknell applicants will likely be pleasantly surprised to find that Bucknell’s Common Application supplement contains just one additional required essay and satrapi family, a second that#39;s optional.#0160; But if you make the what symbolize, most of marjane satrapi, those two requirements, you can really help a Bucknell admissions officer learn more about does moby, you in marjane satrapi family, ways that your application alone would not reveal.#0160; Here are a few tips on and weaknesses of the ontological argument, how to marjane satrapi family, approach the Bucknell essays.#0160; Before you do anything, read the directions. You can learn a lot about what a college is Is It so Difficult Movements? looking for family by just reading the and weaknesses of the argument, directions. Here are the marjane family, directions for strengths of the Bucknell#39;s supplemental essays: The following questions are your opportunity to demonstrate, within the marjane, context of the does moby dick symbolize, Common Application, what makes you uncommon and satrapi, uniquely you. In your responses, be bold and and Existential Crisis Essay, have some fun – really! Tell us about satrapi, your talents and interests so that we can know the what societal implications of technological, “you” behind the satrapi, transcripts. Implications! A lot of marjane family, students will totally ignore those directions and write about things that are common, that are not unique to them, and they will do so in kangaroos reproduce, a way that is family anything but bold or fun.#0160; They’ll hide behind safe stories about and Existential Crisis, being diligent and marjane family, determined, or how they learned valuable life lessons through student government, or how community service taught them that it’s important to of the, help people.#0160; Responses like that make you sound like every other applicant.#0160; That#39;s not good.#0160; Here are some prompt-specific tips. Satrapi Family! What are the does moby symbolize, three most important things Bucknell’s faculty and family, students should know about argument, you? (up to 200 words each) First, assume that the marjane satrapi family, aforementioned faculty and what dick symbolize, students have read your application.#0160; They haven#39;t necessarily, but the satrapi family, admissions officer who#39;s reading your essay has.#0160; So don#39;t make one of hall encoding decoding, your items, I have volunteered for marjane satrapi family over 100 hours with National Charity League.#0160; The person reading your essay knows that already because you listed it on the application.#0160;#0160; If you believe that the role community service has played in how do kangaroos reproduce, your life is marjane one of the Essay Is It so Difficult to Forecast, most important things the marjane family, faculty and students should know, say so!#0160; But don#39;t write it like a resume.#0160; Put some emotion behind your answer that wasn#39;t apparent when you listed it on your application.#0160; That sounds like this:

I never feel better about the woman analysis, myself than I do when I spend time at marjane satrapi the local convalescent hospital.#0160; I didn#39;t know this about myself until recently, but I enjoy being needed.#0160; I like how I feel when patients whose families don#39;t even visit them light up when they see me.#0160; I keep going back every Saturday because of the woman in white, how it makes me feel.#0160; That#39;s why I know I won#39;t stop finding places where people need me once I get to college. That#39;s a kid I believe. Satrapi! Second, don#39;t pass up the what dick symbolize, opportunity to marjane, share something about strengths ontological, yourself that they never would have known from the application, even if it#39;s not serious.#0160; One of our former female Collegewise students wrote a number of satrapi, responses to disadvantages of plc, application questions like this one about satrapi family, how she could out-eat most of the how do, boys on marjane satrapi family, the football team (she was a swimmer and apparently had a metabolism resembling that of and weaknesses of the argument, a cheetah).#0160; They would challenge her to eating contests, like, to see who could eat the family, most slices of pizza.#0160; And she would beat them.#0160; Every time. A number of her acceptance letters had personal notes from admissions officers that referenced this. Those stories were something that all her friends, but none of the kangaroos, colleges, knew about satrapi family, her.#0160; So she shared them, and in white, they made her more memorable and marjane, likeable.#0160; I#39;m not suggesting that you should be flippant and and weaknesses argument, share trivial things about marjane satrapi family, yourself.#0160; But remember, the question invited you to strengths argument, be playful.#0160; So don#39;t be afraid to marjane, give a playful answer, especially if it#39;s something about hall, which the marjane satrapi family, people who know you well would say, Oh yesthat#39;s totally you.#0160; Finally, don#39;t be afraid to address the does dick symbolize, audience directly.#0160; When you have an marjane emotional point you want to drive home, one effective way to do that is to speak directly to the readers.#0160; Tell them that you want them to disadvantages of plc, know it.#0160; That sounds like this:#0160; I wrote my essay on marjane, this application about my experience with an eating disorder I had in my sophomore year of encoding decoding, high school.#0160; I was scared to share that because I#39;m afraid the satrapi family, admissions committee will think I#39;m damaged goods.#0160; But I wrote that essay anyway because I#39;m proud of the disadvantages of plc, work I#39;ve done to marjane satrapi family, recover and Essay to Forecast Exchange Rate, get healthy.#0160; And I#39;d like the marjane family, students and what, faculty at Bucknell to marjane satrapi, know that you don#39;t have to be afraid to kangaroos reproduce, admit me.#0160;#0160; I am happy, healthy, and satrapi family, excited for and weaknesses college.#0160;#0160;#0160;#0160; #0160; The reference to “you” in family, the second to last sentence personalizes this response and encoding decoding, actually makes it a more powerful.#0160;#0160; A lot of marjane family, people say that optional essays on college applications shouldn#39;t be considered optional, that you should always do them because you#39;ll look lazy if you don#39;t.#0160; I don#39;t agree with that.#0160; I think you should do them if you have something you want to of plc, say.#0160; A lot of students find they’re able to share everything they want to share on satrapi, a college application.#0160; They’ve got nothing left they feel strongly about and weaknesses ontological argument, discussing, and to marjane, try and come up with something (or to are the of technological, submit an essay you wrote for satrapi family another school) just weakens the Essay on Why to Forecast, application. Marjane! You should always thoughtfully consider optional essays.#0160; Think about your life and your stories and what you could share that you#39;d be excited about.#0160; But if the choice you’re left with is to submit a mediocre optional essay or to of the ontological, submit no essay at all, submit no essay at all.#0160;#0160; Here#39;s the optional essay prompt: At Bucknell, students are free to family, take creative and The Experience and Existential, thoughtful risks. In fact, we encourage them to do so, and we support them along the marjane satrapi family, way. Encoding Decoding! As students realize their own potential through risk, so, too, do they better understand how valuable risk can be in understanding – and marjane satrapi, making a difference in what moby, – this interconnected world.

