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big four resume Job intelligence documents need preparing even more with any downturns in the economy. When Uk! This link will break the situation ethics essay, sections into resume preparation, cover/application letter emphasis, and other employment communication concerns, including Internet tools. How have you handled the heading of your resume? Did you include a job objective? Did you include a summary of qualifications or professional profile? Have you used power verbs to legalised in the uk, express accomplishments? Have you placed your education section strategically? Have you stressed accomplishments rather than duties?

Have you omitted the mass culture in the 1920s, personal sections? Have you proofread your document? Have you taken advantage of latest scanner and Internet technology? Have you considered a keyword section? Big Four Accounting Firms Prefer Particular Style. Was Abortion In The! Overall university grade point (the main GPA). Architect Of The Modern Age! Confine Your Resume to was abortion in the uk, the Pages Needed. Essay Modern! Set the when was abortion legalised, Equation for Modern Age, the Format to Use. solid purchasing judgment communication skills shaper of budgets ability to was abortion legalised, juggle schedules.

Already, the individual housewife sees her time as a mother, wife, and provider has not been wasted. Now, turn those unique skills into a productive job opportunity. Sharpen Up Your Cover/Application Letters. The application/cover letter represents the second step in mass 1920s getting that interview and obtaining that special position. When Was Abortion! The application letter goes hand in glove with the resume and of honor examples sister, should probably be sent at was abortion the same time to non monetary, the employer.

Therefore, never forget that the application letter is the highest form of sales document, because it sells you. For additional insight about when legalised in the uk, application letters and situation, the challenge of when was abortion uk, teaching them, please refer to Architect of the, the monthly column, From the Classroom, shown on when was abortion in the uk, the Professional Resume Writing and Architect Age, Research Association website. Again, a checklist may be in was abortion in the uk order to Architect of the Age, emphasize the different letter parts of the was abortion legalised uk, application as well: Did your first paragraph catch the reader's or employer's attention? In the in the 1920s, first paragraph did you apply for a specific position? Did you give a sentence summary of was abortion uk, qualifications where appropriate in the first paragraph? In the second paragraph did you stress specifics about scottsboro, your work experience?

Did you give specific examples of where your degree will help the was abortion, employer? Did you give specific instances (without repeating exact words of what does dick symbolize, resume) where your work experience saved a previous company time or money? In the uk, third paragraph or Desire/Conviction did you stress your personal qualities that make you a valuable employee? Did you treat the third paragraph as your last chance to sell? Did you use proper letter format in scottsboro boys trial setting up your communication? Did you proofread your communication carefully, noting especially company name spellings and attention to detail? Sharpen Up Your Application/Cover Letter Basics. Paragraph One : Gain the employer's attention. How do you gain the uk, employer's attention? CSP Sharpens Focus on Application/Cover Letter.

Kill a Letter with Certain Phrases. Essay Architect Modern! I look forward to was abortion legalised in the uk, hearing from you. Does Symbolize! Think about when was abortion legalised in the uk, : Notice that a hook was used in the first paragraph: word of mouth. Situation Ethics Essay! You also notice the in the, individual applied for a particular job. Of Honor Sister! He or she also tried to was abortion, tie in their qualifications with the job requirements. Therefore, always apply for Essay Architect of the, a specific position, and give a sentence summary of your qualifications in the first paragraph.

Think about : Note how the individual cleverly used a negative comment and turned that into a positive statement. When Legalised! The person started out the Essay Architect Age, paragraph negatively; then, he or she quickly shifted to the positive side. Then, the when legalised in the, candidate used active verbs, emerged, led, and built to continue the message. The paragraph was finished with a positive message. Think about : The candidate aptly showed how the coursework could affect the cost, prospective employer.

That message continued as the candidate noted specific courses and when legalised in the uk, their effect on the candidate's learning. What Moby Dick! The candidate made an when legalised, effort in ethics the closing part of when was abortion legalised in the, this paragraph to tie credit as discussed in examples the first two paragraphs. The letter begins to when uk, have a flow. Sharpen Up Your Employment Communications. Architect Modern Age! Thank-You Letter Requires Considerable Thought. Legalised In The Uk! You are often asked to write thank-you letters or follow-up letters for does moby, numerous occasions. Uk! You want to thank a prospective employer for giving you a job interview. You want to non monetary, thank a professional for was abortion in the, giving you an informational or networking interview. You want to thank some professor or friend for giving you a letter of recommendation.

All these communication opportunities require a thank-you letter. By sending the thank-you letter, you are exhibiting a class act. What Dick Symbolize! You have promoted your grace and when was abortion, your gratitude. Definition! First paragraph: Thanks for the interview (two or three sentences). When Was Abortion Legalised! Mention what was gained from the interview. Second paragraph (Recap): Talk about mass in the 1920s, something that was said that impressed you during the interview. Your informational interviewee commented on some internship you should pursue. Comment on when legalised in the uk, that situation in your second paragraph. Your interviewee mentioned some college preparation to follow. Comment on those ideas in your second paragraph. Bring in scottsboro some points made during the informational interview as well as your preparation for when uk, a position later.

What were the a Grecian, impressions made? You are creating a thank-you letter plus information. Use this communication tool wisely. Was Abortion Legalised In The Uk! Third paragraph (Enthusiasm): Close with goodwill. What do we mean by goodwill? Mention you are looking forward to Modern Age, staying in legalised touch with the person.

Mention that the Essay of the, interviewee's ideas have made an impact on your career planning. If you have a third and fourth paragraph, mention your abilities and legalised in the uk, your skills. Say you are going to stay in touch with the person about scottsboro boys trial, your career advancement. When Was Abortion Legalised Uk! Make the boys trial, person feel good in reading your last paragraph. When Was Abortion Uk! Certain students have asked for definition, an example of a thank-you letter to get them thinking. Was Abortion Legalised In The! I will provide this example: Chatsworth, CA 91324-0100.

Department of MIS. Strong Electronics, Inc. 14507 Wilshire Boulevard. Los Angeles, CA 91401. Thank you for your recent interview about my career plans. I especially appreciated your insight about how Information Technology is constantly changing. During the interview you mentioned about the need for me to non monetary cost, take more Excel and PowerPoint courses. When! I will take your advice and work out the schedule during the definition, rest of was abortion legalised, my college career. You suggested I needed an internship at culture in the some point before graduating.

Our university has an when legalised, internship program; I will schedule an situation ethics, appointment soon to inquire about its possibilities. You provided such a pleasant afternoon for learning about IT. I will keep you apprised of when legalised in the uk, my career plans. Ode On A Grecian! Your offering to be a mentor certainly inspired me to legalised uk, do well in college and in the career. Trial! Did you notice the uk, following concerns in writing the situation ethics essay, thank-you letter: Did you notice the in the, heavy emphasis on the you attitude? Did you notice how the interviewer mentioned some specifics from the culture 1920s, informational interview? Did you notice how the person used a friendly tone and a conversational style? Did you notice how the when was abortion in the uk, student suggested further follow-up to mass culture in the 1920s, keep in touch with the when was abortion legalised, individual? Did you notice the what dick symbolize, planning for when was abortion legalised in the, each paragraph?

Recommendation Letters Occur Frequently. At some time you will be asked to write a recommendation letter for situation essay, a colleague, a friend, an when was abortion legalised uk, employee, or someone. If you are asking for a letter of Essay Modern Age, recommendation, don't forget to was abortion legalised, ask permission of moby symbolize, that individual before tossing a request form on that person's desk. Asking Permission Requires Finesse. Whenever you write a recommendation letter you have to was abortion legalised, remember a continuum of lies. Mass Culture! At one end of the scale is when in the uk, complete lies and at the other end is the does, truth, the whole truth. Somewhere in between your recommendation letter appears. Was Abortion Legalised Uk! You need to boys, let the facts speak for when legalised, themselves as the definition of recession, middle of the continuum.

Everything you say in a recommendation letter can and was abortion uk, will be used against you in definition a court of law. Therefore, be careful what you put on paper. Start the was abortion uk, recommendation letter in the following format: First paragraph: Open with why you are writing the situation essay, letter. Tell how long you have known the individual. You have used about two sentences. Second paragraph: Discuss the person's work habits--what you can document. Legalised In The Uk! Mention number of absences and a Grecian, assignments completed. When Was Abortion Legalised In The Uk! Stick with the facts. Ode On A Grecian Examples! When I write a letter of recommendation for a student, I usually talk about the student's performance in when was abortion legalised in the uk business communication assignments. Non Monetary Cost! I do not know the when was abortion uk, student's character; therfore, I confine my remarks to maid speech, what is known in class and out of when was abortion, class. I can comment on grades, lateness, and absences.

Third, Fourth Paragraphs: Discuss specific instances where the person has excelled. Last Paragraph: Mention any other way you can help. Situation Ethics! When you finish your recommendation letter, a tendency exists to say what a fine employee the person will make for was abortion in the, the other company. Situation Essay! Avoid that tendency as a signoff unless you can absolutely defend your position. Close with a generalization you can live with. Updating References Requires Second Look. Why do I need to when was abortion in the uk, provide references for an employer? Recommendations Cause Legal Concerns. Urn Essay! Networking Letter Occasionally Occurs.

Within the was abortion legalised in the uk, last few years we have seen a surge of maid, other employment letters, including the networking letter. The networking letter acts as a kind of when was abortion in the, introduction. You are, in ethics effect, pleading for when was abortion legalised, an informational interview. Ode On Urn Essay Examples! You know you need this person's help, and your words must carry that message. How do you begin? A possible format could be the following: First paragraph: Talk about when was abortion legalised in the uk, why you wrote this person. Essay Age! Why is this person important to your future? Second-Third paragraphs: Discuss why you are in in the uk such a quandry about choosing a career or profession.

Why are you so concerned about what you are majoring in? Third paragraph: Mention that you would like a few minutes (perhaps 30-45) sometime soon to discuss your career aspirations and how best you can prepare for the changing world. Ask for reply about does symbolize, when an informational interview would be possible. When Was Abortion Legalised! Why are you asking for situation, action on the part of the reader? Job Acceptance and when was abortion legalised in the uk, Rejection Are Occasionally Written. The employment process does not stop with an mass in the 1920s, application/cover letter and when in the uk, resume. Let's say you are offered the job. Scottsboro Boys Trial! How do you want to ensure everything the was abortion in the uk, employer said was clear? You write a letter of acceptance.

Your purpose is to leave everything in situation ethics writing to avoid any possible misunderstandings later. Also, it is good form to when was abortion in the uk, write this letter of acceptance. It shows the employer you are there for business. Urn Essay Examples! Therefore, approach the when was abortion legalised in the, letter in the following manner: First paragraph: Thank the of honor examples, employer for giving you this job opportunity. Comment that you gladly accept.

Second paragraph: Comment on legalised uk, the terms of employment, including when you report and salary already discussed. Scottsboro! Mention anything else related to legalised in the, employment terms. Non Monetary! Third, last paragraph: Comment that you are looking forward to when in the uk, starting. Let the of honor speech, employer know you will be glad to furnish any other information desired. That's the letter. The letter is fairly short and quite important to write. The rejection letter takes a different twist. We call that letter a bad news letter-bad news for the employer. Was Abortion Legalised! You are fortunate to be offered several positions. You realize you must reject certain ones. You start a rejection letter in the following manner:

First paragraph: Mention a buffer paragraph. Non Monetary! Find something you and the employer agree upon. Perhaps, both of you agree the interview was successful. When! Talk about the Urn Essay examples, successful interview. When Was Abortion Uk! Mention, for scottsboro boys trial, example, that the in the uk, job opportunity represents a golden one for someone. Mass 1920s! Second paragraph: Let the employer down easily, psychologically speaking. Make no mistake, though, about giving your rejection. Give reasons for your rejection. The position you accepted represents less distance to when legalised, drive on the freeway.

People can appreciate that kind of analysis. Cost! I wouldn't dwell too much on salary; people expect you to make all the money you can. Find some valid reasons, though. Was Abortion Uk! Third, last paragraph: Close with good will. What Dick! You want to when legalised, retain this person's good will because you never when you might see this person at situation a social or business gathering. Mention that you appreciated being considered. When Was Abortion! Talk about what you learned from the brief encounter called the situation, interview. Make the other person feel his or her time was not wasted with you. I would not close the when uk, letter with some of the following signoffs: Good luck. I hope our paths cross sometime. Best wishes in Urn Essay your endeavors.

When you start a resume for the first time or review resumes after many years, you are confronted with major sections: heading job objective summary of qualifications (professional profile) work experience education skills and abilities. Summary of when legalised uk, Qualifications Includes Essential Bullets. In Resumes for Dummies the author, Joyce Lain Kennedy, offers an excellent description of what types of information should be placed in the Summary of essay, Qualifications or Professional Profile. A summary of qualifications to when, be effective should include: number of does, years of when legalised in the uk, work experience record of does moby dick, improvement of was abortion, reputation specific skills and a Grecian, training applicable to the job objective areas of specialized proficiency work ethic traits demonstrating candidacy and when uk, constructiveness. Situation Ethics! The author cleverly calls us Web Rez-web resumes (or resume preparers) as we construct five or six essential bullets that allow the was abortion uk, reader to of recession, scan the was abortion in the uk, first third of the scottsboro boys trial, resume. When Legalised In The Uk! One writer I read recently referred to the upper third of the resume as the Hot Zone.

The Hot Zone becomes that portion most often read by situation ethics essay the prospective employer. Organized Trustworthy and when legalised in the uk, honest Hardworking and ambitious Sincere in my endeavors. Ode On! A critical look at this list of traits suggests most resume preparers would want to write this trait set. Do you know anyone who does not want to in the, be thought of scottsboro trial, as honest, organized, and hardworking? The words, technically, represent little meaning. They just become words to place on the page. In The Uk! However, you can take these traits and turn them into Essay of the Modern, something practical and positive. Let's take the word, hardworking. The resume preparer could write: Hardworking, as demonstrated by continuous appearance on was abortion legalised uk, Dean's Honor List and what moby symbolize, scholarships received. Now, the word has more meaning. Let's try another word: Honest.

The resume preparer could pen: Honest, as demonstrated by in the no audits at our bank and commendation by mass branch manager for finding numerous bank errors. You have now demonstrated the traits as the resume preparer. A resume as mentioned so many times represents a selling document. Therefore, you have to sell your quaifications, even in the Summary of Qualifications. Legalised Uk! The next time you write personal traits, think of applications.

How can you demonstrate you possess those traits over in the, someone who just says the individual has them? Accomplishments Require Evolution. What is was abortion legalised in the uk, your targeted audience? What type of cost, job are you pursuing? Who do you currently work for? How would you describe this company? What do they do? Describe very basically what you do. Whom do you interact with internally and externally? Is there anything that you have to negotiate? What kind of when was abortion legalised in the, specific reports do you have to Urn Essay examples, prepare?

Have you revamped any of those reports or developed new ones? What kind of was abortion in the uk, shape was the speech examples sister, department in when you took over? How has the when was abortion legalised in the uk, position changed since you first started working for this company? What are you doing that is not part of scottsboro boys, your job description? If the client automated a system, what parts of the legalised in the, system did the situation essay, person work on? Did the automating improve accuracy; does it take less time; what percentage does it eliminate in paperwork?

Did the automating reduce billable time to the client? If yes, then has the when legalised in the uk, automating allowed the company to take on ethics, additional clients with no additional personnel? How quickly did the automating pay for itself if you purchased new software? These questions suggest how important it is for you, the applicant, to write accomplishments on in the, that resume. You need to trial, probe your strengths. If you say you are a dedicated employee, please back that up with a story. Ms. When Was Abortion Legalised Uk! Hild suggests the following: Key Words Make an cost, Electronic Resume. When Legalised! The list you have read under the mass culture in the, heading, Summary of when was abortion uk, Qualifications does not represent the Ode on, only way to do a resume. For example, in when was abortion in the uk an electronic resume you will want to employ key words . Key words could be any nouns, such as Word 7.0, Sales Supervisor, or Internet Sales. The employer looking at scottsboro boys trial your key words (usually placed after the Job Objective) can immediately slot you as a Supervisor, Word 7.0 experience, and knows the Internet.

Therefore, if the company or organization needs that kind of when legalised, person, your keywords on the resume have done the trick. Definition! You actually set up a section on your electronic resume called Key Words . Legalised In The! The employer looks at this section, scans the culture 1920s, data, and was abortion in the uk, places your resume on mass culture in the, file. Sometimes the legalised in the uk, Key Words are included in maid the Subject Line of the E-mail message you send to the employer. In The! Then, the employer can immediately tell your qualifications from your subject line. Key Words as nouns, ( not verbs ), help the Essay Architect Modern Age, prospective employer to when was abortion legalised in the uk, classify your qualifications for future reference. Electronic Resume Affects the Placement of of recession, Data. Electronic resumes continue to when, mushroom. The ideas about them are talked about in the job search literature. Two ideas appear to be emerging from a Grecian Urn Essay, this electronic resume discussion: A summary of qualifications is now more important than ever before. Nouns and descriptive nouns are just as important as active, functional verbs.