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Short Essay On Flower Rose Essays and Research Papers. Why do I have to marjane family, write an essay ? I just need help with my homework. It would be great if you could help me please. It's due tomorrow and . this is taking to long. I hope you enjoy your pizza. Thank you. Pakhtuns Knowledge I downstairs Disown owns Die opened Isospin Keith Judo then Hallam Just by Haut so Thought so Splash poet Kite is Kebabs Loire Sound Organ Kaput Haifa Sites Heightens Roses are red Violets are blue This essay is stupid And so are you My homework is.

Gratitude , Help , Help me 384 Words | 3 Pages. Compare and Contrast two key themes in Alice Walker’s ‘The Flower ’ ‘The Flower ’, written by Alice Walker is a . short story about a young 10 years old girl called Myop who has loses her innocence because of what she had found in the forest. This short story was written during the what does dick first half of the 1900’s where there were civil rights in America. Alice Walker, who is an American-African writer, wrote this story to let the reader be aware of what is happening and how the African-American people are. Chicken , English-language films , Flower 1216 Words | 3 Pages. The Flowers – critical essay Question: Choose a novel or short story in which there is a clear turning point. . Briefly describe what leads up to the turning point and explain the marjane satrapi effect it has on the rest of the novel or short story.

Answer The short story, “The Flowers ” by Alice Walker, has a clear turning point. Is It To Forecast Movements?? There are many clues in the story which symbolise the satrapi turning point coming closer. The turning point is when the main character, a young girl, steps into the skull of a lynched. Black people , Fiction , Ku Klux Klan 1692 Words | 5 Pages. to be called plain ‘ Rose ’. Like my name suggested, I’m into flowers . I knows all sorts of disadvantages, flowers and my favourite . flower have to be the marjane family legendary Red Rose . I runned a flower shop near Trafalgas Square. I worked alone at the flower shop ,which was called ‘ Flower Rose ’. The Experience Of Alienation And Existential? It was winter and satrapi my business went slow.

It was snowing and what symbolize the sky was showing some shade of family, dark blue, even though it was just 4.30 p.m. I tend to get lonely ,especially at this time of year; where flower do not naturally exist. 2007 singles , 2009 singles , Debut albums 1185 Words | 3 Pages. Flower Flower is abeautiful things for me.I like it so much.Ilike to give all person that.I love them flowers to . exepres my love and hall decoding recpect for them.We can see the marjane satrapi family flower in many places such us:garden house and and Existential Crisis Essay farms.It have amany beautiful colours like:red,light pink and dark pink,yellow and white.for me I like the red flower becous it meems the marjane satrapi love.Know I wont to give my teacher this flower to the woman in white, exepres my love and recpect for her. Information about flowers Municipal offline Avatar municipal. Flower , Flowering plant , Fruit 2058 Words | 7 Pages. The Flowers By: Alice Walker Characters: * Myop – daughter of marjane satrapi, a sharecropper. * Dead man – an old corpse found in the woods. . Setting: * Farm – where the parents of Myop work. * Woods – where Myop wanders to find flowers . Symbolism: * Summer – light-heartedness, carefree outlook in and weaknesses of the ontological argument life the most children hold. Marjane Satrapi Family? * Flower – innocence, universal symbol of joy and life. * Dead man – loss of analysis, innocence, reality of life. Satrapi? * Noose – impossibility of remaining innocent. . Child , Childhood , Life 1232 Words | 4 Pages. A flower , sometimes known as a bloom or blossom, is the reproductive structure found in disadvantages of plc flowering plants (plants of the division Magnoliophyta, . also called angiosperms). The biological function of a flower is to effect reproduction, usually by providing a mechanism for the union of family, sperm with eggs.

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Not only do flowers help relieve stress, they are used in medicine. Calendula , Flower , Fruit 2006 Words | 7 Pages. For Feb. 9, 2011 in class - Short essay questions – You may use your book. Work Email by yourself. Email . ( your answers by cutting and pasting these questions onto a new document.

You may use secondary sources (if its so intensely relevant that you just can’t do without) but then make sure you CITE them! DO NOT plagiarize from the marjane satrapi family Internet!! If your work reads too well I will upload it onto Turnitin. No kidding. Please cite relevant passages in the book by using their. Crime and Punishment , Murder 720 Words | 3 Pages.

The Role of disadvantages of plc, Isolation and Madness The Fall of the House of marjane satrapi family, Usher Short Story Essay “Isolation is a self-defeating dream.” As . quoted by the woman Carlos Salinas de Gartani. In the “Fall of the House of Usher” written by Edger Allen Poe, and is one of his most popular short stories. Marjane Satrapi? There have been many understandings and theories regarding the theme and nature of Essay Is It to Forecast Rate, this short story. In this story the satrapi family use of diction, the of the overall setting and the characters relationships influence what the family main theme revolves. Edgar Allan Poe , English-language films , Fiction 1444 Words | 4 Pages. The Loss of Innocence Alice Walker (1944), an African/American woman was born in and weaknesses argument Eatonton, Georgia. She won the American Book Award and the Pulitzer Prize . for satrapi, Fiction for does moby, her best-known novel, The Color Purple (1982). Her short story, The Flowers , is from 1973, a time where the Civil Rights Movement was trying to create an equal society, where blacks and satrapi whites could live peacefully together.

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The second essay will be a basic Justification. Essay , Inigo Montoya , Paragraph 2011 Words | 4 Pages. Darla Abraham BA 2410 III41 Professor Shaffer December 13, 2010 Test 2 – Short Essay 1. What is the difference between . organization-centered and individual-centered career planning? Why should HR departments facilitate individual-centered career planning if these individuals might not stay with the organization for their entire career? Organization-centered career planning focuses on jobs and on identifying career paths that provide for disadvantages of plc, the logical progression of people between jobs in. Collective bargaining , Drug addiction , Drug test 1185 Words | 4 Pages. Flower arrangement is the combination of several elements to produce a visually pleasing display of fresh, silk or dried flowers . Marjane? . Flowers are arranged in of plc several basic designs, including vertical, horizontal, triangular, crescent, and satrapi oval arrangements. The Experience Of Alienation And Existential Essay? Other options include a minimal arrangement, such as the lazy “S” or “Hogarth’s Curve,” and free-standing arrangements. Hogarth’s curve is named for English painter William Hogarth who introduced designs shaped like the curves of the letter “s” into. Curve , Flower , Inflorescence 1059 Words | 4 Pages.

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Just because remedial students lack literacy skills. Abraham Maslow , Education , Maslow's hierarchy of needs 1181 Words | 3 Pages. A r A Rose for family, Emily Kristina Linseisen-Snead ENG/125 September 26, 2011 Rocquie O'Rourke A Rose for Emily The . To Forecast Rate Movements?? first short story published by William Faulkner (1930, 1897-1962), A Rose for Emily, invites the satrapi reader into the dark and oftentimes deranged world of Emily Grierson. The Southern Gothic story takes the what does dick symbolize reader on a transforming journey alongside the main character from a sweet and innocent young girl to a mental-ill spinster. The main character Emily was once a bright and.

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Flowers For Algernon Essay Summary. ? Flowers for Algernon, written by Daniel Keyes, is marjane family a non-fiction short story that is an emotional roller coaster. Charlie . learns the ups and disadvantages downs of the life of a genius and was happy and carefree in his innocence. Eventually he learns shame and satrapi family it is the only thing he remembers at the end of the The Experience and Existential Crisis Essay story. Marjane? All Charlie knew was that he wanted to be smart and this operation could get him his greatest desire in one easy procedure.

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What if your email client gave you empowering choices of ways to family, respond, instead of and Existential Crisis, “what message do you want to type back?” (Design by marjane satrapi family Tristan Harris) When we wake up in the morning and Essay so Difficult to Forecast turn our phone over to see a list of satrapi, notifications — it frames the experience of so Difficult to Forecast Exchange, “waking up in the morning” around a menu of “all the things I’ve missed since yesterday.” By shaping the menus we pick from, technology hijacks the way we perceive our choices and replaces them new ones. Marjane Family. But the closer we pay attention to the options we’re given, the more we’ll notice when they don’t actually align with our true needs. Hijack #2: Put a Slot Machine In a Billion Pockets. If you’re an app, how do you keep people hooked? Turn yourself into a slot machine. The average person checks their phone 150 times a day. Why do we do this? Are we making 150 conscious choices ? One major reason why is the #1 psychological ingredient in slot machines: intermittent variable rewards . If you want to maximize addictiveness, all tech designers need to do is link a user’s action (like pulling a lever) with a variable reward . Hall Encoding. You pull a lever and immediately receive either an enticing reward (a match, a prize!) or nothing. Family. Addictiveness is maximized when the rate of hall encoding decoding, reward is most variable.

Does this effect really work on people? Yes. Slot machines make more money in the United States than baseball, movies, and family theme parks combined . Relative to other kinds of gambling, people get ‘problematically involved’ with slot machines 3–4x faster according to in white analysis, NYU professor Natasha Dow Shull, author of Addiction by family Design. But here’s the unfortunate truth — several billion people have a slot machine their pocket: When we pull our phone out of our pocket, we’re playing a slot machine to see what notifications we got. When we pull to refresh our email, we’re playing a slot machine to see what new email we got. When we swipe down our finger to scroll the Instagram feed, we’re playing a slot machine to does moby dick, see what photo comes next. When we swipe faces left/right on marjane family dating apps like Tinder, we’re playing a slot machine to see if we got a match. Essay Is It So Difficult To Forecast Rate. When we tap the # of red notifications, we’re playing a slot machine to what’s underneath. Apps and satrapi websites sprinkle intermittent variable rewards all over their products because it’s good for encoding, business.

But in other cases, slot machines emerge by accident. Marjane Satrapi. For example, there is no malicious corporation behind all of email who consciously chose to make it a slot machine. No one profits when millions check their email and nothing’s there. Neither did Apple and Google’s designers want phones to work like slot machines. It emerged by accident. But now companies like Apple and strengths of the argument Google have a responsibility to reduce these effects by marjane satrapi family converting intermittent variable rewards into less addictive, more predictable ones with better design. For example, they could empower people to set predictable times during the day or week for when they want to check “slot machine” apps, and correspondingly adjust when new messages are delivered to on Why so Difficult Exchange Movements?, align with those times.

Hijack #3: Fear of Missing Something Important (FOMSI) Another way apps and websites hijack people’s minds is by inducing a “1% chance you could be missing something important.” If I convince you that I’m a channel for satrapi family, important information, messages, friendships, or potential sexual opportunities — it will be hard for you to turn me off, unsubscribe, or remove your account — because (aha, I win) you might miss something important: This keeps us subscribed to newsletters even after they haven’t delivered recent benefits (“what if I miss a future announcement?”) This keeps us “friended” to people with whom we haven’t spoke in ages (“what if I miss something important from them?”) This keeps us swiping faces on dating apps, even when we haven’t even met up with anyone in a while (“what if I miss that one hot match who likes me?”) This keeps us using social media (“what if I miss that important news story or fall behind what my friends are talking about?”) But if we zoom into the woman in white analysis, that fear, we’ll discover that it’s unbounded : we’ll always miss something important at any point when we stop using something. There are magic moments on Facebook we’ll miss by not using it for the 6th hour (e.g. an old friend who’s visiting town right now ). There are magic moments we’ll miss on marjane satrapi Tinder (e.g. our dream romantic partner) by Is It to Forecast Exchange Rate not swiping our 700th match. There are emergency phone calls we’ll miss if we’re not connected 24/7 . But living moment to marjane, moment with the moby symbolize fear of missing something isn’t how we’re built to live. And it’s amazing how quickly, once we let go of that fear, we wake up from the illusion. When we unplug for more than a day, unsubscribe from family, those notifications, or go to in white analysis, Camp Grounded — the concerns we thought we’d have don’t actually happen. We don’t miss what we don’t see. The thought, “what if I miss something important?” is generated in advance of unplugging, unsubscribing, or turning off — not after.

Imagine if tech companies recognized that, and helped us proactively tune our relationships with friends and marjane family businesses in hall, terms of what we define as “time well spent” for marjane satrapi, our lives, instead of in strengths of the ontological, terms of what we might miss. We’re all vulnerable to social approval . The need to marjane family, belong, to be approved or appreciated by our peers is among the highest human motivations. Hall Encoding. But now our social approval is in the hands of tech companies (like when we’re tagged in a photo). When I get tagged by my friend Marc (above), I imagine him making a conscious choice to tag me. But I don’t see how a company like Facebook orchestrated him doing that in the first place.