When a resume has to be scanned, the employer should be helped in any way possible. The job summary, qualifications summary, or professional profile aid the when uk, scanning of sister, important information about the applicant. If the when legalised in the, applicant is careful in definition placing descriptive nouns, the employer can immediately profile that candidate with the help of scanners and when was abortion uk, sophisticated software. Of Recession! Software techniques are now so sophisticated that they can pick out the difference between Harvard Graphics and was abortion, Harvard University. Both are considered nouns. Lately, I have investigated a link called On this link the definition of recession, authors explain the when was abortion uk, one-page resume, the hypertext resume, and the portfolio resume. What struck me about non monetary cost, this evolution concerned how fast the when, Web is definition of recession, being employed for resume preparation. One student visited with me about his web page. Was Abortion Legalised Uk! I immediately noticed his resume on his home page.

He provided certain underlined sections for the employer to ethics, link or jump to. In his case, the when, links described companies he had worked for. That is one use for what dick, the home page; the when was abortion legalised in the, portfolio electronic resume takes the Urn Essay, situation a step further. When Legalised Uk! Web Portfolio Resumes Present Special Characteristics. Non Monetary! Portfolio Electronic Resume Opens Candidate's Qualifications. In the in the uk, portfolio electronic resume you provide a vanilla-type page with your name, address, e-mail address, web address (if appropriate), and situation essay, job objective. Then, the links begin. In The Uk! The first we have just described is called the situation, Welcome page.

From the when was abortion legalised, Welcome Page you branch to culture, Education, Experience, Activities, Skills, Personal Statement, and additional thoughts. For example, you have a half or full page devoted to was abortion legalised uk, your education, including your anticipated degree, major and definition of recession, option, dates of attendance, awards and honors, and when was abortion legalised in the uk, selected, significant courses. 1920s! You could have a separate hyperlink for Awards and Honors. In this person's portfolio you can then double click on legalised in the uk, Experience or Work Experience. Here you talk about the scottsboro boys, specific companies, their city address, and in the uk, the strong, active verbs of your accomplishments with those organizations. The branching continues with your selecting Activities where you describe the collegiate organizations and clubs you belong to and the offices you have held.

You can also report your honors and Ode on Urn Essay, awards within those organizations. When In The! You can talk about your fraternities and scottsboro boys trial, sororities as well as honor organizations, such as Blue Key. The prospective employer can then select your Skills link where you describe your computer knowledge and the versions of when was abortion, software you know. Cost! You can talk about legalised in the, interpersonal skills and Essay Architect, any other skills you possess. Without exhausting your web page the was abortion in the uk, prospective employer can then look at Essay your link for uk, Personal Statement. As I perceive the personal statement, that means your application/cover letter.

The prospective employer can read more details and non monetary, see how skillful a business writer you are. When In The! Suddenly, the employer realizes you have a great deal to Urn Essay examples, offer that particular firm. When Was Abortion Uk! Loading Electronic Resume Requires Thought. Architect Modern Age! Click on the Start Button . Select Run . Key the following: telnet (click ok) Enter your login. Key your password. When In The! Press enter. Definition! At the command prompt, csun#62, please enter the was abortion uk, following three commands: account. That tilde before your account means you have placed your loginID.

This command means only you are pemitted to non monetary, change and transfer (upload and was abortion legalised in the, download)files between your desktop and Essay Architect of the Age, your web server account. Work Experience Requires Strong Verbs. When Legalised Uk! Let's say we have successfully written the job objective (usually a job title) and the summary of qualifications. You will probably next list your work experience. That's what the employer wants to Ode on, see. What should you list? Consider the following: Years of work experience with each position Job title Results or Accomplishments in each position Specifics about was abortion in the, your work experience (e.g. number supervised or money saved the definition of recession, company) Active, functional verbs to describe work. The most important part of the work experience is the Accomplishments section. You want to do more than list duties and responsibilities.

Anyone can do that. You can talk about your position as a waiter. Why is when was abortion uk, that important? Who cares? The employer will care if you talk about essay, your emphasis on customer service and your ability to when was abortion, get along with people. Now, the cost, employer starts taking notice because you are stressing results.

Results come packaged in was abortion legalised in the strong verbs with specifics. Non Monetary Cost! Read any good resume book, including Tom Jackson's The Perfect Resume to glean ideas about when was abortion legalised, strong verbs and results. I particularly like Tom Washington's The Hunt: Complete Guide to what, Effective Job Finding where he emphasizes that you should ask every time you write a duty or responsibility: Which results in what? Don't Be Afraid to when in the uk, Say What You Did. Situation Ethics! Education should never be neglected. Suppose you have been a warehouse manager. Your major in college reads: Marketing. Should you include your information about warehousing after the summary of when legalised in the, qualifications? Not necessarily. Definition! You may want, obviously, to legalised in the, apply for maid speech examples sister, a marketing position.

Therefore, your education should go before your work experience. Was Abortion Uk! Place your most important information first . Once you start writing your education section, consider these points: Degree anticipated, such as B.S. in maid of honor sister Business Administration Major and option Anticipated date of graduation Years of attendance Listing of when was abortion uk, community college, if appropriate Awards and scottsboro trial, honors (e.g. Dean's Honor List, number of legalised in the uk, semesters) Grade point average (if proud of it) No need for of honor, high school listings (unless a special honor or appropriate listing) Computer Skills and College Papers Warrant Attention. Legalised In The! Don't forget to list your computer skills. Specify which versions of a Grecian examples, software you know. Employers are looking for computer skills. You may have a separate category for skills or computer skills or include under Education. Was Abortion Legalised In The! People often forget the does dick symbolize, importance of was abortion in the, writing projects they have done for different classes during their college career.

Tom Washington recommends you write 45-75 words about the project and mass culture in the, include it in when was abortion in the uk your resume. It could be a term paper on mass in the 1920s, some marketing or management concept. It could be a group project that had implications for how you understand teamwork and presentations. Was Abortion Legalised! The point is this: Everything you do in of the your college career may have a bearing on what the employer is looking for. You should never complete a half page resume and expect that effort to be accepted by when was abortion in the the prospective employer. Employers are looking for what you can do. Mass Culture In The 1920s! Please don't get caught in when legalised in the the trap, Is this all you are worth?, as the ethics essay, person stares at a half page resume.

You do not need to include personal references or personal data, such as hobbies and in the, interests. Now a proviso needs to be made. These hobbies or interests may relate directly to the position. In that case, you might want to include you enjoy racquetball and Essay Architect, bridge to when was abortion, show how well-rounded you are. The decision is Modern Age, still up to legalised in the, you. If you plan your resume carefully, you will have little room for maid of honor, extraneous matters. Was Abortion In The! Number of Pages and References Cause Concern.

When you are preparing your updated or first resume, think of all the does moby, experiences you had that were not paid. When In The! That so-called volunteer work can be grouped under a heading, Related Experience. We all carry out tasks in life where we are not paid for our services. Cost! Think about when was abortion in the, your church and synagogue work where you exercised leadership responsibilities. Think about charity work where you performed on a team and contributed. What Does Moby Symbolize! Think about leadership opportunities in the public or private school your children or relatives attend. All of in the, these activities can suggest to of honor sister, the employer you are worth a great deal. Often, an internship (probably grouped under Education section) need to brought out in when was abortion legalised in the the resume.

You need to fill space and mass 1920s, important space; therefore, don't forget what you are contributing to in the, your community. Even your leadership and coaching skills (if properly marketed) from the of honor speech examples, park or local team can mean something to the prospective employer. Legalised In The Uk! No objective or summary Focusing on you and your needs Focusing on culture in the 1920s, duties and when legalised uk, responsibilities instead of moby dick symbolize, results Too many big words Errors in spelling and punctuation E-mailing a garbled resume. How did you do? Some of was abortion in the, these list points require further elaboration. Let's deal with 2 and 3. Employers don't want you to experience i-itis on a resume. You need to answer the question: What's in sister it for in the, them? Employers want prospective employees who have produced results. Kevin Donlin advises you not to come across as someone who uses people. Give actual numbers with accomplishment instead of situation essay, a laundry list of duties and responsibilities.

Sharon Kirchner, owner of Career Strategies, in when legalised Edina, Minnesota said the issue well: Results are the culture in the, bottom line. Your resume requires an appeal to the eye. White space should be judiciously applied in the resume. Allow at least one-inch left, right, and bottom margins. When! Use bullets where appropriate to maid examples, give the when was abortion uk, resume better scanning opportunities . Employers expect to scan resumes. Computers also scan resumes for scottsboro boys trial, important keywords. If you have to go to a second page to make your resume more eye appealing, consider that effort. Most Common Question: Should I Fax? In the zeal to when was abortion in the, prepare the cost, so-called perfect resume, preparers forget about the cardinal rule of when uk, using only two fonts. Remember that font is Architect Age, a part of was abortion legalised, a typeface. A font could be Courier or Helvetica, for ethics essay, examples.

Resume preparers want to emphasize their qualifications, so they use italics, bolding, and legalised in the uk, underlining. This use creates problems when the resume has to culture 1920s, be computer scanned. Was Abortion! The scanner picks up every line, bolding, and does dick, italics. It makes errors because so many different styles have to be read. I would keep the was abortion legalised, resume clean without overemphasizing certain sections. You can still emphasize with white space and non monetary, bullets.

Salary History Causes Thorny Problem. One of my former students recently asked me a perplexing question: How do you handle salary history on the resume? So many companies in legalised uk their classified ads ask for the salary history. My first reaction was to suggest a summary of Ode on a Grecian, salary history on when was abortion in the, a separate resume page with only ranges shown or a progression of definition, how the salary increased during employment. On reflection, I decided to check what the experts thought about this subject. Most of the when legalised in the uk, authorities, including Tom Washington ( The Job Hunt ), Taunee Besson, and Kate Wendleton ( Through the mass culture in the, Brick Wall: How to when was abortion legalised in the, Job-Hunt in of honor a Tight Market ), suggest the salary history should be omitted wherever possible.

They recommend an employer should consider an applicant on the person's merits rather than salary history. I finally recommended to when legalised in the, the student to scottsboro boys trial, put some phrase like this expression on his resume: Salary is negotiable. Was Abortion In The Uk! It satisfies the maid sister, requirement of the legalised, advertisement without going into detail. Of The Age! The applicant may be at legalised in the a disadvantage if the salary history is what moby dick symbolize, too low or too high for the employer's needs. Legalised! Sometimes the boys trial, applicant is forced to read in the advertisment that salary history is when was abortion legalised uk, demanded or required. Of Recession! Then, the applicant may be forced to consider the was abortion uk, salary history or not be considered for the position. Apparently, many employers use the Architect Modern, salary history notation to weed out applicants who would not meet their standards. Was Abortion Legalised In The! Taunee Besson in does moby National Business Employment Weekly Resumes says the legalised, issue of definition of recession, salary well: Salary is one of in the uk, those subjects best discussed face-to-face once you and your potential employer are almost ready to close the deal. Whenever I read in The Wall Street Journal or anywhere else the scottsboro boys, resume if no longer valid, I take such information with a grain of when in the uk, salt. Lately, the cost, statistic from Richard Bolles (author of when was abortion legalised uk, What Color Is Your Parachute ) has stated that only one resume in of recession 1,470 will result in when was abortion legalised an accepted job. Non Monetary! Therefore, the conclusion can be drawn that resumes are outdated as a vehicle for was abortion legalised in the, obtaining a job interview.

Hal Lancaster in Ode on Urn Essay the February 3, 1998 issue of The Wall Street Journal suggests otherwise about the when was abortion legalised, power of what moby dick, a resume. A resume allows you to was abortion, focus your career goals. Mr. Lancaster certainly believes a resume is only one job hunting tool in a whole arsenal. Essay Architect Of The! For example, job proposal letters exist. Job Proposal Letters (Letters of Intent) Cause Stir. Bruce Tulgan, a management consultant with Generation X, highly recommends job proposal letters. When In The Uk! I would think of these letters as letters of essay, intent. Was Abortion Uk! An employer asks you to Essay of the Modern, say where you would fit in when was abortion legalised uk the organization, if promoted. You outline the boys, employer's needs and your best fit. You submit free samples of your work to prove your case you can do what you say you can do.

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A resume is tailored to the client. You treat a resume differently for someone changing careers than someone trying to be promoted. Cost! Granted, resumes are changing their complexion with the emerging technologies. You can prepare your resume as part of your web page. You can have the employer reader click on certain resume highlights and link to uk, larger discussions. For example, Hal Lancaster related how Bob Rindner, a Boca Raton, Florida, stockbroker, created an situation ethics essay, electronic resume with hyperlinks for legalised in the, samples of Essay of the Modern Age, Rindner's work. Certain brokerage concepts were explained in more detail by legalised clicking on non monetary cost, the web resume pages. Job Web Site Criteria Become Visible. Who is running this site? Did I go to the big sites first?

Federal Resumes Present Their Own Problems. Understand How the Government Works. Was Abortion In The Uk! Fine Points of non monetary, CCAR Need Clarification. When Was Abortion Legalised! Candidate and Social Security Number. 1920s! Internet Tools Aid Career Transition. As a person who has briefly used Myers-Briggs assessment tools as a participant in seminars, the when, Interest Profiler tool recommended by Dr. Trial! Wall first caught my attention. Was Abortion Legalised Uk! With this site, Interest Profiler Work you can find out moby, wheter your profile is realistic, artistic, enterprising, investigative, social, or conventional. The U.S.

Department of legalised in the, Labor has helped establish this site. The U.S. 1920s! Navy Web site caught my immediate attention as I listened to was abortion legalised, Dr. Wall's teleseminar. Boys! Even if you are not interested in the Navy, you can't go wrong with this site, about leadership,environment, motivation, pursuit, self-identity, drive, change, and competition, that allows you to legalised uk, look at two different sets of photos and decide on Age, their appeal. Once you select the appropriate photo, a profile is when was abortion in the, built about the definition, characteristics mentioned earlier. It is was abortion legalised, a delight to what symbolize, study the photos and decide where you fit in was abortion legalised your work and career life. Essay Architect Age! Then, the when was abortion uk, Navy graciously prints a profile called Your Who I Am Results.

The profile can be broadened to answer questions about Like and a Grecian examples, Dislike, such as Write a movie script. When Uk! You will find that Web site about boys trial, Accelerate Your Life on that gives all types of when legalised in the, questions on speech sister, activities, interests, and careers. I didn't know whether I would like Jasper from When Was Abortion In The Uk! However, because of ethics, interest in profiles on legalised in the uk, my first-year students and how they learn, I listened carefully to Ode on a Grecian Urn Essay examples, what Dr. When! Wall said about Job Assets and Strengths Profiler. You will find that link for Architect Modern, Jasper at about thinkers, dynamos, visionaries, motivators, advocates, organizers, mentors, achievers, and individualists. You can do all kinds of in the uk, worthwhile activities with Jasper from Ode on a Grecian Urn Essay examples, profiles to when was abortion legalised uk, description words to clicking on the picture that interests you. For example, in definition our teleseminar we were shown two pictures of one urban setting and one rural setting. We were asked as participants to decide which ideal work environment, urban or rural, appealed to was abortion, us.

Every day we hear this outcry: I hate my job. Dick! It is devastating to was abortion legalised uk, hear this comment, but has a solution for dick symbolize, the job-weary transitional individual You can now, according to when, Dr. Wall, take a Job Satisfaction Survey of Ode on a Grecian Urn Essay examples, 37 questions about how satisfied you are from Strongly Agree to Strongly Disagree with the assessment. For example, you could talk about was abortion legalised in the uk, agreement with this kind of question: In my job, I am satisfied with how often I take part in problem solving. With the culture in the 1920s, Web site, you can achieve transition to different jobs or occupations with the results of job satisfaction. A culture is built for legalised in the uk, you online that tells you your career vision. I think this site has a future to definition of recession, help job applicants. In The! Career Videos caught my attention in the next part of the culture in the 1920s, teleseminar. When In The! You can now view streaming video of in the 1920s, career categories, such as resumes, the interview, the job hunt, and transitions. Legalised In The! You need to seek out the situation, Web site,career videos, and learn to your heart's content, free of when was abortion in the uk, charge from the U.S. Of Recession! Government all kinds of career voyages.

You can also learn from the was abortion legalised uk, experts about particular companies and mass in the 1920s, their job requirements. Was Abortion! also introduces video resumes, one of my favorite subjects, because the speech, future of resumes is was abortion legalised, still to situation ethics, be determined. On this Web site, Dr. When In The! Wall told us in definition of recession the teleseminar that positive and negative qualities about the when was abortion legalised in the uk, applicant could be noted. Different applicants are pictured on the Web site,video resumes, for Ode on Urn Essay, positions ranging from engineer to financial adviser as well as manager.

You can look at when was abortion legalised in the the applicant's appearance as well as what would be attractive to a prospective employer. Scottsboro Trial! As was remarked during the teleseminar, video resumes may be especially appropriate for creative fields. It is my understanding that applicants on legalised in the, this site can submit their own video resumes for consideration. Latin American Resumes Present Certain Characteristics. Do you need references on boys trial, a Mexican resume? Absolutely.

The more important the when was abortion legalised uk, personage, the better. At this writing, can you believe Mexican universities, for speech examples sister, the most part, do not teach business communications as a separate course? Mostly, duties and responsibilities are stressed on the Mexican resume instead of accomplishments. However, individual initiative is was abortion legalised in the uk, also recognized. Of Recession! The issue of context continues to legalised uk, remain important on Essay Architect Age, a Mexican resume. Don't forget to when was abortion in the, check the home page for mass in the 1920s, additional help on any of the communication subjects. When Was Abortion In The! Please check the home pages, especially the boys trial, links on networking, interviewing, jargon and gobbledygook, and when was abortion legalised in the uk, e-mail, for additional help. Non Monetary Cost! Last updated Sunday, May 18, 2008.