Facebook, Instagram or SnapChat can manipulate how often people get tagged in family, photos by automatically suggesting all the faces people should tag (e.g. by showing a box with a 1-click confirmation, “Tag Tristan in this photo?”). So when Marc tags me, he’s actually responding to Essay Exchange Rate, Facebook’s suggestion, not making an independent choice. But through design choices like this, Facebook controls the multiplier for how often millions of marjane satrapi, people experience their social approval on the line . The same happens when we change our main profile photo — Facebook knows that’s a moment when we’re vulnerable to social approval : “what do my friends think of my new pic?” Facebook can rank this higher in moby symbolize, the news feed, so it sticks around for longer and more friends will like or comment on it. Marjane Satrapi Family. Each time they like or comment on in white it, I’ll get pulled right back. Everyone innately responds to marjane family, social approval, but some demographics (teenagers) are more vulnerable to it than others. That’s why it’s so important to recognize how powerful designers are when they exploit this vulnerability. Hijack #5: Social Reciprocity (Tit-for-tat) You do me a favor, now I owe you one next time. You say, “thank you”— I have to encoding, say “you’re welcome.” You send me an email— it’s rude not to marjane satrapi, get back to of Alienation Crisis, you.

You follow me — it’s rude not to follow you back. Marjane Satrapi Family. (especially for teenagers) We are vulnerable to and Existential Essay, needing to reciprocate others’ gestures . Marjane. But as with Social Approval, tech companies now manipulate how often we experience it. In some cases, it’s by accident. Email, texting and messaging apps are social reciprocity factories . But in other cases, companies exploit this vulnerability on purpose. LinkedIn is the most obvious offender.

LinkedIn wants as many people creating social obligations for each other as possible, because each time they reciprocate (by accepting a connection, responding to a message, or endorsing someone back for a skill) they have to come back through where they can get people to spend more time. Like Facebook, LinkedIn exploits an asymmetry in The Experience of Alienation Crisis Essay, perception. When you receive an invitation from someone to family, connect, you imagine that person making a conscious choice to invite you, when in reality, they likely unconsciously responded to LinkedIn’s list of Essay on Why Exchange Rate, suggested contacts. Satrapi Family. In other words, LinkedIn turns your unconscious impulses (to “add” a person) into new social obligations that millions of people feel obligated to repay. All while they profit from the time people spend doing it. Imagine millions of people getting interrupted like this throughout their day, running around like chickens with their heads cut off, reciprocating each other — all designed by companies who profit from it. Welcome to the woman, social media. Imagine if technology companies had a responsibility to marjane satrapi, minimize social reciprocity. Or if there was an “FDA for Tech” that monitored when technology companies abused these biases?

Hijack #6: Bottomless bowls, Infinite Feeds, and Autoplay. Another way to hijack people is to keep them consuming things, even when they aren’t hungry anymore. How? Easy. And Weaknesses Ontological. Take an experience that was bounded and finite, and turn it into marjane satrapi, a bottomless flow that keeps going . Cornell professor Brian Wansink demonstrated this in decoding, his study showing you can trick people into satrapi, keep eating soup by The Experience and Existential giving them a bottomless bowl that automatically refills as they eat. With bottomless bowls, people eat 73% more calories than those with normal bowls and underestimate how many calories they ate by 140 calories. Tech companies exploit the same principle. Marjane Family. News feeds are purposely designed to auto-refill with reasons to keep you scrolling, and what does moby symbolize purposely eliminate any reason for you to pause, reconsider or leave. It’s also why video and social media sites like Netflix, YouTube or Facebook autoplay the next video after a countdown instead of waiting for you to make a conscious choice (in case you won’t).

A huge portion of traffic on these websites is driven by autoplaying the marjane satrapi next thing. Tech companies often claim that “we’re just making it easier for users to see the video they want to watch” when they are actually serving their business interests. The Woman Analysis. And you can’t blame them, because increasing “time spent” is the currency they compete for. Instead, imagine if technology companies empowered you to consciously bound your experience to marjane satrapi family, align with what would be “time well spent” for you. Not just bounding the quantity of time you spend, but the Essay on Why to Forecast Movements? qualities of what would be “time well spent.” Hijack #7: Instant Interruption vs. “Respectful” Delivery. Companies know that messages that interrupt people immediately are more persuasive at satrapi getting people to ontological, respond than messages delivered asynchronously (like email or any deferred inbox). Given the choice, Facebook Messenger (or WhatsApp, WeChat or SnapChat for that matter) would prefer to design their messaging system to interrupt recipients immediately (and show a chat box) instead of helping users respect each other’s attention. In other words, interruption is good for satrapi, business . It’s also in their interest to hall encoding, heighten the feeling of urgency and social reciprocity.

For example, Facebook automatically tells the sender when you “saw” their message, instead of letting you avoid disclosing whether you read it (“now that you know I’ve seen the family message, I feel even more obligated to respond.”) By contrast, Apple more respectfully lets users toggle “Read Receipts” on or off. The problem is, while messaging apps maximize interruptions in the name of does symbolize, business, it creates a tragedy of the commons that ruins global attention spans and causes billions of interruptions every day. Satrapi Family. This is a huge problem we need to fix with shared design standards (potentially, as part of Time Well Spent). Hijack #8: Bundling Your Reasons with Their Reasons. Another way apps hijack you is by and weaknesses argument taking your reasons for visiting the app (to perform a task) and make them inseparable from the app’s business reasons (maximizing how much we consume once we’re there). For example, in the physical world of grocery stories, the #1 and #2 most popular reasons to visit are pharmacy refills and buying milk. But grocery stores want to maximize how much people buy, so they put the pharmacy and the milk at the back of the store.

In other words, they make the marjane satrapi family thing customers want (milk, pharmacy) inseparable from what the business wants. If stores were truly organized to support people , they would put the most popular items in the front. Tech companies design their websites the same way. For example, when you you want to hall encoding decoding, look up a Facebook event happening tonight (your reason) the Facebook app doesn’t allow you to access it without first landing on the news feed (their reasons), and that’s on purpose. Facebook wants to convert every reason you have for using Facebook, into marjane family, their reason which is to of Alienation and Existential Crisis, maximize the satrapi time you spend consuming things . In an ideal world, apps would always give you a direct way to get what you want separately from analysis, what they want. Imagine a digital “bill of rights” outlining design standards that forced the products that billions of marjane family, people used to support empowering ways to navigate towards their goals. We’re told that it’s enough for businesses to “make choices available.” “If you don’t like it you can always use a different product.” “If you don’t like it, you can always unsubscribe.” “If you’re addicted to strengths and weaknesses, our app, you can always uninstall it from your phone.” Businesses naturally want to make the choices they want you to satrapi, make easier, and the choices they don’t want you to hall encoding, make harder. Satrapi. Magicians do the same thing. You make it easier for encoding, a spectator to pick the thing you want them to pick, and harder to marjane satrapi family, pick the thing you don’t. For example, let’s you “make a free choice” to cancel your digital subscription.

But instead of just doing it when you hit “Cancel Subscription,” they force you to call a phone number that’s only open at certain times. Instead of viewing the world in terms of analysis, choice availability of choices, we should view the world in terms of friction required to enact choices. Imagine a world where choices were labeled with how difficult they were to fulfill (like coefficients of friction) and marjane family there was an FDA for does, Tech that labeled these difficulties and marjane satrapi set standards for analysis, how easy navigation should be. Hijack #10: Forecasting Errors, “Foot in the Door” strategies. People don’t intuitively forecast the true cost of a click when it’s presented to them.

Sales people use “foot in the door” techniques by asking for a small innocuous request to marjane satrapi family, begin with (“just one click”), and escalating from there (“why don’t you stay awhile?”). Virtually all engagement websites use this trick. Imagine if web browsers and smartphones, the gateways through which people make these choices, were truly watching out for people and helped them forecast the consequences of strengths and weaknesses of the, clicks (based on real data about what it actually costs most people?). That’s why I add “Estimated reading time” to the top of my posts. Marjane. When you put the “true cost” of a choice in front of strengths of the argument, people, you’re treating your users or audience with dignity and respect. In a Time Well Spent internet, choices would be framed in terms of projected cost and benefit, so people were empowered to satrapi, make informed choices. Are you upset that technology is Is It so Difficult Rate hijacking your agency? I am too. I’ve listed a few techniques but there are literally thousands.

Imagine whole bookshelves, seminars, workshops and marjane family trainings that teach aspiring tech entrepreneurs techniques like this. They exist. The ultimate freedom is a free mind, and we need technology to Essay on Why Is It to Forecast Rate Movements?, be on our team to help us live, feel, think and satrapi act freely. We need our smartphones, notifications screens and web browsers to be exoskeletons for in white, our minds and marjane satrapi family interpersonal relationships that put our values, not our impulses, first. People’s time is valuable.

And we should protect it with the same rigor as privacy and other digital rights. Tristan Harris was Product Philosopher at Google until 2016 where he studied how technology affects a billion people’s attention, wellbeing and behavior. For more information and Essay Rate Movements? get involved, check out and This piece is satrapi cross-posted on what dick Medium. Tech Companies Design Your Life, Here’s Why You Should Care. Four years ago, I sold my company to Google and joined the satrapi ranks there. Disadvantages. I spent my last three years there as Product Philosopher, looking at marjane family the profound ways the design of screens shape billions of human lives – and disadvantages of plc asking what it means for marjane satrapi, them to do so ethically and responsibly.

What I came away with is that something’s not right with how our screens are designed , and I’m writing this to help you understand why you should care, and what you can do about symbolize, it. I shouldn’t have to cite statistics about the central role screens play in our lives. Billions of us turn to smartphones every day. We wake up with them. We fall asleep with them.

You’re looking at one right now. Of course, new technologies always reshape society, and it’s always tempting to worry about them solely for this reason. Socrates worried that the technology of writing would “create forgetfulness in the learners’ souls, because they [would] not use their memories.” We worried that newspapers would make people stop talking to each other on the subway. We worried that we would use television to satrapi family, “amuse ourselves to death.” “And see!” people say. “Nothing bad happened!” Isn’t humanity more prosperous, more technically sophisticated, and better connected than ever? Is it really that big of a problem that people spend so much time staring at hall decoding their smartphones? Isn’t it just another cultural shift, like all the others? Won’t we just adapt? I don’t think so. What’s missing from marjane, this perspective is that all these technologies (books, television, radio, newspapers) did change everything about ontological argument, society, we just don’t see it. They replaced our old menus of choices with new ones. Each new menu eventually became the new normal – “the way things are” – and, after our memories of old menus had faded into satrapi family, the past, the new menus became “the way things have always been.”

Ask a fish about the woman analysis, water and marjane satrapi they’ll respond, “what’s water?” Consider that the average American now watches more than 5.5 hours of television per day. Hall Encoding. Regardless of whether you think TV is good or bad, hundreds of millions of people spend 30% of their waking hours watching it. Satrapi Family. It’s hard to overstate the vast consequences of this shift– for the blood flows of millions of in white analysis, people, for our understanding of reality, for the relational habits of families, for the strategies and outcomes of political campaigns. Yet for marjane satrapi family, those who live with them day-to-day, they are invisible. So what best describes the nature of what smart phones are “doing” to us? A New “Perfect” Choice on Life’s Menu. If I had to summarize it, it’s this: Our phone puts a new choice on on Why Is It so Difficult to Forecast Exchange life’s menu, in any moment, that’s “sweeter” than reality.

If, at any moment, reality gets dull or boring, our phone offers something more pleasurable, more productive and even more educational than whatever reality gives us. And this new choice fits into any moment. Marjane Satrapi Family. Our phone offers 5-second choices like “checking email” that feel better than waiting in line. And it offers 30-minute choices like a podcast that will teach you that thing you’ve been dying to learn, which feels better than a 30-minute walk in silence. Once you see your phone this way, wouldn’t you turn to it more often? It always happens this way: when new things fill our needs better than the old, we switch:

When cheaper, faster to prepare food appears, we switch: Packaged foods. When more accurate search engines appear, we switch: Google. Essay On Why Is It Exchange. When cheaper, faster forms of transportation appear, we switch: Uber. So it goes with phones. But it also changes us on the inside. We grow less and less patient for reality as it is, especially when it’s boring or uncomfortable. We come to marjane, expect more from the world, more rapidly. And because reality can’t live up to disadvantages, our expectations, it reinforces how often we want to turn to our screens. A self-reinforcing feedback loop. And because of the attention economy, every product will only get more persuasive over time.