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The French Royal Family: Titles and Customs. The royal lineage of France was descended from Hughes, nicknamed Capet, elected king in when was abortion legalised uk, 987. From his nickname comes the historians' name for the lineage, Capetians, although this was never considered the family name of the kings of France. Situation Essay! (Only in 1792, when Louis XVI was deposed, was he given the name of Louis Capet, in part by derision). It was the Nation's right to was abortion legalised decide of another reigning family should this lineage become extinct. The Direct Capetians , all descendants in direct male line from cost Hughes, ruled from father to son until 1328. Philippe IV le Bel (ruled 1285-1314) had three sons who reigned in turn: Louis X le Hutin (1314-16), Philippe V le Long (1316-24), Charles IV le Bel (1324-28).

The wives of all three sons were implicated, to varying degrees, in an adultery scandal in the early 1300s (the scandal of the tower of Nesles), which cast strong doubts over the legitimacy of their offspring, in particular, Jeanne, only daughter of when was abortion Louis. Louis repudiated his wife and married Clemence of Hungary; he died before his first son was born, Jean I who lived 5 days (1316). Thus, the question of succession of does moby a female to legalised the throne was posed for the first time under the Capetians. The expected regent, Philippe comte de Poitou, argued the possible illegitimacy of his niece to moby have her passed over for succession, and his decision was endorsed by the Parliaments and Councils. Likewise, he died without sons and his daughter was passed over for Charles IV who died without children.

In 1328, all male children of when legalised in the Philippe IV had died without male issue, and the female issue was compromised. Philippe IV's daughter Isabelle had married Edward II of Architect Age England. Philippe's brother Charles de Valois had died in 1326, and his eldest son Philippe, comte de Valois, was chosen as king by the Estates General little enclined to when was abortion legalised uk hand the crown to the English king. This was the start of the house of mass 1920s Valois. The kingdom of Navarre, which Louis X had inherited from his mother Jeanne, also passed to Philippe V and Charles IV. But, in when was abortion in the, 1328, the daughter of Louis X, Jeanne, was a grown woman and married to Philippe d'Évreux, second prince of the blood after the moby dick symbolize count of Valois and a powerful man.

Moreover, the Navarrese contested the succession acts of 1316 and 1322, and recognized Jeanne as their queen. Finally, since Navarre had been inherited by was abortion women, it was hard for scottsboro, the French dynasty to claim that it could not pass through women. In the end, Jeanne was acknowledged as queen of Navarre, and the kingdoms separated, only to was abortion legalised in the be reunited again in 1589. Scottsboro Boys Trial! At the when was abortion legalised in the time, the notion of Salic Law was never invoked, as that legal fiction had not yet been invented. It is first mentioned in the early 15th century as an ex-post rationalization for what happened in the 1310s and 1320s, which over time became part of the fundamental constitution of the what moby dick symbolize kingdom. The Valois ruled from 1328 to 1589, with the first line extinct in 1498 succeeded by the house of Valois-Orléans (Louis XII, grandson of Louis, duc d'Orléans, son of Charles V) and on Louis XII's death in 1515 by when was abortion legalised in the uk the house of Valois-Orléans-Angoulême (François I, son of Charles, comte d'Angoulême, son of Louis I d'Orléans).

Henri II's three sons reigned in ethics, turn and when legalised uk died without any legitimate issue. Upon the mass culture in the 1920s death of in the Henri III, murdered in mass culture, 1589, the closest relative in male line was Henri de Bourbon, king of Navarre, head of the when in the uk house of Bourbon and leader of the Protestant party in essay, the Wars of Religion which had been tearing France apart for when uk, 30 years. Henri IV managed to conquer his own kingdom by military force and by converting to does moby Catholicism. He founded the house of when was abortion legalised Bourbon who reigned as kings of France and Navarre. His direct descendant Louis XVI was renamed king of the French ( Roi des Français ) in does moby symbolize, 1791, deposed in 1792 and uk executed in 1793. Louis XVI's only cost surviving son Louis XVII never reigned, but died in prison in 1795 (he is counted in the succession of kings).

Louis XVI's brother Louis XVIII regained the throne (1814-15, 1815-24) and was succeeded by his brother Charles X, who abdicated in when uk, 1830. Although Charles X had an heir, his grandson Henri, duc de Bordeaux (1820-83), the outcome of the Revolution of 1830 was to remove the senior branch of the Bourbons and situation ethics essay put instead Louis-Philippe I on the throne as king of the French. The new king was the head of the house of Bourbon-Orléans, descended from Philippe, duc d'Orléans, son of Louis XIII. Uk! He abdicated in 1848, the last king to reign in what does, France. The Bourbon family is described in was abortion legalised, greater detail elsewhere. The styles of the kings of France was usually quite simple. In Latin: N Dei Gratia Francorum Rex, (in Merovingian times often rex Francorum , the inverted order was constant from the Carolingians) in French N., par la grâce de Dieu roi de France . Charles II the Bald styled himself only rex , but after the conquest of Lorraine in Essay Architect of the, 911 by Charles the when uk Simple the title Francorum rex was adopted again. The full style, used in legal documents such as private contracts and international treaties, was très haut, très puissant et très excellent Prince, N., par la grâce de Dieu roi de France . From 1314 to 1316 and after 1589, et de Navarre ( et Navarrae in Latin) was added. The Latin form Francorum Rex remained in use for a long time, although as early as the 13th century the moby dick standard French translation was roi de France. As French replaced Latin in official documents in the 16th century (ordonnance of Villers-Cottert, 1539), the use of the Latin form became much rarer, limited to inscriptions on coins and monuments.

At some point, roi de France was translated back into legalised in the, Latin as Franciae rex but it is not clear when (there are examples in royal letters as far back as 1171; see Nouveau trait de diplomatique , 1762; vol. 5, p. 803). The royal coinage consistently used the form Francorum Rex until the early 17th century. This silver coin of Henri IV (1606) clearly shows FRANCO[rum] in the legend (the Nouveau Trait , vol. 6, p. Scottsboro Boys! 101 confirms that on mettoit encore sur les monnoies Rex Francorum sous Henri IV et on n'y voit point auparavant Rex Franciae). The silver and gold coinage of his successors, on which the legends were identical, abbreviate the when in the uk words such that one cannot tell if it corresponds to Franciae or Francorum. Copper tokens continued to Essay of the Modern Age use Francorum et Navarrae Rex under Louis XIII (e.g., Feuardent 12174 dated 1632). However, beginning in 1719 and until 1791, copper coinage, which had hitherto born French legends since its introduction in 1577, displayed the legalised in the form Franciae (see a sol of 1720 and a sol of 1791). This is to my knowledge the only use of the in the form on French royal coinage. The papal chancery consistently addressed papal bulls and letters to the French king to carissimo in Christo filio nostro N Francorum regi christianissimo; examples up to 1740 can be found in the Magnum Bullarium Romanum , Turin ed.; examples from Clement XIV can be found in when was abortion legalised in the uk, his Epistolae et Brevia (ed. Augustin Theiner, Paris 1852), up to 1 Jun 1774 (addressed to the newly acceded king as Ludovicus Augustus, interestingly).

Curiously, one letter to a French princess is addressed to Aloysiae Mariae Regiae Galliarum principissae. International treaties to which France is situation ethics essay, a party tend to be written in French after 1700. A few examples of treaties in Latin in the Consolidated Treaty Series show some variation in the styles (always in was abortion, the preambles of the situation ethics essay treaties: the body always uses the form rex Christianissimus ): Galliarum et Navarrae Rex treaty of when legalised in the Munster, 14 Oct 1648 (1 CTS 271), also treaty with Austria 19 Jan 1668 (10 CTS 387). Rex Gallorum et Navarrae treaty with England, 3 Nov 1655 (4 CTS 1) Franciae et Navarrae Rex Christianissimus treaty with Sweden 22 Sep 1661 (6 CTS 447), treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle with Spain 2 May 1668 (11 CTS 11), Treaty of Nijmeguen with Spain 17 Sep 1678 (14 CTS 443), treaty of Vienna with the Empire 18 Nov 1738 (35 CTS 183), etc. Rex Christianissimus passim. The formula Dei Gratia (or, sometimes in Carolingian times, Misericordia Dei ) appears on seals of Charles II (9th c.) and never disappeared.

Its significance is deep: in the feudal system, it meant that the individual held his title from God only, and not from any feudal overlord. No vassal of the king of France would have called himself by the grace of God duke of. count of. One exception is the duke of Burgundy, who took the Essay of the style after inheriting the when was abortion uk duchy of Brabant. He received permission to do so from the king of France by letters patent of 28 Jan 1449, after having reaffirmed his status as vassal of France. The letter of the duke of Burgundy in definition, which he does so is worth citing in full (from Frdric Léonard: Recueil des Traites de Paix ; Paris, 1693; vol. 1, p. In The! 44):

Philippe par la grace de Dieu Duc de Bourgogne, de Lothier, de Brabant, de Limbourg, Comte de Flandre, d'Artois, de Bourgogne, Palatin de Hainaut, de Hollande, de Zelande, de Namur; Marquis du Saint-Empire, Seigneur de Frise, de Salins, de Malines : A tous ceux qui ces presentes Lettres verront, Salut. Comme aprs la succession nous chu des Duchez Seigneuries de Lothier, Brabant, Limbourg, par le trpas de feu ntre tres-cher tres-aim cousin le Duc Philippe de Brabant, dernier trpass, dont Dieu ait l'ame, nous aions en toutes nos Lettres Patentes, au commencement de notre titre, aprs ntre propre nom, fait mettre crire ces mots, Par la grace de Dieu, savoir faisons que nous connoissons confessons par ces presentes, que par ce nous n'avons entendu ne entendons vouloir avoir ou pretendre s Pas Seigneuries que avons tenons au Roiaume de France, aucun plus grand droit que y avions auparavant lesdits Duchez et Seigneuries nous chus, que nos predecesseurs y avoient pouvoient avoir pretendre, connoissons ce nonobstant Monseigneur le Roi estre ntre souverain Seigneur, cause des Terres Seigneuries, que avons tenons en son Roiaume, sauf reserv nous ntre exemption ntre vie, selon le contenu ou Trait de la Paix faite entre mondit Seigneur le Roi, nous. En temoin de ce nous avons fait mettre ntre scel ces presentes. Donn en ntre Chtel de Hesdin Le vint-sixieme jour de novembre l'an de grace mil quatre-cens quarante-huit. The French Revolution brought a major change in definition, the title of the king: from Par la grâce de Dieu, Roi de France et de Navarre , it became Par la grâce de Dieu et par la loi constitutionnelle de l'Etat, Roi des Français : by the grace of God and by the constitutional law of the when was abortion in the uk State, king of the French (decree of October 12, 1789; see the Constitution of 1791, Title III, Ch. IV, sect. 1, art.

3). This was the subject of some entertaining debate on October 8 and 12, 1789 (see Archives Parlementaires , 1. ser., vol. Essay Architect Modern! 9, p. 384 and 408). The coinage was not altered until 1792. Louis XVI was deposed on August 10, 1792 and the monarchy abolished on September 22. The title ceased to be used (although Napoleon took the title of Emperor of the was abortion uk French in scottsboro trial, 1804).

In 1814, the French Senate, after voting to remove Napoleon of the throne, drafted a constitution by when was abortion legalised uk which the French people freely called Louis-Stanislas-Xavier de France to the French throne with the mass culture 1920s style of Roi des Français ( art. When Was Abortion In The Uk! 1: Le gouvernement franais est monarchique et hrditaire de mle en mle, par ordre de primogniture. Architect Modern Age! Art. 2: Le peuple franais appelle librement au trône de France Louis-Stanislas-Xavier de France, frère du dernier Roi, et après lui, les autres membres de la maison de Bourbon, dans l'ordre ancien. [. ] Louis-Stanislas-Xavier sera proclamé Roi des Français aussitôt qu'il aura juré . ). Louis XVIII rejected the draft on when in the uk, 2 May 1814, by of recession the declaration of Saint-Ouen in which he resumed the traditional style Louis, par la grâce de Dieu roi de France et de Navarre. Uk! Instead, he appointed a commission to write another draft (nevertheless largely inspired from the Senate's project).

This document was named a Charter ( Charte ) and it was conceded on 4 June 1814 (see the preamble of the Charter). On August 9, 1830, the non monetary cost duc d'Orléans ascended the throne with the style of legalised uk Louis-Philippe Ier, roi des Français, thus renewing with the constitutional monarchy of 1791-92. What would the Latin form of of recession that title be? I have not found an was abortion official document to document it, but the papal chancery simply translated it as Francorum Rex. A letter of Pius VIII to boys Louis-Philippe dated 27 Sep. 1830 is addressed to Carissimo in Christo Filio Nostro Ludovico Philippo Francorum Regi Christianissimo, and was abortion legalised in the the letter to the archbishop of Paris on the subject of the oath to the new regime translates said oath as ego juro fidelitatem Regi Francorum, obedentiam Chartae Constitutionali,et legibus regni. Numbering first appears on the royal seal of does moby symbolize Charles VIII in 1495: Karolus Dei Gratia Francorum Rex Octavus and was used by every successor. François I was the when was abortion in the uk first to be styled the first. For example, the situation ethics seal with which he sealed a peace treaty with England in 1527 reads: Franciscus Primus Dei Gratia Francorum Rex Christianissimus ( see a picture in was abortion legalised in the uk, the Public Records Office).

Some of the testons (silver coins) minted under his reign bear the Essay Architect of the inscription Franciscus I D. When Was Abortion! G. Definition Of Recession! Francorum Rex (see for example this silver testoon minted in Rouen between 1521 and 1540, on the CGB web site). Legalised In The Uk! In the vernacular, one can cite the treaty of Noyon with Charles V: le roy très chrestien François premier de ce nom ( Ordonnances de François Ier , vol. Definition! 1, p. 412). Numbering itself can be found much earlier among feudal lords, for example on a seal of Raymond III, count of Toulouse ( S[igillum]. When Was Abortion! Raimundi III Comitis ) or on culture 1920s, a seal of was abortion uk Charles II, king of Sicily, in 1292 ( K[arolus]. Situation Ethics Essay! S[e]c[un]d[u]s D[ei].

Gra[tia]. Rex. I[e]r[usa]l[e]m. When Uk! Sicil[iae]. ). The special relationship between France and the Church has long been emphasized, and Architect Modern Age France is was abortion legalised in the uk, traditionally called the eldest daughter of the Church. The usage of calling the king of France Most-Christian King ( Rex christianissimus , Roi Très-chrétien ), which was not an exclusive of French kings (there is an example of pope John VIII adressing the culture king of Leon with that title), became common under Charles VI. By Charles VII, it is seen as traditionally attached to was abortion the throne of France; the council of Basel in 1439 thus adresses Charles VII, and a letter of boys trial Pius II to when was abortion uk the same speaks of the mass culture in the 1920s title as his hereditary right. (See the essay by Pre Griffet, Collections des meilleures dissertations, notices et traits particuliers relatifs l'histoire de France , 4e partie). Finally, on December 1st, 1469, pope Paul II verbally informed the ambassadors of Louis XI that the Holy See would henceforth always use this style when addressing or citing the king of France (see Henri Forgeot: Jean Balue, cardinal d'Angers , Paris, 1895, p. 87 and references given there). The style became standard in diplomatic documents, for example, in the Treaty of Munster with the Holy Roman Empire that concluded the Thrity Years War in 1648, the style is Serenissimus ac Potentissimus Princeps ac Dominus, Dominus Ludovicus XIV. Galliarum Navarrae Rex Christianissimus. Was Abortion Legalised In The Uk! It was occasionally used domestically (e.g., the Architect of the Age official medals of Louis XIV and his successors).

Pope Julius II thought of transferring the when was abortion in the uk title to the king of situation ethics England, and legalised a papal brief was drafted to this effect, but never issued. A copy was found in what does moby, the Vatican archives and published by Alessandro Ferrajoli in when was abortion uk, the Archivio della Reale Societ di Storia patria (1896) 19:425 (cited in Intermdiaire des chercheurs et curieux (1901), 683). Local Variations in non monetary, the Royal Style. In a few cases, where the lands in the king's possession had not been formally united to the French crown, the style of the king would be altered locally. These styles were only used within those territories, or in when was abortion in the uk, documents such as letter patents that were issued only for those territories. Elsewhere, the trial style remained king of when was abortion legalised uk France. Here are a few examples: Dauphiné: ceded by the last Dauphin de Viennois in 1349 to the French king on condition that it be held by his eldest son, the Dauphiné was held by the king when not held by a Dauphin.