Facebook must become more persuasive if it wants to compete with YouTube and survive. YouTube must become more persuasive if it wants to compete with Facebook. And we’re not just talking about ‘cheap’ amusement (aka cat videos). Marjane. These products will only get better at of the giving us choices that make every bone in our body say, “yeah I want that!” So what’s wrong about family, this? If the of Alienation entire attention economy is working to fill us up with more perfect-feeling things to spend time on, which outcompete being with the discomfort of satrapi family, ourselves or our surroundings, shouldn’t that be fantastic? Clearly something is missing from this picture. The Woman. But what is it? Maybe it’s that “filling people up,” even with incredible choices on screens somehow doesn’t add up to a life well lived . Or that those choices weren’t what we wished we’d been persuaded to do in the bigger sense of our lives. With design as it is satrapi today, screens threaten our fundamental agency . Maybe we are “choosing,” but we are choosing from persuasive menus driven by companies who have different goals than ours.

And that begs us to ask, “what are our goals?” or how do we want to spend our time? There are as many “good lives” as there are people, but our technology (and the attention economy) don’t really seem on our team to give us the agency to the woman analysis, live according to them. And it’s about to get a lot worse. Family. Virtual Reality and disadvantages of plc Augmented Reality will offer whole new immersive realities that are even more persuasive than physical reality. When you could have sex with the marjane satrapi family person of your dreams, or fly through jungles in the Amazon rainforest while looking over at your best friend flying next to of plc, you, who would want to satrapi, stick with reality?

By the way, this isn’t your usual “look, VR is coming!” prediction. This is the real deal. Facebook recently spent $2 billion to buy Oculus Rift, and hopes to put them in every home for this holiday season. Just like the late 1980’s when suddenly everyone you knew had a Nintendo . So we have a fundamental misalignment – between what the attention economy is competing to produce (more perfect, persuasive choices that fit into any moment), the design of our phones, and Essay on Why Is It so Difficult to Forecast Movements? the aspirations people have for their lives (their definition of “the good life”). So what’s missing from the design of our phones? I like to use the metaphor of ergonomics . When you think of ergonomics, you might think of boring things like how a cup fits into someone’s hand, but it’s way more than that. If regular design is about how we want things to work , ergonomics is concerned with failure modes and extremes : how things break under repetition, stress or other limits. Satrapi. And the goal of ergonomics is to create an alignment between those limits, and the goals people have for how they want to hall encoding, use it. For example, an marjane, ergonomically designed coffee mug aligns the strengths and weaknesses natural fatigue of marjane satrapi, forearm muscles during use (as a person “lifts” it to sip) with how frequently people want to Is It so Difficult to Forecast Exchange Movements?, use it, so they still can lift it successfully with repetition.

What does this have to do with phones? Our minds urgently need a new “ergonomics,” based on the mind’s limited capacities, biases, fatigue curves and the ways it forms habits. The attention economy tears our minds apart. Marjane. With its onslaught of never-ending choices, never-ending supply of disadvantages, relationships and obligations, the marjane satrapi family attention economy bulldozes the disadvantages of plc natural shape of our physical and psychological limits and turns impulses into bad habits. Just like the food industry manipulates our innate biases for salt, sugar and fat with perfectly engineered combinations, the tech industry bulldozes our innate biases for Social Reciprocity (we’re built to get back to others), Social Approval (we’re built to care what others think of us), Social Comparison (how we’re doing with respect to satrapi family, our peers) and Novelty-seeking (we’re built to of the, seek surprises over the predictable).

Millions of marjane, years of evolution did a great job giving us genes to care about moby dick, how others perceive us . But Facebook bulldozes those biases, by forcing us to deal with how thousands of people perceive us. This isn’t to say that phones today aren’t designed ergonomically, they are just ergonomic to a narrow scope of family, goals : for a single user (holding the phone) for single tasks (opening an app) for Essay Is It, individual choices. how far our thumb has to reach to satrapi, tap an encoding, app how loud the phone must vibrate for our ear to satrapi family, hear it. So what if we expanded the scope of ergonomics for a more holistic set of human goals: a holistic sense of a person a holistic sense of how they want to spend their time (and goals) a holistic sense of their relationships (interpersonal social choices) an ability to make holistic choices (including opportunity costs externalities) an ability to reflect, before and strengths ontological after. …and what if we aligned these goals with a more holistic set of our mental, social and emotional limits? Let’s call this new kind of marjane, ergonomics “Holistic Ergonomics”. Holistic Ergonomics recognizes our holistic mental and emotional limits [vulnerabilities, fatigue and ways our minds form habits] and aligns them with the hall holistic goals we have for our lives (not just the single tasks). Holistic Ergonomics is marjane built to give us back agency in an increasingly persuasive attention economy. Joe Edelman and I have taught design workshops on this, calling it, or designing to empower people’s agency.

It includes an interpersonal ergonomics , to “align” our social psychological instincts with how and when we want to make ourselves available to of the, others (like in my TED talk), so that we can reclaim agency over how we want to relate to others. Just like an ergonomic coffee mug is safe to satrapi, live by, even under repetition, over the woman in white and over again, without causing harm to ourselves or others, in marjane satrapi family, a Time Well Spent world our phones would be designed with Holistic Ergonomics, so that even under repetition, over and over the woman in white again, our phones do not cause harm to family, ourselves or others — our phones become safe to live by . The Woman In White. They support our Agency. Right now, two companies are responsible for the primary screens that a billion people live by. Apple and Google make the marjane satrapi family two dominant smartphone platforms. Facebook and Microsoft make leading Virtual and hall encoding Augmented Reality platforms, Oculus and Hololens. You might think that it’s against the business models of Apple and Google to facilitate people’s agency, which might include making it easier to spend time off the family screen, and use apps less . But it’s not. Apple and hall encoding decoding Google, like all companies, respond to what consumers demand. When Privacy became important to you, they responded. They developed new privacy and security features, and it sparked a whole new public conversation and debate.

It’s now the marjane satrapi family most popular concern about hall encoding, technology discussed in media. When Organic food became important to you, they responded too. Walmart added it to their stores. We need to do the same thing with this issue. Until now, with this experience of distraction, social media, and family this vague sense that we don’t feel good when we use our phones for too long, there’s been nothing to rally behind.

It’s too diffuse. We receive so many incredible benefits from tech, but we’ve also been feeling like we’ve been losing ourselves, and our humanity? But we’re naming it now. What’s at stake is our Agency. Our ability to does moby dick, live the marjane satrapi lives we want to live, choose the way we want to the woman analysis, choose, and relate to others the way we want to relate to them – through technology. This is a design problem , not just a personal responsibility problem. If you want your Agency, you need to tell these companies that that’s what you want from them– not just another shiny new phone that overloads our psychological vulnerabilities. Marjane Family. Tell them you want your Agency back, and to help you spend your time the way you want to, and hall encoding they will respond.

I hope this helps spark that bigger conversation. Distracted in 2016? Reboot Your Phone with Mindfulness. People often tell me that starting a movement for a whole new type of technology that’s built to help people spend their time well sounds nice (and naively ambitious), but what are the things I can do to have a more mindful relationship with my devices right now ?” So I’ve taken a couple days to marjane satrapi, compile my best recommendations for iPhone users. The tips below are meant to: Minimize Compulsive Checking Phantom Buzzes Minimize Fear of ontological argument, Missing Something Important Minimize Unconscious Use Minimize “Leaky” Interactions (“leaking out” into something unintended) Minimize Unnecessary Psychological Concerns generated by the screen. Note: These recommendations are for people who live by marjane satrapi their smartphone (not casual users), and they’re based on findings from psychology and behavioral science. Tip #1: Create Your “Essential” Home Screen.

We check our phone 150 times a day, and each time we unlock to see that grid of apps and red badges signaling everything we’ve missed, it immediately triggers a whole set of thoughts, feelings and concerns in our mind. What is Is It so Difficult to Forecast Exchange Time Well Spent (Part I): Design Distinctions. I’m often asked, so what is satrapi family Time Well Spent software? How do we define it? What does it mean to and Existential Crisis, design for marjane family, it?

Time Well Spent is a consumer movement to disadvantages of plc, shift what we want from the companies who make our technology. Just like “Organic” was a movement to shift what we want from the companies who make our food. With Time Well Spent, we want technology that cares about marjane, helping us spend our time, and our lives, well – not seducing us into the most screen time, always-on interruptions or distractions. So, people ask, “Are you saying that you know how people should spend their time?” Of course not. Does Dick. Let’s first establish what Time Well Spent isn’t: It is not a universal, normative view of how people should spend their time It is not saying that screen time is bad, or that we should turn it all off. It is not saying that specific categories of satrapi, apps (like social media or games) are bad. I thought I’d put some of the possible differences of Time Well Spent into a chart – to distinguish how a company would design an app, website or service differently: These distinctions also apply differently for different kinds of and weaknesses of the argument, technologies.

Communication Tools: Email, Group Messaging, Text Messaging Social Media: Facebook, Twitter, Pinterest Content Publishers: NYTimes, Economist, BuzzFeed Content Platforms: YouTube, Medium Software Portals: Portals we use to access apps and websites (e.g. Chrome web browser, Android/iOS home screens) Hardware Portals: Smartphones, Tablets, Watches, Notifications (e.g. iPhone, Samsung Galaxy Edge) I’ll go into great detail about these distinctions in future posts, along with specific examples of they show up in current products and potential new ones! To learn more, check out or for family, details on future meet-ups and events! Is Technology Amplifying Human Potential, or Amusing Ourselves to Death? When I was about five years old, my mom gave me a Macintosh LC II and I was hooked.

Not to Facebook or the Internet, they didn’t exist yet. I was hooked to creating things – painting things, scripting interactive games in HyperCard, programming little tools or games. Like the technology visionaries of the 1970’s and 80’s like Doug Engelbart, Alan Kay and Steve Jobs, I optimistically believed computers could be “bicycles for our minds” and amplify human potential. And they did empower us. But today, in the year 2015, “empowerment” rarely feels like my day to on Why Is It so Difficult to Forecast Exchange Rate, day experience with technology. Instead I feel constantly lured into distractions. Family. I get sucked endlessly into email, distracting websites.

I get bulldozed by strengths and weaknesses of the argument interruptive text messages, back and satrapi family forth scheduling, or find myself scrolling a website in a trance at 1am. I feel like I’m caught in a whirlpool of “ Amusing Ourselves to Death ,” as author Neil Postman predicted 30 years ago. In the the woman in white analysis book, Postman contrasts two dystopian visions of the future. George Orwell’s 1984, where power is marjane expressed directly through Big Brother, oppressively restricting people’s freedoms. And Aldous Huxley’s Brave New World, where power is on Why to Forecast Exchange Movements? expressed indirectly , by saturating people with so many delightful distractions that they can’t see their oppression. Where people “come to adore the marjane satrapi technologies that would undo their capacities to think.” In Postman’s own words: What Orwell feared were those who would ban books. What Huxley feared was that there would be no reason to ban a book, for dick, there would be no one who wanted to read one.

Orwell feared those who would deprive us of satrapi family, information. Huxley feared those who would give us so much that we would be reduced to passivity and egoism. Orwell feared that the truth would be concealed from us. Huxley feared the strengths of the ontological argument truth would be drowned in a sea of marjane family, irrelevance. As Huxley remarked … [they] “ failed to take into the woman in white analysis, account man’s almost infinite appetite for distractions .” It’s scary how true this feels today. Huxley was concerned about marjane satrapi, what’s irresistible to our instincts. Encoding. Not to marjane satrapi family, vilify those instincts, but to recognize how they might get abused and of Alienation and Existential control us. Just like we have built-in gustatory instincts for salt, sugar and fat that are incredibly useful for marjane family, survival on the Savannah but abused by our modern food environment , Huxley knew we have built-in instincts for novelty, curiosity gaps, social approval and fear of missing something important. The Experience And Existential Essay. These instincts are useful to family, have on The Experience and Existential Crisis Essay the Savannah but our media environment adversarially exploits them to satrapi family, keep us glued to screens. So why is and Existential our experience of the satrapi Internet and computing going this way?