The last Dauphin to personally rule was the future Louis XI until 1461. Essay Architect Age! In documents concerning that province, the style was par la grâce de Dieu roi de France, dauphin de Viennois, comte de Valentinois et de Diois. Provence: united to the crown in 1481, after it was ceded by in the Marguerite d'Anjou, daughter of René d'Anjou, on 19 Oct 1480; but the edict of union of 1486 stipulated that the territories would in no way be subordinated to the crown or realm of France, and does moby symbolize consequently a particular style was maintained in that province, namely: par la grâce de Dieu roi de France, comte de Provence, Forcalquier et terres adjacentes. Louis XII styled himself Ludovicus Dei Gratia Francorum Neapolis et Hierusalem Rex Dux Mediolani (Louis by the Grace of God king of when in the France, Naples, and definition Jerusalem, duke of when was abortion legalised in the uk Milan) on a Golden Bull of 1500-03. Charles VIII had already taken the title of cost king of Naples and Jerusalem in 1494. Louis XII abandoned the style by the treaty of Blois of 22 Oct 1505. Legalised In The! From 1515 François Ier styled himself roi de France, duc de Milan, comte d'Asti, seigneur de Gênes . Scottsboro Trial! In January 1641, Catalonia decided to was abortion uk choose the king of France as count of definition Barcelona, Roussillon and Cerdanya, and that title was used in was abortion legalised, official documents: Dei gratia Galliarum et Navarrae Rex, comes Barcinonae, Rossilionis et Ceritaniae. Definition Of Recession! (Ultimately Barcelona was regained by Spain in 1652, but France received Roussillon and Cerdagne, by the treaty of Pyrenees of 1659.) In 1658, the Sovereign Council of Alsace had requested the king to add the title of landgrave of when was abortion legalised Upper and Lower Alsace to his titles, but this was never done.

See Georges Tessier: Diplomatique royale française . Paris: 1962, Picard. Consecration of the of recession King ( Sacre du Roi ) The consecration was an important ceremony at the beginning of a reign, although it was not a necessary one: after the 13th c., when kings ceased to be consecrated during the lifetime of their predecessors (Philip II was the last, in 1179), the legalised king became king at the moment of the death of situation his predecessor. In France, the coronation (placing a crown on when uk, the king's head) was not the important part of the ceremony; indeed, it was not called a coronation, but rather consecration ( sacre ). The main event of the ceremony was the anointment of the king with the non monetary cost sacred oil, by which the king was consecrated. The traditional venue of the was abortion consecration was Reims, but it was not always so. The privilege of consecrating kings rested with the archbishop of Reims, who could perform it in any church in his ecclesiastical province. Definition Of Recession! But this privilege took some time to establish.

It was founded on when was abortion in the uk, the tradition of Clovis's conversion and baptism by Remigius (Rmi), bishop of Reims, and the legend of a dove bringing a miraculous ampoula containing sacred oil with which kings of France were henceforth anointed. This legend was disseminated under Hincmar, archbishop of Reims from 840 to of the Modern 882 and when legalised in the uk close adviser of king Charles II the Essay Architect Age Bald of was abortion in the uk France (and later emperor). The following table lists the dates (usually but not always a Sunday), the in the venues, and the officiants of the when in the consecration of French kings from Louis I to Charles X (mostly based on boys trial, P. Anselme): (church of St. Stephen) (chapel of the palace) (abbey of Saint-Remi) (abbey of Saint-Remi) (abbey of Saint-Medard) (abbey of Saint-Remi)

(church of St. Corneille) (cathedral Ste. Croix) (*) with consent of the when was abortion uk bishop of Soissons; the see of Reims was vacant. The privilege was disputed between the archbishop of Sens and that of Reims for a period of what moby dick symbolize time. Formal recognition began with the when was abortion legalised uk bull apostolici culminis of 31 Dec 999 (cited in Regeste Pontificum Romanorum 3908, full text in Migne, Patrologie Latine , vol. 139 col.

273). Adressed to the bishop of definition Reims, the bull states in part . benedictionem regum Francorum et tibi subjectorum episcoporum obtineas (note that Sylvester II was archbishop of Reims from 991 to 995). At the coronation of Philippe I in when was abortion uk, 1059, in the presence of definition papal legates, the archbishop of Reims reaffirmed this privilege. Was Abortion In The Uk! But Philippe's relation with the archbishop turned sour and he had his son and successor Louis VI consecrated by the archbishop of Sens in 1108. The privilege was made more explicit by a bull of Urban II, potestatem ligandi of 25 Dec 1089 (Migne vol. 151. col.

309), conferring various privileges on situation, the archbishop of Reims: Nevertheless Hugues de Toucy, archbishop of Sens, crowned Constance, wife of King Louis VII at when in the Orlans in situation, 1152. In response, a final confirmation of the privilege of Reims came in the bull cum sis per Dei gratiam of Alexander III, 13 Apr 1179 (Migne, vol. 200, col. 1231): In France, the Salic Law prevailed, excluding females from the when was abortion in the uk throne. Does Dick Symbolize! Conversely, all male descendants of when was abortion legalised in the uk a king, no matter how distant, were eligible to succeed. As a consequence, at least by the late 16th century, all male agnates of the French king had a special status, that of prince du sang or prince of the (royal) blood. Among these, however, those closest to the monarch held even higher rank. Of Recession! We start from those closest to was abortion in the the king and move away. The enfants de France ( fils, fille de France ) were sons and definition of recession daughters of the sovereign, and styled in when was abortion in the uk, medieval seals filius/filia regis : their high rank was similar to that of infante in Spain.

They were called N. de France , and they had no other family name. As lifespans increased, it seems that the concept of fils de France was extended to definition of recession the children of the eldest son of the sovereign, and even to the children of the eldest grandson of the sovereign: in other words, to children of the current, past or future king. Finally, according to when uk Guyot ( Trait des Droits , vol. Non Monetary! 2, p. 307; see infra) in 1773 it was decided that the children of the comte d'Artois, younger son of the Dauphin son of Louis XV, would have the rank of Enfants de France , so that his eldest son the duc d'Angoulême would not be first prince of the blood. At the birth of the duc d'Angoulême, his father was disappointed that the infant was not presented with a blue ribbon of the order of the Saint-Esprit, and the king, on when, the advice of his Council, replied that he was not Premier Prince du Sang and hence not born a knight (On ne lui a point remis le cordon bleu sur-le-champ, ce qui a fort affect M. le comte d'Artois.

Il s'en est plaint au Roi, qui, ayant demand l'avis de son Conseil, lui a rpondu que le Duc d'Angoulême n'tant pas Premier Prince du sang, il n'toit pas chevalier-n des Ordres; Correspondance secrte , vol. 2, p. Of Recession! 107 1775). There was nonetheless a difference between the comte d'Artois, born fils de France under the traditional definition, and his eldest son the duc d'Angoulme: the former's name was Charles Philippe de France, the when was abortion legalised in the uk latter's name was Louis Antoine d'Artois (see the Almanach Royal of 1789; see also a proclamation of 1823 cited by Châteaubriand in his book on the Congress of Verona: Nous, Louis-Antoine d'Artois, fils de France, commandant en chef l'arme des Pyrnes). The case of the duc d'Angoulme illustrates another point, which is that one need not be born fils de France. In 1824, his father became king as Charles X and he became Dauphin.

Consequently, in the Almanach Royal of 1830, he is listed as Louis-Antoine de France (Dauphin). Boys! Becoming the son of a king changed his last name to France (more precisely, to having no last name). Note, however, that the family name remained d'Artois (see the when legalised in the example of the duc de Bordeaux below). A son became fils de France upon accession of boys trial his father, but a sibling did not become fils or fille de France upon when was abortion legalised accession of non monetary a brother. This is shown by the fact that Henri IV gave his only sister the rank of when was abortion uk fille de France by a declaration of February 1599. In the non monetary 1630s, a lower rank was created, namely petit-fils, petite-fille de France , for the children of the when legalised uk younger sons of a sovereign. This was designed for Essay Modern Age, Anne-Marie-Louise d'Orléans, duchess of Montpensier, daughter of when legalised Gaston d'Orléans, at a time when the king Louis XIII had no children and his brother Gaston (heir presumptive) had only one daughter. The petits-enfants de France ranked after the enfants de France but before all other princes of the blood. Collectively, the enfants de France and petits-enfants de France formed the Royal family . There is situation ethics, some variance in opinion on the definition of fils de France. Was Abortion Legalised! Guyot, in his Trait des droits (Paris, 1787; vol.

2, p. 307), says: On appelle Fils de France, les enfants petits-enfans mles des Rois. Ce titre appartient aussi leurs arrires-petits-enfans, lorsque le Roi rgnant n'est lui-mme que petit-fils de Roi, que par l ils ont l'avantage d'tre neveux du prince qui occupe actuellement le trne. Notre dfinition ne quadre point avec celle de l'auteur du Crmonial diplomatique des cours de l'Europe : je n'appelle Fils de France, dit-il, que les prince qui sont fils de Roi. Ils n'y a de Fils de France que ceux dont les pres ont rgn ou rgnent, parce que le prince qui monte sur le trne perdant son surnom, ne peut donner que celui qu'il acquier ceux qui sont ns de lui. Or il n'acquiert que celui de France, ainsi il ne peut donner que le nom de France ses enfans: mais comme les Fils de France ont des apanages, les princes qui sont issus de ces Fils de Fance, qui ne viennent point rgner, portent le nom de l'apanage de leur pre, font dans la suite une branche de la maison royale. Mais en parlant ainsi, cet auteur a plus consult son imagination que les faits. Sans remonter des temps bien reculs, il avoit devant les yeux l'exemple du dernier rgent, qui quoique petit-fils de Louis XIV, a toujours port le titre de Fils de France.

Aujourd'hui Monsieur, frre du Roi monseigneur comte d'Artois portent galement ce titre; ils le portoient mme du vivant de Louis XV leur ayeul. C'est ce que prouvent notamment les lettres-patentes de Monsieur, du 26 juin 1773, confirmes par un dit du mois de juillet suivant, l'dit du mois de janvier 1774, les lettres-patentes du premier dcembre 1776, celles des 18 fvrier 18 mars 1779, celles du 4 fvrier 1783. Il y a plus. Definition! M. le duc d'Angoulme, quoiqu'arrire-petit-fils de Roi, porte le titre d'Enfant de France. Mais s'il a un jour des enfans, on appellera son fils an premier Prince du Sang. C'est ce qui a t dcid par le Roi la naissance de ce prince. The way I make sense of Guyot's text, however, is that he conflates the ranks of fils de France and was abortion in the petit-fils de France (the latter is not mentioned in his book).

In France, aside from a few exceptions, prince was not a title, but a rank that denoted dynasts, i.e., individuals with an of recession eventual succession right to the throne. The word, and its connotation of sovereignty, was felt to legalised in the be their preserve. Architect Modern Age! Collectively known as the Princes du Sang (less often princes du sang de France , princes des lys ) they were, in when was abortion legalised in the, theory, all descendents in legitimate male line of a French sovereign outside of the situation ethics royal family itself. The term dates from the when 14th century. The princes of the blood all had a seat at the Conseil du Roi, or Royal Council, and at the Paris Parlement. In the 17th and 18th centuries it became customary to restrict the definition term of prince du sang to when was abortion in the uk those dynasts who were not members of the does moby symbolize Royal family, i.e. children or grandchildren in male line of the sovereign, since those became known as the when was abortion legalised uk enfants and petits-enfants de France . Kings were somewhat selective in their choice of who was treated as prince of the blood. In the late 15th century, for example, the Bourbons-Carency, the most distant branch of the mass Bourbon family (extinct 1530), were never invited to legalised take seat in the Conseil du Roi. In the 17th and 18th c., the scottsboro boys trial princes of the blood were only members of the Bourbon family (descended from a son of Louis IX), in spite of the when was abortion in the uk existence of the Courtenay, descended from Louis VI, and the only remaining non-Bourbon line of Capetians.

The Courtenay were denied the title of seigneurs de sang royal by the Paris Court of definition of recession Accounts, and never acknowledged as princes of the blood by any king, in spite of was abortion legalised their repeated requests to Henri IV, Louis XIII, and Louis XIV. The latter implicitly denied that they had any rights to the throne when he signed with the duc de Lorraine the non monetary cost treaty of Montmartre (6 Feb 1662; 7 CTS 65) in which it was stipulated that the French throne would pass to the house of Lorraine upon extinction of the when legalised in the August House of ethics essay Bourbon. When Was Abortion In The! The Courtenay vainly protested and asked that the phrase be replaced with the royal house issued in legitimate male line from the kings of France (see the printed protest dated 11 Feb 1662 in BN, mss Fr 3886, fol. Ethics! 17). The Parlement of Paris refused to register the treaty but was forced to do so in a lit de justice on uk, February 27, 1662, but the Essay Architect treaty was renounced by the duke of Lorraine soon after, and replaced by the treaty of when was abortion legalised uk Metz of 31 Aug 1663.

In 1715, at the accession of Louis XV, the last remaining males (Louis-Charles, his son Charles-Roger and his brother Roger) once again asked the king for the rank of princes of the blood, without any success (see below the text of their plea). Louis-Charles died in 1723, Charles Roger committed suicide in 1730, and Roger, abb de Courtenay, the last of his name, died on 5 May 1733. Essay! His sister Hlne (7 Apr 1689-20 Jun 1768), married to the marquis de Bauffremont, appealed to the king (22 Feb 1737) after the Parlement de Paris struck out the phrase princesse du sang royal de France from court documents filed with the Parlement de Besanon (see the text here, as well as excerpts from Saint-Simon's Memoirs). When Was Abortion! Since 1733, all Capetians are descended from culture in the Robert, son of Louis IX and uk founder of the house of Bourbon. Protest of the princes of Courtenay, addressed on Oct 1, 1715 to Louis XV (Gazette d'Amsterdam, 1715, n. 89, p. 5). Les princes de la Maison de Courtenay ayant l'honneur de dcendre par Mles lgitimes de Pierre de France, seigneur de Courtenay, fils puisn du Roi Louis VI. du nom, dit le Gros, doivent sous la protection de Vôtre Majest, et par un effet de sa justice jouir de tous les Droits attachez leur naissance; sur cette confiance ils renouvellent V. M. les trs-humbles remontrances et instances qu'eux et leurs Peres ont faites aux Rois vos Prdecesseurs pour obtenir le rang qui leur apartenoit; ils osent pareillement, Sire, renouveller les Protestations qu'ils ont faites en differentes occasions pour tre conservez dans tous les Droits de Princes de la Maison et du Sang de France. Ils craindroient avec raison que V. M. Does Moby! ne les en juget indignes, si dans les commencemens d'un Regne si rempli de justice que celui de V. M. ils ne protestoient, comme ils le font, avec un trs-profond respect contre tout ce qui a pu tre fait leur prjudice sous le dernier Regne, et mme depuis, ou qui pourroit tre fait dans la suite contraire aux Droits lgitimes de leur Naissance; protestant pareillement ds prsent de se pourvoir, lorsque les voyes de la Justice leur seront permises, ainsi qu'ils l'ont toujours demand, et le demandent V. M. Ils ne cesseront jamais, Sire, de prier Dieu qu'il vous comble de toutes sortes de graces et de bndictions.

[signed] Louis-Charles de Courtenay. Charles-Roger de Courtenay. Roger de Courtenay. Ranking among the princes du sang was by order of succession rights. The closest to the throne (excluding any fils de France) was called Premier Prince du Sang. In practice, it was not always clear who was entitled to the rank, and in the it often took a specific act of the situation ethics king to make the was abortion determination.

From 1562 to 1589, the Premier Prince du Sang was Henri de Bourbon, king of Navarre (who was acknowledged as such and received at the Paris Parlement). From 1589 to 1709 the title was held by symbolize the prince de Condé (received by Parlement in 1595). At the death of the prince in 1686, it was unclear whether the title ought to go to legalised the duc d'Anjou, younger son of the cost Dauphin, but a fils de France, or the in the duc de Chartres, son of the king's brother, but still a petit-fils de France, or the ethics duc d'Enghien, son of the deceased. As the first two were members of the Royal Family and thus outranked other princes of the blood, it was felt that the rank would not honor them enough, and the deceased's son Louis de Bourbon-Condé took the rank, although the duc de Chartres drew the pension (the source for when legalised, this is Sainctot, cited in Rousset de Missy). On the death of definition of recession Louis de Bourbon-Condé in was abortion, 1709 the title would have passed to the duc d'Orléans, nephew of Louis XIV, but he did not use it (he did, however, call himself first prince of the blood on occasion: when cardinal Dubois died in what dick symbolize, August 1723, the legalised uk duc d'Orlans asked the scottsboro boys trial king for the vacant position of prime minister sans faire attention mon rang et ma dignit de premier prince de votre sang; Journal de Buvat , 2:451). After the duc d'Orlans's death in December 1723, his son officially received the title. When Uk! It remained to the head of the Orléans family until 1830. However, at the death of the non monetary duc d'Orléans in 1785, it was decided that, once again, the duc d'Angoulême, son of the king's brother, ranked too high for the title, and it was granted to when was abortion in the the new duc d'Orléans (letters patent of culture in the 1920s 27 Nov 1785); but Louis XVI decided that the duc d'Orléans would hold the title until the duc d'Angoulême had a son who could bear it (this is what Guyot writes, citing the when was abortion legalised in the Journal Politique de Bouillon , second half of 1785).

Entries from Dangeau's Journal in the 1854 edition available from Gallica) 3 Jun 1686, after the boys induction of the in the duc de Chartres, nephew of the what moby king, and the duc de Bourbon, eldest son of the prince de Condé, into the order of the Saint-Esprit (Vol. 1, p. 345): dans la crmonie d'hier, M Le Duc De Bourbon prtendoit marcher cte cte de M Le Duc De Chartres, disant que M Le Duc De Chartres ne devoit tre considr que comme premier prince du sang, et qu'il n'y avoit point d'exemple contraire; cependant le roi jugea en faveur de M Le Duc De Chartres, parce qu'il lui a donn un rang au-dessus des princes du sang. 14 Dec 1686, following the death of Louis de Bourbon, prince de Condé (Vol. 1, p. 429): M. Was Abortion Uk! Le duc n' aura pas les privilges de premier prince du sang. M. Le prince en jouissoit parce l' on mass culture in the 1920s, n' te point ces gens-l les honneurs qu' ils ont eus, et qu' il avoit t longtemps premier prince du sang ; c' est prsentement M De Chartres qui l' est et qui, par-dessus cela, a des honneurs particuliers comme petit-fils de France. 16 Dec 1686 (p. When Was Abortion In The! 430): Le roi a dit m. Le duc de s' appeler m. Of The! Le prince, et M De Bourbon gardera le nom de Duc De Bourbon, mais on ne l' appelera que m. Le duc tout court. 14 June 1701, following the death of Monsieur (vol.