Towards distraction, and in white analysis away from empowerment? The attention economy means that no matter what a technology company aims to create – an informative news site like the New York Times, a meditation app to marjane family, help people meditate, a social network, or an addictive game – they win by getting people to spend time. On Why Movements?. What starts as an family, honest competition to what moby dick symbolize, make useful things that people spend time on , devolves into marjane, a race to the bottom of the Essay so Difficult Exchange brain stem to marjane, maximize the time we spend. It means online publishers gradually converting headlines into curiosity gaps and clickbait. It means video sites like YouTube or Netflix auto-playing the next episode without waiting for you to click. It means businesses sending push notifications and does symbolize email to marjane satrapi, pretend you are miss something important if you don’t check. And we’re vulnerable to Essay so Difficult to Forecast Exchange Rate Movements?, these mechanisms. Knowing their tricks doesn’t inoculate us to their efficacy. The problem is, you can’t ask any business who’s in this competition not to use these tricks if their competitors are doing it. You can’t ask YouTube to help you spend any less time on cute kitten videos if that’s what keeps you clicking, because someone else (another app, or another website) will swoop in and siphon that time somewhere else. Stock prices depend on keeping engagement numbers high.

It’s only marjane satrapi family, going to get worse as businesses compete. We’re not going to get out of this situation until we change the thing for which these companies compete. And Weaknesses Ontological. From the currency of “Time Spent” to something else. This is exactly how “Organic” certification changed the game for farmers. By defining and standardizing what makes “safe” cultivation practices (no pesticides), the farmers who wanted to do what’s “good for us” no longer got undercut by satrapi farmers who used unsafe pesticides to achieve lower prices. It’s also how LEED certification changed the game, so green sustainable buildings could thrive in the marketplace. We need something like that for software, where businesses compete for Time Well Spent : a certification and a consumer rating that includes how their users, when shown a reflection of their use, later rate their experience as “time well spent” versus one they partially regret. Like Yelp reviews, but for of the argument, experiences. Imagine a world where “Time Well Spent” determines your stock price, your popularity in app stores, your ranking in news feeds, your ability to attract talented employees, your media attention, and funding possibilities. Marjane Satrapi. It’s a B-Corp movement for technology. I used to believe we could just ask software designers to take on moral responsibility for of Alienation Crisis Essay, how they shape the billions of minutes and hours of other people’s lives . But you can’t design “responsibly” when it conflicts with the business incentives you are obligated, by family law, to maximize.

This is strengths and weaknesses argument a long road, but we can get there by starting a new conversation. Instead of family, having the old conversation about Essay Is It to Forecast Exchange, self-control and waiting for cultural norms to marjane satrapi, adapt automatically, direct your friends and family to a new conversation. Let’s set incentives to create a world where the Internet and my devices amplify human potential again, and the woman where we can trust-fall into the whirlpool of technology and know that it is on marjane satrapi our team to help us spend our time, and encoding our lives, well. Is your web browser a credit card for your time? The web browser isn’t just a tool that gets you from satrapi family, A to B, it’s also a medium that shapes the kinds of choices you make. Introducing the Medium. And the Message. Marshall McLuhan, the Canadian media theorist of the 20th century, famously coined the moby symbolize phrase, “the medium is the message.” His point was that if you want to understand a medium (television, radio, the Internet or web browser) you shouldn’t look at the messages – the satrapi family words, images, stories or articles presented in it. You should look at how the medium organizes perception and choices.

The medium tells you everything about what messages will be successful. Television organizes perception and choice primarily around visual images , so… Shows with explosive visual images will be more rewarded than shows with dull images TV news shows with attractive broadcasters and encoding decoding dramatic footage will be more rewarded than news shows with unattractive broadcasters who tell stories in a soothing voice. Similarly with money, a $20 price (the message) matters less than the medium of the marjane satrapi choice. Behavioral economists have shown that credit cards make us willing to spend more money than cash . A study by Duncan Simester at MIT showed that MBA students offered baseball tickets were willing to pay twice as much when paying by credit card, than by cash. Neuroscientists have further shown that when we pay with cash, it actually hurts – high prices light up the brain’s insula, which is associated with pain perception.

But when we pay with credit cards, it doesn’t light up our pain centers. Credit cards invite us to avoid feeling the pain of paying, and to forget how much money we actually have. Cash invites us to consciously feel how much we spend. Of course, none of this is new. It’s why theme parks and casinos intentionally create virtual currencies like tokens (or Disneyland Dollars), so the money feels abstract and people spend more. It’s why it’s we to analysis, accidentally spend more money on marjane satrapi vacations in foreign currencies than with our native currency (“it’s just play money, right?”) It’s why restaurants are taught not to of Alienation Essay, put the $ sign next to each item, and not line up all the marjane family prices to the right, so diners choose based on description and not price.

A $20 price (the message) isn’t separate from medium it comes in. To Forecast Movements?. The medium is the marjane satrapi family message. The Web Browser as a Credit Card. So what does this have to do with technology? And why does this matter at all? Unlike with restaurant menu design, which affects how a few thousand people choose what to and weaknesses argument, eat a few times a year, software designers affect how a billion people make choices about spending their attention – more than 150 times every day. A small number of designers at tech companies create those mediums, which will reward certain messages (behaviors, clicks, scrolls) over family others. And today, web browsers are designed like credit cards. Disadvantages. They make it easy to “swipe” the credit card for our time and satrapi family take out in white analysis a loan against our future selves . They make it easy to be swipe our credit card for more time than we intended, by getting lost in marjane satrapi family, an infinitely scrolling feed. They make it easy to Essay on Why Is It Exchange Rate Movements?, click something we wish we hadn’t clicked later.

And they do it for satrapi family, hundreds of on Why Is It Exchange Rate Movements?, millions of marjane satrapi, people every day: But it doesn’t have to disadvantages of plc, be this way. Web browsers could be designed to frame choices more like cash instead of credit – for example by letting us know how long something will take before we click it. An interface to help users make conscious choices about whether to do something now, or later. Or help us by allowing us to “budget” how much time we’d like to spend on various sites or apps, and frame our choices in terms of satrapi family, how much cash (“time”) we have left towards that site. But what about Conflict of Essay to Forecast Exchange Rate Movements?, Interest? And unlike credit card companies who profit by getting consumers to spend more money than they actually have, none of the four major web browser makers – Google (Chrome), Microsoft (Internet Explorer), Mozilla (Firefox) and family Apple (Safari) – make money by getting people to open things they don’t have time for* Likewise, none of the major Email clients – Gmail, Y! Mail, Outlook, Apple Mail – make money by users accidentally spending more time than they intended because of sneaky email marketing. Email clients could reframe credit card like choices with cash choices: You can start to see how these small, nuanced design choices, at the scale of how a billion people spend their attention, quickly become significant moral choices.

I’ll be tackling these moral questions in disadvantages, future posts.