12, p. Legalised Uk! 128): M. le Prince aura le traitement de premier prince du sang. Saint-Simon's addition: le roi donna à M. le Prince les avantages de premier prince du sang devenus vacants, et au-dessous de M. le Duc d'Orléans au point où il fut élevé alors. The rank of premier prince du sang was not purely a court title or a precedence. It carried with it legal privileges, notably the right to scottsboro have a household ( maison ), such as the legalised in the king, the boys trial queen, and the enfants de France each did. A household was a collection of officers and employees, paid for out of the State's revenues, and constituted a miniature version of the royal administration, with military and civil officers, a council with a chancelor and secretaries, gentlemen-in-waiting, equerries, falconers, barbers and surgeons, a chapel, etc. (See a description of the King's Household). The duc d'Orlans's household, set up in 1724, had 265 officers. Styles and was abortion in the Precedence of the Princes du Sang. Until the 15th century, precedence among princes of the blood, or even between them and other lords, depended on mass culture, the title.

In the 15th century debates arose between princes of the blood, particularly between the duc de Bourbon and the comte d'Alençon (the former was further in when was abortion legalised uk, the line of succession, but a duke ranked above a count; the dispute was resolved by making the latter a duke himself). Situation! Finally, an edict of 1576 set that princes of the blood would have precedence over all lords, and between them by order in the line of succession rather than by when their titles. Precedence was set according to the following rules (Guyot, loc. Age! cit. , vol. 2, p. When Legalised In The Uk! 382; he is in fact citing Rousset de Missy, who is himself citing Sainctot Sr., who was introducteur des ambassadeurs under Louis XIV). All princes of the blood were divided into: children of the current sovereign and children of his eldest son, children of the previous sovereign and scottsboro children of his eldest son, all others. The first two categories formed the was abortion royal family (Guyot says children and grandchildren, but I interpret his words strictly).

Precedence was set: by category (i.e., anyone of category 1 outranked anyone of category 2) within category: between males, according to the order in Essay of the Modern, the line of succession, between males and when was abortion females, according to the right of succession (that is, males before females), between females, according to the degree of kinship with the king. Thus the non monetary son of the Dauphin outranked the king's brother or younger son, but the daughter of when uk a Dauphin was outranked by mass culture in the 1920s the king's daughter; the was abortion uk king's daughter in turn outranked the king's brother or sister. Non Monetary Cost! Wives took the rank of their husbands, so a Dauphine outranked a king's sister. There is was abortion legalised, a famous moment at what moby dick symbolize the death of Louis XVIII in 1824 that illustrates these rules. When the king had drawn his last breath, Monsieur, brother of the king, was told by in the uk the physician: Sire, le Roi est mort, as he had instantly become Charles X. When the definition of recession moment came to step out when, of the bedroom, the new king went first. Boys! His eldest son, the duc d'Angoulême, had married the daughter of when was abortion in the uk Louis XVI, and, until that moment, she had outranked him (being in group 2, he in group 3). He was about to let her step before him, when she stepped back and said: Passez, Monsieur le Dauphin. He had just moved from group 3 to group 1, and cost now outranked his wife. Another illustration of when legalised in the these rules is does moby dick symbolize, found in when was abortion, the listing of French princes and princesses in the Almanach Royal of 1789, a semi-official directory of the non monetary cost French state (see p. When Uk! 33 and moby p. 34). The order is: the king and the queen the king's two sons (group 1, males) the king's daughter (group 1, females) the king's brothers and their wives (group 2, males) the uk king's sisters (group 2, females) the king's aunts (group 2, females) the children of the king's younger brother (group 3) the Orlans branch, males followed by females the Bourbon-Cond branch, males followed by Architect of the Modern Age females the was abortion legalised in the Bourbon-Conti branch, males followed by females.

The following styles were highly formal and used only in the most official documents, such as treaties, contracts, tombstones, and what does the like, according to a règlement of 1688 cited by Guyot ( Traité des droits , vol. 2, p. When Legalised Uk! 371): The heir apparent, titled Dauphin de Viennois (and not du Viennois as sometimes written) or more commonly Dauphin , was called très haut, très puissant et excellent Prince The eldest brother of the King and the Premier Prince du Sang was très haut et très puissant Prince (e.g., Bossuet's Oraison funèbre de Louis de Bourbon , where the deceased is named trs haut et trs puissant prince Louis De Bourbon, prince De Cond, premier prince du sang ; Oeuvres Oratoires , 1922, vol. 5, p. 425). The other Princes of the Blood were très haut et puissant Prince . Scottsboro! Foreign princes at the Court were haut et puissant Prince . A dispute in 1752 over the use of this style by a member of the in the uk Rohan family, which provoked an outcry from the princes of the blood, led to a decision by non monetary cost the king reaffirming a usage that was over a hundred years old. See the legalised in the uk page on nobility for equivalent styles of non-royals. The enfants and petits-enfants de France were entitled to the style of cost Royal Highness ( Altesse Royale ) since the 17th century (thus, the duc d'Orlans, Regent from 1715 to when was abortion in the uk 1723, is styled SAR in the Almanach Royal of 1717). Definition Of Recession! Other princes of the blood were only entitled to Most Serene Highness ( Altesse Sérénissime ) from 1651 to 1824, when they received the when was abortion in the uk style of Royal Highness. Princes of the blood were the only ones in France entitled to the style of Highness, according to an arrêt of the Parlement of Paris of 14 Dec 1754 which forbade the bishop of Metz to culture in the use that style (Guyot, Traité des droits , vol. 2, p. In The! 371).

On ne le traitera point d'Altesse, mais de Monseigneur. Il ne peut y avoir une Altesse Royale, mais aussi il lui faut un autre titre qu'Altesse Srnissime pour ne pas avoir le mme titre que M. le Duc, le duc d'Orlans tant hritier prsomptif de la couronne. (Matthieu Marais, Journal , vol. Boys! 3 p. 62; Dec. Legalised In The! 1723.) A younger son was usually given a title fairly early, although for does symbolize, some reason the French royal family developed the habit of baptizing royal children at uk a late age, sometimes as late as 16. The child received a private baptism at birth ( ondoiement ) and would be known by his title, which was announced by Essay of the Age the king immediately after the birth. When a younger son reached maturity, he was usually given an apanage : whereas the was abortion title might not carry any actual possession of lands and definition of recession fiefs with it, an when uk apanage would. Definition! The rule on apanages was that they would return to the crown after extinction of the male line, although any other property acquired by the apanagiste could pass on to a daughter. When! The custom of the apanage was adopted on a systematic basis in the early 13th c. Usually, the most recently acquired domains were given out as apanages. Among the lands used as apanages are Artois, Anjou, Maine, Poitiers, Valois, Alençon, Blois, Chartres, Clermont, Bourbon, Evreux, Orléans, Touraine, Berry, Auvergne, Bourgogne, Guyenne, Angoulême, Provence.

The heir apparent initially did not have a special title. Under the Capetians in direct line (987-1328) the eldest son was crowned while his father was alive, until 1179. Boys! On seals, the heir apparent was called filius regis or filius regis primogenitus . Philippe VI (1328-50), the first of the house of legalised uk Valois to reign, gave the duchy of boys trial Normandy to was abortion legalised his eldest son, on condition that it would revert to the crown upon his accession. Jean became king in 1350, and in turn gave Normandy to his eldest son Charles in 1355. Situation Ethics Essay! But Charles had also been given the title of Dauphin de Viennois in 1349 (dauphin was the peculiar title of the when was abortion legalised in the uk count of the Dauphiné; another such title was that of Dauphin d'Auvergne), following the cession of the Dauphiné by the last dauphin, Humbert, on the condition that it be held by Essay Age the king's eldest son henceforth. The title of legalised in the uk Dauphin was bestowed on the eldest son of the mass culture 1920s king, reverting to the crown upon accession; the future Louis XI was the last dauphin to actually rule over the Dauphiné, until 1461. Contrary to when the title of prince of Wales in England, the definition title soon became automatic at was abortion in the birth, or upon Modern Age accession of his father to the throne. Legalised In The! The last to bear the title was the son of Charles X, the duke of Angoulême.

The arms of the Dauphin were quarterly France and Dauphiné ( Or, a dolphin azure, crêté, oreillé and barbé (crest, ear and wattle) gules ). Arms of definition Louis de France, dauphin (1729-1765) and Marie-Josphe de Saxe (1731-67), on their tomb, Sens cathedral. As life-spans extended, new customs emerged: for the eldest son of the Dauphin, the when legalised uk title of duc de Bourgogne was used twice (Louis XIV's grandson and Louis XV's grandson). For the duc de Bourgogne's eleest son, the title of duc de Bretagne was used: The eldest son of culture François Ier had also been duke of Brittany, until the union of the duchy with France in 1532. In the 16th and 17th c., the titles of Orlans, Anjou, and Berry became customary for younger sons. In The! The brother of Louis XIV was given Orlans as apanage and his line continued, so the scottsboro title became unavailable. Every duc d'Anjou, on when was abortion legalised, the other hand, seemed to die without posterity or accede to some throne: the title was thus used repeatedly: by Charles IX's brother (future Henri III), by Henri III';s brother (died 1584 s.p.), by Louis XIII's brother until 1626 (died s.m.p. 1660), by Louis XIV's brother until 1660, by two infant sons of Louis XIV, by Louis XIV's younger grandson who became king of Spain, by the future Louis XV, by Louis XV's infant second son. When Louis XV's eldest son had a second son, the king was set against using Anjou, apparently because of the bad luck associated with it (duc de Luynes, Mmoires , 13:49; see also Journal de Barbier , 5:416), and used Aquitaine instead, a title unused since the Middle Ages. Indeed, a medieval taste is apparent in the choice of the titles of non monetary Louis XV's children: after the traditional Bourgogne, Aquitaine was chosen (a title inexistent since the 13th c.), then Berry (a traditional for was abortion in the uk, third sons), followed by Provence and Essay Architect of the Modern Age Artois, both of whom recall the family of St.

Louis IX (Barbier, 6:588, speculates that it was a way for when was abortion in the, the king to tell the definition of recession province of Artois that he bore no grudge for the province of origin of Damiens, who had tried to kill him). Louis XVI's younger son was titled duc de Normandie, as a snub to when was abortion in the uk the English according to some (?). Boys Trial! The comte d'Artois' children Angoulême and was abortion legalised Berry were traditional titles, but the latter's posthumous son was titled duc de Bordeaux in 1820 to thank that city for its early submission to the returning Bourbons in Essay Architect Modern, 1814. See the page on the Bourbons for additional information on the titles used in the Bourbon family. The titles of younger sons can only be understood within the concept of the apanage.

The Constitution of 1791 reserved the title of was abortion in the Prince Royal to the heir to the throne, and that of prince français to all those formerly called princes du sang. Of Recession! It also prohibited any other use of the title of prince (recall that all titles of nobility had been abolished in 1790). In The Uk! Napoleon used the same styles (except that the scottsboro trial heir was called Prince Impérial ). The Restoration returned to the Old Regime usages. The July monarchy partly returned to 1791 usages. By an ordinance of August 13, 1830, it was decided that the king's sister and his children would continue to when was abortion legalised bear the arms of mass Orléans, that Louis-Philippe's eldest son, as Prince Royal, would bear the title of duc d'Orléans, that the younger sons would continue to have their existing titles, and when was abortion legalised in the that the sister and daughters of the king would only be styled princesses d'Orléans and distinguished by their given names. The Sénatus-consulte of Essay Modern Age December 25, 1852 (art. 6), following the constitution of 1804, gave the title of was abortion legalised in the prince français to all members of the imperial family apt to succeed and scottsboro boys their descent; the eldest son of the emperor was titled prince impérial . The style of Prince de France was never used. In the late 19th century, the term of when was abortion uk princes d'Orléans was sometimes used to refer to members of the Orléans family, and, nowadays, that family uses the style of does prince de France . Family Names and Titles of Younger Sons. A son of France was born de France : all his descendants, however, had his main title (whether an apanage or a courtesy title) as their family or last name. Thus the son of Philippe de France (1640-1701), duke of Orléans, was born Philippe d'Orléans, even though he was also petit-fils de France (see, for when legalised, example, the text of his renunciation to his rights to the crown of Spain in situation, 1712: the renunciation begins Philippe, petit-fils de France, duc d'Orlans but he signs Philippe d'Orlans; his cousin the duc de Berry signs his renunciation Charles).

Charles de France (1757-1836), son of was abortion legalised in the Louis, Dauphin, and grandson of Louis XV was given the title of Count of Artois, supposedly at mass the suggestion of the Queen Marie who thought of Robert d'Artois, brother of St. Louis (Luynes, Mmoires , 16:205). His children's names were Louis d'Artois and Charles-Ferdinand d'Artois. The latter's son, born in 1820, was Henri-Charles-Ferdinand-Marie-Dieudonné d'Artois, Duc de Bordeaux. That is the way he is listed in the Almanach Royal of 1830 (p. 17). (The difference they used was a border embattled gules). Had the when uk throne of France been restored in 1873, he would have become Henri V, and we would probably have spoken of the ethics house of Bourbon-Artois, or Artois. Obverse of a token struck by the Paris mint to commemorate a visit by S.A.R. In The! Monseigneur le duc de Bordeaux on what does moby dick, 24 Dec 1828. The legend reads Henri Charles Ferdinand Marie Dieudonn d'Artois and the arms show France differenced by a bordure embattled gules, with the open coronet of fleurs-de-lys of a prince of the blood.

This token was struck when his grandfather was reigning as Charles X. Although the king of when in the uk France had no family name, and definition of recession his children were born de France, there was a sense in which a certain house was on when was abortion legalised in the, the throne. The legitimized children of kings took as family name the name of the house: for example, the definition of recession son of Charles IX, was known as Charles de Valois, duke of Angoulême (the name of the house was officially Valois because François I had been made duc de Valois in 1498 before ascending the was abortion legalised throne). The legitimized children of Henri IV and Louis XIV all had Bourbon as family name. During the Revolution, the family names of the members of the king's family with eventual succession rights (i.e., all agnates) were deprived of any patronymic name, by a decree of August 26, 1791 ( Archives Parlementaires, vol. 29, p. Essay Of The! 737); henceforth their name consisted of their given names followed by was abortion uk the title of French prince ( prince franais ). This provision was embodied in situation essay, the constitution of 1791, title 3, chapter 2, section 3, article 6. Recently, the head of the was abortion legalised in the uk house of Orlans, the comte de Paris, sued in French courts to non monetary cost have his family name changed from when was abortion legalised in the uk Orlans to ethics Bourbon (note that he refers to was abortion legalised in the himself as Henri de France, but that is not his legal name). In France, the only names one is allowed to moby dick symbolize use are thegiven and last names registered in the Etat civil . There are two ways to when was abortion change one's surname: either sue in scottsboro, civil courts to was abortion legalised in the uk have the Architect Age register ( registre de l'État civil ) changed because it is somehow erroneous; or else petition the legalised uk minister of Justice who refers the matter to the conseil d'État , and, upon approval, to the Prime Minister for an official decree. The former method relies on some right which can be proven in court, the latter is at the discretion of the authorities and there is no recourse against a rejection. The comte de Paris claimed that his ancestors had stopped using the surname of Bourbon, but it had remained his true patronym, and he had a right to resume its use. The courts found against him, successively the lower court in situation essay, Paris, the Appeals Court of Paris (Feb 1, 2001) and finally the Court of Cassation (Sept.

30, 2003, 01-03219, see Legifrance and search by numro d'affaire 01-03219). AU NOM DU PEUPLE FRANCAIS. AU NOM DU PEUPLE FRANCAIS. LA COUR DE CASSATION, PREMIERE CHAMBRE CIVILE, a rendu l'arrêt suivant : Sur le moyen unique, pris en ses deux branches : Attendu que, M. Legalised In The! Henri d'X. reproche à l'arrêt confirmatif attaqué (Paris, 1er février 2001) d'avoir rejeté sa requête en rectification d'état civil à fin de rétablir son nom d'origine de Y. et se nommer à l'avenir Henri de Y. Essay! alors, selon le moyen : 1 / qu'en lui déniant le droit de se faire enregistrer sous le nom de Y. Legalised Uk! , aux motifs que ses ascendants n'auraient pas fait usage de ce nom, et auraient porté pendant trois siècles et demi le nom d'X. Mass 1920s! , tiré d'un titre ducal, ce qui ne permettait pas de caractériser leur renonciation à se prévaloir de leur rattachement aux Y. et à posséder ainsi, en sus du nom d'X. , le nom dynastique de Y. , la cour d'appel a privé sa décision de base légale au regard des articles 99 du Code civil et 1er de la loi du 6 fructidor an II ; 2 / qu'en affirmant que sa demande tendant à recouvrer le nom ancestral de Y. n'aurait présenté aucun intérêt légitime, au prétexte qu'il se serait agi d'une querelle dynastique dont l'issue ne peut trouver une solution de nature judiciaire, la cour d'appel a méconnu l'étendue de ses pouvoirs et violé les articles 99 du Code civil et 1er de la loi du 6 fructidor an II ; Mais attendu que si la possession loyale et prolongée d'un nom ne fait pas obstacle en principe à ce que celui qui le porte, renonçant à s'en prévaloir, revendique le nom de ses ancêtres, il appartient alors au juge, en considération, notamment, de la durée respective et de l'ancienneté des possessions invoquées, ainsi que des circonstances dans lesquelles elles se sont succédé, d'apprécier s'il y a lieu d'accueillir cette revendication ; Attendu qu'en l'espèce, par motifs adoptés, la cour d'appel a souverainement estimé que c'était volontairement que le nom d'X. avait été substitué à celui de Y. Legalised Uk! par le fils cadet de Louis XIII et tous ses descendants qui avaient ainsi abandonné le nom de Y. et que cette volonté de porter le nom d'X. avait été confirmée par le roi Louis-Philippe lors de son accession au trône ; que, par des seuls motifs, elle a légalement justifié sa décision ; REJETTE le pourvoi ; Condamne M. d'X. aux dépens ; Ainsi fait et jugé par la Cour de Cassation, Première chambre civile, et prononcé par le président en son audience publique du trente septembre deux mille trois. In general, a titled person was called Monsieur le duc de Villeroy , or Monsieur le comte d'Alaincourt and addressed as Monsieur le duc , Monsieur le comte ; the in the 1920s same went for members of the when legalised in the uk royal family, until the 16th century, when a certain number of forms of address came into use.

Starting under Henri III, the eldest brother of the king was called Monsieur (frère du Roi) , his wife was Madame (See Brantôme). These usages only cost became established with Gaston, younger brother of Louis XIII. The king's younger brother retained this style after the death of uk his brother, so that, from 1643 to 1660 there were two Monsieurs, the brother of the deceased Louis XIII and the brother of the reigning Louis XIV (they were called le Grand Monsieur and le petit Monsieur ). The style was later used for the count of symbolize Provence, brother of Louis XVI, and legalised later for the count of Artois when Louis XVIII reigned. The princes of the branch of COnd had their peculiar styles. Boys! The head of the house was Monsieur le Prince, his eldest son Monsieur le Duc. According to Duclos ( Oeuvres compltes , 10:200), the when was abortion in the uk style dates back to scottsboro Louis de Bourbon, the younger brother of when was abortion Antoine de Bourbon, father of Henri IV: this prince de Cond, being the only royal prince of the Protestant party, was called by them Monsieur le Prince; his son Henri (d. 1588) was called similarly because the other royal prince among them, the future Henri IV, was called prince de Barn (until 1572) and later roi de Navarre. The third of the line, Henri (1588-146) was taken to the Court in 1595, and styled similarly as first prince of the blood. His uncle the comte de Soissons adopted the style of Monsieur le Comte which his son (d. 1641) also used.

It was Louis, the Grand Cond (1621-1686) who had his eldest son Henri Jules, duc d'Enghien (1643-1709) called Monsieur le Duc and he in turn took the scottsboro style of Monsieur le Prince in 1686 and gave that of when was abortion in the Monsieur le Duc to his son Louis (1668-1710). But Louis, in 1709, kept the style of Monsieur le Duc, being known as duc de Bourbon, and so did his successor Louis-Henri (1692-1740). The last two of the non monetary cost line used the style of prince de Cond. The Dauphin, son of legalised Louis XIV, was known simply as Monseigneur , although that seemed to be peculiar to Louis XIV's son: the usage originated with Louis XIV, perhaps as a jest, and ethics essay no other Dauphin was ever known as Monseigneur (they were called Monsieur le Dauphin ). The grandsons of legalised Louis XIV were also called Monseigneur: Monseigneur duc de Bourgogne, Monseigneur duc d'Anjou, Monseigneur duc de Berry ( Almanach Royal , 1706), or more formally, Monseigneur Fils de France duc de *** ( Almanach Royal , 1713). What Does! Similarly, in the 1789 Almanach Royal one sees Monseigneur comte d'Artois and his wife Madame comtesse d'Artois.

At the Bourbon court, all the daughters of the king and of the dauphin were called Madame and when was abortion legalised in the collectively known as Mesdames de France, and for all but the eldest one the given name was added. Thus, the daughters of Louis XV were known as Madame [Adélaïde], Madame Victoire, Madame Sophie, Madame Louise ; before their baptism, they were known as Madame [de France] premire/Aînée, Madame [de France] seconde, etc (see the Almanach Royal , 1738). Dick Symbolize! Note, however, that at their birth in 1727 the twin daughters of Louis XV were called Madame de France and was abortion legalised Madame de Navarre. The first three (surviving) daughters were baptized the what dick same day, on Apr. 27, 1737 (Louise Elisabeth, Henriette Anne, and Marie Adlade). The eldest of the dames de France was either known as Madame de France (e.g., Elizabeth, eldest daughter of Henri IV and later queen of in the uk Spain), Madame, or, if that title was used by the wife of Monsieur, brother of the king, as Madame Royale. Situation Ethics Essay! Thus Louis Louise-Elisabeth (1727-59), eldest daughter of Louis XV (who had no brother), was known as Madame from when was abortion her baptism in 1737 until her marriage to what does the Infante Felipe of Spain in 1739, when she became Madame Infante (and later Madame Infante Duchesse de Parme ). Adlaïde, daughter of Louis XV, was called Madame from 1752 until 1771 when she became Madame Adlaïde . The daughter of Louis XVI (who had a married brother) was known as Madame Royale until her marriage to her cousin the duc d'Angoulême.

Until 1700 or so, the title of Madame Royale seemed to be used for princesses of collateral branches. Here are some examples: Christine (or Chrtienne), daughter of Henri IV, wife of the duke of when Savoie, is called (after her marriage) Madame Royale Chrtienne de France, Duchesse Rgente de Savoie in a 1645 treaty. Henriette-Marie, third daughter of Henri IV, is said to have invented the English style of Princess Royal for scottsboro, her eldest daughter. Anne Marie d'Orlans (1669-1728), second daughter of Monsieur (but at the time the most senior unmarried princess) is called Madame Royale by Dangeau in 1684 ( Journal , 1:6, 1854 ed.); that year, she married the duke of Savoy, but Dangeau still referred to her as Madame Royale after her marriage: On eut nouvelles que madame royale toit accouche d' une fille ; M De Savoie en envoya ici porter la nouvelle; and even decades later, he calls her Madame Royale de Savoie (19 May 1716), Madame la duchesse Royale de Savoie (17 May 1718) or Madame la duchesse royale (28 Aug 1719). Elizabeth Charlotte d'Orlans (1676-1744), third and last daughter of Monsieur (again the most senior unmarried princess at the court) is called Madame Royale by when legalised in the Dangeau in 1698 ( ibid., , 7:74) just before and what moby symbolize after her marriage to the duke of Lorraine: M Le Duc De Chartres devoit partir mercredi pour aller en Lorraine voir Madame Royale, sa soeur. Mme de Sévigné's Correspondance , Jul 1676 (2:352, 1974 edition), Dec 1679 (2:770) uses it for Marie-Jeanne-Baptiste de Savoie-Nemours, wife (and after 1675 widow) of the was abortion legalised in the uk duke of Savoy: Vous savez que Madame Royale ne souhaite rien tant au monde que l' accomplissement du mariage de son fils avec l'infante de Portugal. The first three examples have in common that the French princess married beneath her, and retention of the style Madame Royale may have been intended to to recall the of the Modern Age royal rank that the person held by when uk birth, a rank deemed superior to that of situation essay her husband at a time when neither Savoy nor Lorraine enjoyed the style of Royal Highness. Indeed, Diderot's Encyclopédie states (s.v.

Royale ): On a donn le titre de royale des princesses filles ou petites-filles de rois, quoiqu'elles ne fussent pas reines. Ainsi l'on a appell la duchesse de Savoie, madame royale, les duchesses d'Orlans de Lorraine ont eu le titre d'altesse royale. I can't explain the when uk fourth example. In the junior branches, starting with the children of the scottsboro trial king's brother, the daughters were called Mademoiselle either followed by was abortion legalised the given name, or by a name recalling the titles of the family: thus Gaston's eldest daughter was known as Mademoiselle , but his other daughters were Mademoiselle d'Orléans, Mademoiselle d'Alençon, Mademoiselle de Valois, Mademoiselle de Chartres . This is probably due to the fact that baptisms took place quite late: Louise-Diane d'Orlans (1716-36) was baptised three days before her marriage in 1732. In 1720, Louise-lisabeth d'Orlans (1709-42), daughter of the duc d'Orlans and non monetary cost called Mademoiselle de Montpensier, received the title of Mademoiselle after the marriage of her elder sister to when was abortion legalised uk the duke of Modena (Jean Buvat: Journal de la Rgence , Paris 1875, 2:29). She was then the eldest unmarried French princess, excepting the abbess of Challes. She became queen of Spain in 1722, but was widowed in 1724 and returned to Essay of the Age France where she was known as la reine douairière d'Espagne (dowager queen of Spain). When Legalised In The! In 1726 the duc de Bourbon (then prime minister) secured by of the brevet the style of Mademoiselle for his sister Louise-Anne, who was the only unmarried princess. See the French royal genealogy to see the titles given to children. The widow of a prince was called douairière (dowager) when there was a need to was abortion in the uk distinguish her from the wife of his successor. The widow of the prince de Cond (d.

1709) was called until her death Madame la Princesse because her daughter-in-law were called Madame la Duchesse . When there were several widows, they were numbered, thus between 1727 and 1732: Marie-Anne de Bourbon (Mlle de Blois) (6 Oct 1667- 3 May 1739), widowed in 1685, was styled Mme la Princesse de Conti Premire Douarire Marie-Thrse de Conde (1 Feb 1666- 22 Feb 1732), widowed in 1709, was Mme la Princesse de Conti Seconde Douarire Louise Elisabeth de Conde (1693-1775), widowed in 1727, Mme la Princesse de Conti Troisime/Dernire Douarire A good source on matters of etiquette and styles: Thdore and Denys Godefroy: Le Crmonial franois , Paris 1649: vol. Moby Dick! 1 and vol. 2. Jean Rousset de Missy: Crmonial diplomatique des cours de l'Europe , Amsterdam 1739, 2 vols: vol. Uk! 1 (ceremonial of the French court) and culture in the 1920s vol.

2 (ceremonial of other courts; badly scanned by when was abortion in the GoogleBooks) (vols. 4 and scottsboro 5 of the Supplement to in the Jean Dumont: Corps universel diplomatique du droit des gens ) There is a famous poem by Jacques Prévert: So how did French kings go about scottsboro naming their children? There is definitely a pattern to name-giving, which appears when the given names are lined up by when was abortion in the order of birth in each generation, starting from Hugues Capet. In the following table, the eldest surviving son in each generation (and father of the ethics essay next generation) is indicated in italics. When Was Abortion Uk! Each generation is indexed by the birth date of the first-born in definition of recession, that generation.

Initially, the Capetians used the traditional family names: Eudes (Odo), Hugues (Hugo), Robert (Rodbert), and when was abortion in the avoided the traditional Carolingian names of Louis (Hlodowig) and ethics essay Charles (Karl). But Henri I's first-born by Ann of Kiev was given the extremely unusual Greek name Philippe, alledegly because of Ann's admiration for the father of Alexander the Great. Was Abortion Legalised In The Uk! Philippe I himself gave Carolingian names Louis and Charles to his children. From then on to the end of the direct Capetian line, a tradition was established to alternate between Philippe and Louis: the first-born of a Philippe was christened Louis and the second-born was christened Philippe; and vice-versa for the children of a Louis. By the what moby 14th century, Charles was the usual name for the third born and Robert for the fourth-born. Junior branches of the Valois also drew on when legalised in the, the same stock of names, although adopting their own favorites (Antoine in Bourgogne, René in Anjou).

Here is the lines of ethics essay Bourgogne, Anjou and Orléans, with the cadet lines indicated as well. When the Bourbons came to when was abortion legalised the throne, their nearest royal ancestor was 9 generations and 300 years away, which made them very distant cousins. Coincidentally, that royal ancestor was a saint, Saint Louis IX, which made him a natural namesake for the dynasty. Thereafter, first-borns were always christened Louis, the feast of Saint Louis (August 25) became the dynasty's holiday, churches were dedicated to Saint Louis (e.g. the Royal Chapel in of recession, Versailles), etc. Names of younger sons could reflect a variety of influences. The name of Gaston, Henri IV's second-born, comes from the viscounts of when legalised uk Barn who numbered ten Gastons from the 10th to the 15th century. Gaston IV de Foix, viscount of non monetary cost Barn, was Henri IV's great-great-grandfather. Gaston is the same as Vedast or Waast, the name of was abortion uk a bishop of Arras at the time of Clovis.

Gian Gastone de Medici (d. What Does! 1737) was Gaston's grandson. Philippe was the name of Anna of Austria's father and legalised also that of her second-born; likewise for Maria-Teresa of Austria. By then, Philippe was fast becoming a tradition for the second-born and would remain so until the 1750s. Curiously, the fondness of the Spanish princesses for the name Philippe (Felipe) stems from its use by the Spanish dynasty as a reminder of Charles V's Burgundian roots, to what which he was very attached: but the tradition of Philippe in the Burgundian dynasty stems from the Capetians' own use of the name. When In The! In turn, with the accession of a French second-born to Essay Architect Age the throne of Spain in 1700, the name went back to Spain once more, and the present Prince of the Asturias bears that name. By the 1730s, the growing use of compound names in France allowed princes to have multiple namesakes: the first (usually Louis or Charles) for when, dynastic purposes, the definition of recession others to satisfy the in-laws (as with Joseph and August for the Saxon in-laws, or Stanislas for the Polish in-laws). The devotion to St. Francis Xavier among the children of the Dauphin is striking.

The princes, or at least the younger ones, signed with their full names: Louis Stanislas Xavier (future Louis XVIII), Charles Philippe (future Charles X), Louis Charles (future Louis XVII). When Louis XV died, his successor Louis Auguste was asked under which name he wished to reign ( Journal de l'abb de Vri ). The Bourbon-Artois dynasty did not reign long, but the name given to the first French prince born after the when legalised uk Restoration of 1814 is significant: Henri was probably going to scottsboro trial displace Louis as the dynastic namesake, since Henri IV (the only popular king of the when was abortion legalised uk past few centuries) was replacing Saint Louis as mythical founding figure. Dieudonn (given by God) alludes to mass in the 1920s the miraculous posthumous birth of a male heir to the dynasty threatened by extinction in 1820. A good source for the customs of the legalised in the uk French royal court are the memoirs or diaries of its participants. Cost! Two stand out, namely Dangeau (who was also master of ceremonies, hence particularly attuned to questions of was abortion in the etiquette and protocol) and situation ethics essay Saint-Simon. Parts of their works are available online at Gallica. Dangeau's Journal , Didot edition (1854-60) (18 volumes + index volume) Gallica has volumes 1-3 and 5-13 in image mode, and volumes 1, 7, and 14 in text mode Saint-Simon, Chruel edition, Hachette 1873-93.

the complete run (volumes 1 to 20, with general index in legalised uk, volume 20) on Essay of the, Gallica Saint-Simon, Mmoires , Boislisle edition, Hachette 1879-1930, in 43 volumes, reprinted in 1975. Gallica does not have the complete set; the was abortion uk Boislisle edition is nevertheless useful for its supplements in non monetary cost, each volume: vol. 1 (1691-93), vol. 2 (1694-95), vol. 3 (1696), vol. 4 (1697), vol. Uk! 5 (1698), vol. 6 (1698-99), vol. 7 (1700), vol. Of The! 8 (1701), vol. Was Abortion Legalised In The! 9 (1701), vol.

10 (1702), vol. 11 (1703), vol. 12 (1704-05), vol. 13 (1705), vol. 14 (1706-07), vol. 15 (1707-08), vol. 16 (1708), vol. 17 (1709), vol. Situation Ethics! 18 (1709-10), vol. When Legalised In The! 19 (1710), vol. 20 (1710-11), vol.

21 (1711), vol. 22 (1711-12), vol. 23 (Feb 1712-13), vol. In The 1920s! 24 (1713- Aug 1714), vol. 25 (1714), vol. When Uk! 26 and vol. 27 (1715) (vol. 28 is an definition index to the reign of Louis XIV published in 1918; the availability of the was abortion last volumes may be restricted by copyright issues)

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alphabet homework Its Aa week! Please do these activities with your child, and return this paper on Friday. Your child will earn a toy from the Happy Face box! 1. Tell your address to mom or dad. 2. Be an artist. Create something colorful. 3. Eat an when was abortion uk, apple for a snack. 4. Cut an apple in half.

Find the star. 5. Make the dick symbolize sound of your favorite animal. 6. Sing the alphabet song. 7. Legalised In The Uk? Be an acrobat, and do 10 somersaults. 8. Write the letter A a (10 times) 9. Move like your favorite animal.

Oh boy! It's Bb week! Bring this paper back on Friday for a Happy Face toy! 2. Play with blocks. 3. Bounce a ball. 4. Talk about the day you were born with your mom or dad. 5. Count the buttons on Mommy/Daddy's shirt.

6. Ride your bicycle. 7. Fly like a butterfly. 8. Hop like a bunny. 9. Buzz like a bee. 10. Listen to the sound of birds outside. 11. Count the windows in your bedroom. 12.

Drink a big glass of Essay Architect of the milk. 13. Draw a beautiful picture. 14. Growl like a bear. 15. Eat a banana. 16. Help make breakfast. 17. Look for brown fall colors. 18. Move your body to music. You can do it! It's Cc week! A Counting Questionnaire! Just for fun!

Help your child count these things: 1. Count the toothbrushes in your house. When Legalised In The Uk? 2. How many bed in your home? 3. Of Recession? How many windows in your bedroom? 4. Count the trees in your yard. 5. Count the bathtubs in your house. 6. How many stuffed animals on your bed?

7. Count your toes. 8. How many clocks in your house? 9. Count the televisions in your home. 10. How many flashlights do you have in your home? 11. Check the smoke detectors in your house, and check the batteries. 1. Have your dad read you a story. 2. Pretend to be a dog.

3. Quack like a duck. 4. Help mom and dad with the dishes. 5. Knock on your front door five times. Uk? 6. Dust the furniture. 7. Count a dozen dimes. 8. Draw a colorful picture. 9. Give dad a hug! 1. Boys? Walk and legalised in the uk dance like an elephant.

2. Situation Essay? Jump up and when was abortion in the uk down eleven times. 3. Eat eight grapes or strawberries. Does Dick? 4. Go outside. What do you hear with your ears? 5. Cut out pictures of eyes and ears from old magazines.

6. Try to touch your elbow to your ear. 7. In The? Use your eyes. What things do you see on the way to school? 8. In The 1920s? Empty your glass of milk. (Drink it.) 9. Do some exercises. 10. Let a bowl of water evaporate. I'm thinking of Flowers! It must be F week. 1. Tell a funny story to your mom. 2. Legalised? Draw a picture of your family.

3. Jump up and down fourteen times. 4. Count forward, as far as you can go. 5. Definition Of Recession? Hop like a frog. 6. Read your favorite story with someone in legalised uk, your family. 7. Help fix dinner or lunch. 8. Eat one of your favorite foods. 9. Fly like a bird. 10. Draw five triangles. 1. Roll like a grape. 2. Wear green on Wednesday.

3. Give someone you love a big hug. 4. Play a game with mom or dad. 5. Move like a grasshopper. 6. Talk about the things you can grow in moby dick symbolize, a garden. In The? 7. Count the green things you see in nature. 8. Go to the grocery store. 9. Gallop around your backyard or in a park. 10. Make someone giggle. 1. Tell mom what makes you happy. 2. How many pennies make ten cents?

3. Draw your house. Practice your address with someone. 4. Hop ten times on essay, one foot. 5. Cut out a square and then a triangle. Put them together to make a house. 6. Gallop like a horse. 7. Hoot like an owl. 8. Pretend it's Halloween. Was Abortion Legalised Uk? What costume will you wear? 10.How many stars are in the sky.

I have a picture of ice cream cones. The cones have numbers on trial, them. They have to draw the number of scoops on when in the uk, the right cones. These ice-cream cones. are empty! Fill them up with scoops of ice-cream. Color in the flavors. 1. Non Monetary? Find a calendar and count all the days in January. 2. Jump up and down ten times.

3. Tell someone in your family a joke. 4. Jump like a rabbit. 5. What flavor Jell-O do you like? 6. Wear jewelry at home. 7. Count all of the jars in your refrigerator. Have someone help you. 8. Do ten jumping jacks. 9. Jog in place for one minute. 10.

Jump for joy, it's Friday. 1. Read a book about when legalised uk kittens. 2. Play kickball outside. 3. Watch mom or dad cook in definition of recession, the kitchen. 4. Make a colorful kite with a paper bag. 5. What is the name of baby kangaroos? 6. Use Kleenex when you sneeze. 7. How many keys in mom's purse? 8. When Legalised Uk? Kiss your Mom/Dad.

9. Scottsboro Boys Trial? Be a king, and wear a crown. 10. What do you like about kindergarten. 1. Listen to a story. Legalised In The? 2. Hop on your left foot. 3. Look up in the sky. How many stars in the sky? 4. Age? Draw ten long lines. 5. Tell your family that you love them.

6. Make yourself large and make yourself small. 7. Was Abortion Legalised In The Uk? Help sort the laundry. 8. Write the letters of the alphabet that you know. 9. Send a love letter to your grandma or grandpa. (Children draw a picture and send it in the mail.) 10. Look at the leaves on the trees. What color are they. 1. Look up at the sky.

Do you see a full moon? 2. Tell Mommy/Daddy you love her/him. 3. Count how many coins in mommy's purse. 4. Move like a monkey. 5. Make a funny face in the mirror. 6. March to your favorite music. 7. Definition Of Recession? Drink your milk, please.

8. Moooooooo like a cow. 9. Dance the macarena with Mommy. 10. Act like a monster, but only for a few minutes. :) 11. Cut out some pictures from an old magazine. 12. Squeak like a mouse. 13. Write the word, Mom.

1. Put the napkins on your table for dinner. 2. When In The Uk? Count the nickels in Daddy's pocket. 3. Practice saying your phone number. 4. Look at the night sky. What do you see? 5. Jump nine times. 6. Print as many numbers that you know.

7. Write your name. 8. Look at the newspaper with Mom or Dad. 9. Name nine farm animals. 10. Be nice to your friends. 1. Open and close your mouth. 2. Draw one picture for what does symbolize mom. 3. Put your socks on your feet.

4. Use an orange crayon to write ten O's. 5. What does an orange taste like? 6. Climb over two pillows. 7. Go outside and play. 8. Hop on was abortion legalised uk, one foot. 9. How old are you? 10. What are opposite words for: on, hot, up, day, slow, left and happy.

1. Eat a piece of fruit. 2. Put your pants and socks on all by yourself. 3. Paint or draw a pretty picture for your parents. 4. Count all the purple and Architect Modern pink things in your bedroom. 5. Say please and when was abortion uk thank you. Use your best manners, and try to be polite. 6. Count the non monetary cost pennies in mommy's purse. (Ask for permission first.) 7. Do a puzzle with your parents. Uk? 8. With help, pour yourself a glass of juice or milk.

9. Print your name on the back of this paper. 10. Please return this paper on Friday. For Q week, I make a quilt pattern. I number the squares. What Symbolize? Then the parents give directions for when was abortion in the uk each square. Boxes: 1. yellow sun 2. brown square 3. green circle 4. purple moon 5. blue square 6. black line kite 8. orange A 9. brown leaf 10. a happy face 11. a rainbow 12. your name. 1. Draw a rainbow for someone you love. 2. Count all the trial red toys in your bedroom.

3. Listen to the radio. 4. Hop like a rabbit. 5. Draw five red rectangles. 6. Ring your doorbell. 7. Have fun with rhyming words. 8. Read your favorite nursery rhymes. 9. Crow like a rooster. 10. Roar like a lion. 11.

Run in your backyard or park. 1. Touch your shoes seven times. (While your shoes are on your feet, you sillies!) 2. Count the stars in the sky. ********** 3. Draw a picture with a beautiful sky. 4. What kinds of things can you buy at the supermarket? 5. Walk like a spider. 6. Use a scissors to cut out some pictures from an old magazine. 7. Skip around your family room. 8. When? Listen to a story. 9. Crawl like a snail. 10.

Talk about being safe at home. In The? 11. Make some funny animal sounds. (ssssssss like a snake) 1. Move slowly like a turtle. 2. Touch your toes, two times. 3. Draw ten triangles. 4. Talk on the telephone to a friend. 5. Make yourself tiny. 6. Make yourself tall. 7. Tickle your tummy. 8. When Was Abortion Legalised Uk? Tip toe around your kitchen.

9. Non Monetary Cost? Tell someone your telephone number. 10. Touch something soft. 11. Taste a new food. Was Abortion In The Uk? 12. What time is it? 13. Try throwing a ball as high as you can. 14. Tell a funny story.

1. If you were a unicorn, where would you play? 2. How many umbrellas in your home? 3. Reach up to Architect of the the sky. 4. Look at was abortion legalised, seashells. Essay Architect Of The Age? Put them underwater in when, the bath tub. 5. What is your uncle's name? 6. Do you need an umbrella today? 7. What would be unusual to boys eat with ice-cream? (How about pickles or mustard?) 8. Pretend to fly up in the air. 9. Look up at the sky. Is it cloudy? 1. Smell vanilla.

2. Run very fast. 3. Count the vehicles on your street. 4. Talk in a very soft voice. 5. When Uk? Write the letter V. Boys? 6. Sing in a very loud voice. 7. Taste a vegetable. What color was it? 8. Visit a friend. 9. Smell vinegar. 10. Crawl very slowly. 11.

Make a V with your arms. 1. Look for signs of winter. 2. Walk around your house five times. 3. Count the windows in your kitchen. 4. Walk like an elephant. 5. Wiggle like a worm. 6. Try to whistle. 7. Eat or drink something warm. Was Abortion Legalised In The? 8. Look outside. What is the weather like?

9. Count the number of wheels on your car. 10. Write your name. 11. Boys Trial? Make a wish upon a star. 12. Watercolor a pretty picture for our classroom. (If you don't have watercolors, use crayons instead.) X week: I have a picture with animals on when in the uk, it. You can use something else. This is another listening experience for the parents to do with their child.

1. Put a green X on the animal that gallops. 2. Put a red X on the animal that was once a caterpillar. 3. Put a purple X on the largest animal. 4. Mark an of recession, orange X on the animal that lives in the water. 5. Put a X on was abortion legalised uk, the animal that chases cats. Etc. 1. Count all the yellow toys in your room. 2. Yell, I love you to someone in your family. 3. Draw a colorful picture, with a bright yellow sun.

4. Clean your room, please. 5. Write the word, Yes. 6. Eat something yellow. 7. Look at yourself in the mirror, and pat yourself on the back for being such a special person. 8. Play with a yo-yo. 9. Name a yellow bird. 10. Do you have yarn in your home?

What color is it?

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college essay taboos Literary Terms and Definitions: P. This page is under perpetual construction! It was last upda ted September 1, 2017. This list is meant to assist, not intimidate. Use it as a touchstone for important concepts and vocabulary that we will cover during the term. Vocabulary terms are listed alphabetically. P TEXT, THE (Also called the P Document ): In biblical scholarship, the common editorial abbreviation for the Priestly Text (see below, or click here for more detailed discussion.).

PAEAN : Among the earliest Greeks, the word paean signifies a dance and hymn with a specific rhythm which is endued with an when was abortion legalised absolving and healing power (Burkett 44). Non Monetary Cost? In later usage, any song of praise to when was abortion in the a deity is definition called a paean. PALATAL : In linguistics, any sound involving the hard palate--especially the tongue touching or moving toward the hard palate. PALATAL DIPTHONGIZATION : A sound change in which either the ash or the /e/ sound in Old English words became a diphthong when preceded by palatal consonants. For instance, Modern English cheese comes from Old English ciese , which is a cognate of Latin caseus . Scholars can tell the word in Old English must have been adopted after the time of palatal diphthongization--otherwise it would have a simple /e/ sound rather than the diphthong /ie/ . Thus, palatal dipthongization is useful for philologists who wish to date a borrowed word in Old English. PALATALIZATION : In linguistics, the uk process of making a sound more palatal --i.e., moving the boys trial blade of the tongue closer to the hard palate.

PALIMBACCHIU S: Also called an anti-bacchius , this is a three-syllable foot in which the first two syllables are stressed and the third syllable unstressed. It is very rare in English prosody, though Gerard Manley Hopkins and Ezra Pound make occasional use of it. PALIMPSEST (Grk, rubbed away): A surface such as a piece of in the, parchment or vellum in which one text had been written, but then later became partially or completely erased when a subsequent scribe or bookmarker recycled the page and trial, used a knife or edged tool to scrape away the original surface. Was Abortion? This process would remove or fade the Architect Age original writing sufficiently for the later scribe to write over the older material. It was a very common practice in medieval times since paper was so expensive. Often, modern codicologists can rediscover the original writing by when was abortion legalised uk using UV light filters or chemicals to make the erased text visible again. PALINDROME : A word, sentence, or verse that reads the same way backward or foreward. Certain words in English naturally function as palindromes: for what symbolize, instance, civic , rotor , race car, radar , level and so on.

However, when individuals seek to combine several words at once, the result becomes a sort of perverse art. Here are some longer English examples culled from J. A. When Was Abortion In The Uk? Cuddon's Dictionary of Literary Terms and Literary Theory : Madam, I'm Adam. Sir, I'm Iris. Able was I ere I saw Elba. (attributed apocryphally to Napoleon, who was exiled on Elba, though in cost historical fact he apparently spoke no English!) A man, a plan, a canal: Panama! Sex at noon taxes. Legalised In The Uk? Lewd did I live evil I did dwel. (anonymous 18th-century gravestone) Straw? No, too stupid a fad; I put soot on Architect of the Modern Age warts! Deliver desserts, demanded Nemesis--emended, named, stressed, reviled. When? T. Eliot, top bard, notes putrid tang emanating, is sad. I'd assign it a name: Gnat dirt upset on drab pot toilet. (W. Definition? H. Auden) Stop Syrian!

I start at rats in was abortion legalised in the airy spots! The tradition goes back a long ways. Cuddon notes several, including a Greek palindrome inscribed on a vial of holy water in Saint Sophia's church in Constantinople that translates as Wash not only my face, but also my sins . A Latin example is the palindrome, In girum imus nocte et consumimur igni which means We [moths] fly in ethics circles by night and we will be consumed in fire. Probably the when in the most excessive use of palindromes is the definition of recession 1802 collection by Ambrose Pamperis, in which Pamperis writes 416 palindromic verses celebrating Catherine the Great's military campaigns (See Cuddon 673-74). PALINODE (Greek: singing again): A poem, song, or section of a poem or song in which the legalised in the uk poet renounces or retracts his words in essay an earlier work. When In The Uk? Usually this is meant to apologize or counterbalance earlier material.

The first recorded use of the palinode is a lyric written by Architect of the Age the Greek author Stesichorus (7th century BCE), in which he retracts his earlier statement claiming that the Trojan War was entirely Helen's fault. Ovid wrote his Remedia Amoris as a palinode for his scandalous Ars Amatoria --a work that may have caused Caesar Augustus to banish him to the Black Sea. When Was Abortion Legalised In The? As a theme, the palinode is especially common in religious poetry and love poetry. The use of the palinode became conventional in patristic and medieval writings--as evidenced in Augustine, Bede, Giraldus Cambrensis, Jean de Meun, Sir Lewis Clifford, and others. More recent examples of palinodes include Sir Philip Sidney's Leave me, O love which reachest but to dust. Here, his palinode renounces the ethics poetry of legalised, sexual love for that of divine grace. Likewise, Chaucer's Legend of Good Women includes a palinode in which the author takes back what he said about unfaithful women like Criseyde in Troilus and Criseyde . At the non monetary cost end of the Canterbury Tales , Chaucer goes so far as to write a retraction for when was abortion legalised, all his secular literature.

See also retraction . PANDECT (Grk. pan everything + dektes reciever): A book that purports to contain all possible information on a subject. The term was first used as a title for Emperor Justinian's 50-volume encyclopedia of Roman law. Cf. summa . PANEGYRIC : A speech or poem designed to ethics essay praise another person or group. In ancient Greek and Roman rhetoric, it was one branch of public speaking, with established rules and when was abortion legalised uk, conventions found in the works of Menander and Hermogenes. Famous examples include Pliny's eulogy on ethics Emperor Trajan and Isocrates' oration on when the Olympic games of 380. PANGLOSSIAN (Grk. pan everything + Lat. glossare to explain or comment upon): The word is an eponym based on the fictional Dr. Pangloss from Essay Architect Modern, Voltaire's satire, Candide . Dr.

Pangloss is a naively optimistic pedant who upholds the doctrine that all is for the best, and that we live in the best of all possible worlds, claiming that a benevolent deity creates all things for positive purposes, and if we could only legalised uk decipher cause/effect accurately, we would see this. His arguments are a parody of Alexander Pope's claim that Whatever is, is RIGHT. Voltaire uses Pangloss as a straw-man in Candide , and Voltaire tries to show through the more inane Panglossian arguments that, in fact, the world is a highly flawed place and it does not live up to its ideal possibilities. PANTHEON (Greek, all the gods): (1) A pantheon is a collective term for all the gods believed to does moby dick symbolize exist in a particular religious belief or mythos . Thus, we can talk of the Hittite pantheon, the Greek pantheon, etc. (2) The Pantheon is a great temple in Rome dedicated to all the Olympian gods, not to be confused with the Parthenon , the great temple dedicateSd to when was abortion in the the virgin goddess Athena, which is situated on cost top of the Acropolis in Athens. PANTUN : A verse form from Malaysia. The pantun is a poem of no specific length, composed of quatrains using internal assonance. The rhymes are interlinked much like terza rima in the sense that the when second and fourth lines of Essay Architect Modern Age, each stanza become the uk first and third lines of the following stanza. In the last quatrain, the first line of the poem appears again as the last, and the third line as the second, forming a circle for closure. (Alternatively, the cost poet may end the work with a simple couplet). Ernest Fouinet introduced the genre to French literature in the 1800s. Victor Hugo, Baudelaire, and when uk, Leconte de Lisle later also experimented with it in French verse. Although rare in English poetry, Austin Dobson used it in his work, In Town . PARABASIS (Greek, stepping forward or going aside): A moment at the end of a Greek tragedy in which the chorus would remove their masks and step forward to Architect of the address the audience directly in speech rather than song.

The parabasis usually contained the final thoughts or opinions of the was abortion playwright on some matter of government, theology, or philosophy. Boys Trial? The concluding words of the chorus in Sophocles' Oedipus Rex serve as one example. PARABLE (Greek: throwing beside or placing beside): A story or short narrative designed to reveal allegorically some religious principle, moral lesson, psychological reality, or general truth. Rather than using abstract discussion, a parable always teaches by in the comparison with real or literal occurrences--especially homey everyday occurrences a wide number of people can relate to. Well-known examples of parables include those found in the synoptic Gospels, such as The Prodigal Son and The Good Samaritan. In some Gospel versions, Christ announces his parables with a conventional phrase, The Kingdom of God is like . . . . Technically speaking, biblical parables were originally examples of trial, a Hebrew genre called meshalim (singular mashal ), a word lacking a close counter-part in Greek, Latin or English. Meshalim in Hebrew refer to mysterious speech, i.e., spiritual riddles or enigmas the legalised uk speaker couches in story-form. Thus, in 1920s Matthew 13:11 and Mark 4:11-12, Christ states that he speaks in parables so that outsiders will not be able to understand his teachings. It is when was abortion legalised uk only late in the Greek New Testament that these meshalim are conflated with parables or allegorical readings designed for ease of understanding.

Non-religious works can be parables as well. For example, Melville's Billy Budd demonstrates that absolute good--such as the impressionable, naive young sailor--may not co-exist with absolute evil--the villain Claggart. Cf. fable , allegory , and symbolism , or click here for a PDF handout discussing the differences between these terms. PARADIGMATIC CHANGE (also called associative change ): In linguistics, these are language changes brought about because a sound or a word was associated with a different sound or word. Algeo provides the following example: PARAGRAPH (Greek, side writing): (1) Originally, a short stroke below the start of definition, a line running horizontally to separate that material from earlier commentary. It was common in Greek manuscripts to show a break in the sense or a change of subject (Cuddon 679). Was Abortion Legalised In The? (2) In modern English composition, it is situation a passage, section or subdivision of a longer essay, usually indicated by indenting the was abortion legalised first line of the section. Conventionally, a paragraph deals with one particular idea or aspect of a larger subject-matter. For the sake of reader comprehension, the writer typically includes some sort of topic sentence to tie the paragraph together, and the writer might also include a transitional sentence before or after the paragraph to smooth the flow of ideas.

PARALANGUAGE : The non-verbal features that accompany speech and help convey meaning. For example, facial expression, gesticulation, body stance, and tone can help convey additional meaning to the spoken word; these are all examples of communication through paralanguage. PARALLELISM : When the writer establishes similar patterns of definition of recession, grammatical structure and length. For instance, King Alfred tried to make the law clear, precise, and equitable. The previous sentence has parallel structure in when use of adjectives. However, the following sentence does not use parallelism: King Alfred tried to make clear laws that had precision and were equitable. If the cost writer uses two parallel structures, the result is isocolon parallelism : The bigger they are, the harder they fall. If there are three structures, it is tricolon parallelism : That government of the people, by the people, and for the people shall not perish from the earth. Or, as one student wrote, Her purpose was to impress the ignorant, to perplex the dubious, and to startle the when uk complacent. Shakespeare used this device to good effect in non monetary cost Richard II when King Richard laments his unfortunate position: PARATAXIS : Rhetorically juxtaposing two or more clauses or prepositions together in strings or with few or no connecting conjunctions or without indicating their relationship to each other in terms of co-ordination or subordination; i.e. a loose association of when was abortion legalised in the uk, clauses as opposed to hypotaxis . A common form of parataxis is asyndeton , in which expected conjunctions fail to appear for artistic reasons.

For example, Shipley points out what moby dick, how the Roman playwright Terence writes tacent; satis laudant (they are silent; that is praise enough). The normal structure with a conjunction would be tacent, et satis laudant (they are silent; and that is praise enough.) See Shipley 422-23 for this discussion and a comparison among Greek and Latin and English writers. Modern paratactic style is legalised typically short and simple--like Hemingway's writing. PARATEXT (also French peritext ): In Gérard Genette's work, Paratext: Thresholds of Interpretation , Genette introduces the idea of paratext, i.e., anything external to the text itself that influences the way we read a text. These paratexts can be almost infinite in number, but they might include a list of other works the boys trial author has published on the front cover of was abortion uk, a book, the gender of the author as indicated by his or her name, reviews written about the of recession book, and editorial commentary about the work. For example, suppose the was abortion in the text we are reading is a fictional story about a European woman who falls in love with a Persian graduate student. That Persian student is later viciously murdered by does moby dick symbolize the European woman's xenophobic father. If we see the author's name is Susan Jones we might interpret the when was abortion legalised in the uk text differently than if we saw the author's name was Achmed bin Jaffah, for ethics, instance. If the same author wrote a number of murder mysteries, we might be especially prone to read this new text as influenced by that early genre work, or even expect the current text to be (rightly or wrongly) yet another murder mystery.

If we read a review calling attention to the theme of lust in a work, we might experience the book differently than if we had read a different review focusing on the theme of intolerance. All of these external cues, however, are not actually in the narrative itself we are reading. Legalised? Thus, they are paratextual. A New Critic from the 1930s would probably argue that all paratexts are irrelevant to determining the meaning of literary art, and cost, the paratextual should be ignored accordingly. Genette might counter that such paratexts inescapably influence our interpretation, so it would be appropriate to identify and discuss them rather than try to when sweep them away.

PARCHMENT : Goatskin or sheepskin used as a writing surface--the medieval equivalent of Essay of the Modern Age, paper. A technical distinction is usually made between parchment and vellum , which is was abortion made from the hide of young calves. As Michelle P. Brown notes in Essay Age Understanding Illuminated Manuscripts , the process for creating vellum or parchment is quite complicated: To produce parchment or vellum, the animal skins were defleshed in a bath of when legalised in the, lime, stretched on a frame, and scraped with a lunular knife while damp. they could then be treated with pumice, whitened with a substance such as chalk, and cut to cost size. Differences in preparation technique seem to have occasioned greater diversity in appearance than did the type of skin pused.

Parchment supplanted papyrus as the most popular writing support material in the fourth century, although it was known earlier. Was Abortion Legalised? Parchment was itself largely replaced by paper in the sixteenth century (with the rise of printing) but remained in use for certain high-grade books. (95) PARDONER : An individual licensed by the medieval church to sell papal indulgences (i.e., pardons), official documents excusing the what does moby symbolize recipient from certain acts of penitence and alleviating the sinner's punishment while in legalised purgatory . The Catholic Encyclopedia defines an indulgence as the extra-sacramental remission of the temporal punishment due to a sinner. Protestant students might wish to peruse the non monetary Catholic Encyclopedia's discussion of indulgences to avoid common misconceptions and distortions. The practice of selling these pardons as a means of fund-raising for the church or as a means of rewarding those who offered the church some service rose in prominence after the council of Clermont in 1095. There, Pope Urban II announced sweeping indulgences would be given to any individuals willing to when uk go on Crusade. By the fourteenth century, the practice had developed extensively, and pardoners were lay officials authorized by the pope to sell indulgences in exchange for financial donations. Ecclesiastical abuses become commonplace problems. These abuses included unauthorized sales, the sale of forged pardons, extortion, and deliberate misrepresentation of the definition scope of an indulgence (i.e., treating the indulgence as a get-out-of-hell-free card).

Chaucer's Pardoner in was abortion legalised uk The Canterbury Tales represents the situation ethics worst excesses of pardoners during this period. PARDONS : Another term for papal indulgences. Uk? See discussion under pardoner . PARNASSIAN POETS : An aestheticist, mid-19th-century, Russian and mass in the 1920s, French school of poets that advocated art for its own sake and emphasized sensual and in the, vivid imagery divorced from emotional content (Harkins 275). The term Parnassian refers to Mount Parnassus in Greece. The toponymic name alludes to non monetary the way they often adopted themes from classical Greek mythology and philosophy (275). PARODOS : In Greek tragedy, the ceremonial entrance of the chorus. When Legalised In The? Usually the Essay Architect Modern chorus at this time chants a lyric relating to the main theme of the play.

PARODY (Greek: beside, subsidiary, or mock song): A parody imitates the serious manner and characteristic features of a particular literary work in when was abortion in the order to moby symbolize make fun of those same features. The humorist achieves parody by exaggerating certain traits common to the work, much as a caricaturist creates a humorous depiction of a person by magnifying and was abortion uk, calling attention to the person's most noticeable features. The term parody is often used synonymously with the more general term spoof , which makes fun of the general traits of a genre rather than one particular work or author. Often the subject-matter of moby symbolize, a parody is comically inappropriate, such as using the elaborate, formal diction of an epic to describe something trivial like washing socks or cleaning a dusty attic. Aristotle attributes the first Greek parody to Hegemon of uk, Thasos in The Poetics , though other writings credit the playwright Hipponax with the first creation of theatrical parody. Aristophanes makes use of parody in The Frogs (in which he mocks the style of Euripides and Aeschylus). Plato also caricatures the style of various writers in the Symposium . In the Middle Ages, the first well-known English parody is Chaucer's Sir Thopas, and Chaucer is himself the basis of cost, parodies written by Alexander Pope and W. W. Skeat. In The? Cervantes creates a parody of medieval romance in Don Quixote . Rabelais creates parodies of of recession, similar material in Gargantua and Pantagruel. Erasmus parodies medieval scholastic writings in Moriae Encomium . In Shamela (1741), Henry Fielding makes a parody of when in the uk, Samuel Richardson's novel Pamela by turning the of the Modern virtuous serving girl into a spirited and when legalised in the uk, sexually ambitious character who merely uses coyness and false chasteness as a tool for definition, snagging a husband. In Joseph Andrews (1742), Henry Fielding again parodies Samuel Richardson's novel Pamela , this time by replacing Richardson's sexually beleaguered heroine, Pamela, with a hearty male hero who must defend his virtue from the sexually voracious Lady Booby. In the Romantic period, Southey, Wordsworth, Browning, and Swinburne were the victims of far too many parodies in far too many works to list here.

See also mock epic , satire , and spoof . PAROLE (French, speech): In Ferdinand de Saussure's theory of semiology, parole is the use of language--i.e., manifestations of actual speech and writing. Parole contrasts with langue , the invisible underlying system of language that makes parole possible. PARONOMASIA : The technical Greek term for what English-speakers commonly refer to as a pun. See extended discussion under pun , below. PART (Latin partum , a piece): An actor's role in a play, the character the actor portrays or pretends to be. The term comes from was abortion legalised in the, Renaissance drama.

Since it was too expensive in Shakespeare's day to print playbooks for every single actor involved in a play, penny-pinching acting companies would only give each actor a roll of what dick, paper called a part; the part would list the dialogue for one character and all the cues belonging to when legalised that character (Greenblatt 1140). The term role , synonymous with part, is similarly derived from such rolls of paper ( ibidem ). PARTIYNOST (Russian, Party-Spirit): In Communist Russian, the definition of recession requirement that literature must identify and be compatible with the legalised in the uk methods and goals of the dominent political party, as Lenin advocated (Harkins 275). Any other literature, according to the Communist Russian censors, was merely bourgeois decadence in art (275). PARTITIVE : One of several possible numbering systems in a language's grammar. For a discussion of partitives, see multiplicatives . PARTS OF SPEECH : The traditional eight divisions or categories for words as described by cost the Latin grammarian Aelius Donatus around 350 CE, which he is turn borrowed from earlier Greek categories. In English, these are slightly modified: English Parts of Speech: Interjections are usually treated as a separate category from the other parts of speech. Donatus' Latin Parts of when legalised in the uk, Speech : PARTIBLE SUCCESSION : The opposite of primogeniture , partible succession is the practice in which all the children share equally in definition of recession an inheritance. Under this legal system, if a property-owner or king dies, the deceased's lands, money, or kingdom would be split into equal shares for each surviving child.

While this policy is in some ways more fair than primogeniture, in which eldest child takes all, it does result in the fragmentation of estates or sometimes entire kingdoms. In the late medieval period, primogeniture was the common practice in much of when in the, Europe and Britain, but in the early dark ages, partible succession was notoriously common among some Celtic tribes in England and the Merovingian and Frankish tribes of France and essay, Germany. This practice is when legalised uk behind King Lear's sycophantic games in the first act of King Lear , as the what play is set in in the ancient Celtic times, though the subplot about Edgar involves the much later later practice of of recession, primogeniture. PASSUS (Latin, step): William Langland uses the term passus to when was abortion in the refer to each numbered subdivision of his poem, The Vision of Piers Plowman . The idea is each section is a step toward salvation or spiritual truth. Cf. canto and fit . PASTORAL (Latin pastor , shepherd): An artistic composition dealing with the scottsboro boys trial life of shepherds or with a simple, rural existence. It usually idealized shepherds' lives in order to create an image of peaceful and uncorrupted existence. More generally, pastoral describes the simplicity, charm, and serenity attributed to country life, or any literary convention that places kindly, rural people in nature-centered activities. The Greek Theocritus (316-260 BCE) first used the convention in his Idylls , though pastoral compositions also appear in when was abortion legalised Roman literature, in non monetary cost Shakespeare's plays, and in the writings of the Romantic poets. Typically, pastoral liturgy depicts beautiful scenery, carefree shepherds, seductive nymphs, and rural songs and dances.

Conventional names for the shepherds and when in the uk, nymphs come from bastardized Latin nicknames such as Mopsy, Flopsy, and Dorcas (from Mopsius , Doricas , etc.). See also pastoral elegy under elegy . PATHETIC FALLACY : A type of often accidental or awkward personification in which a writer ascribes the human feelings of his or her characters to culture in the inanimate objects or non-human phenomena surrounding them in the natural world. Was Abortion In The Uk? J. What Moby Dick? A. Was Abortion Legalised In The Uk? Cuddon (692) notes the phrase first appears in John Ruskin's Modern Painters , Volume 3, Part IV, an Architect of the Modern Age 1856 publication. Was Abortion? For Ruskin, the term is derogatory. An example might be Coleridge's Christabel , in situation ethics essay which we read of a dancing autumn leaf: The one red leaf, the last of its clan. That dances as often as dance it can.

For Ruskin, only the greatest of poets can get away with it. Was Abortion Legalised? Aside from the negative connotations, the term is more or less synonymous with personification . PATHOS (Greek, emotion): In its rhetorical sense, pathos is a writer or speaker's attempt to inspire an emotional reaction in an audience--usually a deep feeling of suffering, but sometimes joy, pride, anger, humor, patriotism, or any of a dozen other emotions. You can read more about rhetorical uses for situation ethics essay, pathos here. In its critical sense, pathos signifies a scene or passage designed to evoke the feeling of pity or sympathetic sorrow in a reader or viewer. PATRISTIC PERIOD (from Latin Pater , father): The time of the legalised in the uk church fathers, i.e., the time of the early Church and the Church's first theologians, running through the last days of the apostles through the time of Saint Augustine's conversion and situation essay, Saint Jerome's compilation of the Bible in the fourth and fifth centuries after Christ. The patristic period appears on the tail-end of the Classical Roman Period, and it marks the beginning of the Medieval Period. Click here to download a PDF handout that puts these periods in chronological order. PATROLOGIA GRAECA : See discussion under Patrologia Latina , below. PATROLOGIA LATINA : A famous (or perhaps in when was abortion legalised uk famous) scholarly collection of cost, 228+ fat volumes of biblical and theological commentary that has been both a boon and bane to twentieth-century medieval scholarship. The Patrologia Graeca reproduces a series of Greek writings from the patristic and medieval Christian writers, while the was abortion legalised in the uk Patrologia Latina covers the same sort of material in Latin sources. Ethics Essay? These works are often not available in print in any other texts.

This collection, known familiarly as the PL or the Migne (after one of legalised uk, its French editors), includes vast quantities of theological interpretations, Biblical exegesis, typological and anti-typological discussion, medieval treatises on non monetary cost hagiography , medieval medicine, lapidary lore, and oodles of when was abortion legalised in the, relevant materials necessary for non monetary cost, students seeking to understand the medieval world and medieval literature. Unfortunately, the material is all in Latin, with facing French translations, which makes it less useful for English-speakers hindered by linguistic inabilities. Additionally, a series of editors compiled the volumes of the PL and they did not follow the same system of cataloging and when was abortion uk, organization as their predecessors. Architect Of The? The result is a confusing mishmash that requires four volumes of indices and an additional index to the indices. Four generations of scholars have blessed the PL as an astonishing and legalised uk, ambitious collection of medieval lore, while simultaneously cursing it as a devilish, misorganized amalgam riddled with errors, typos, and blunders in pagination. The PL is being displaced from its throne by the Corpus Christianorum , an electronic collection superseding the older half-edited material. Cost? However, major research libraries at in the uk, this time are more likely to of recession have an old, dusty set of shelves devoted to the PL than to have an expensive, computerized copy of the Corpus Christianorum . For a student of medieval literature who can speak Latin, the best starting spot is the index to the indices, and when uk, from there work one's way backward. If any readers find a library that is about to throw away or sell its copies of the PL, please contact me at

I would like to have a copy myself, provided I can find a room large enough to store all 228 of these books. PATRONAGE (from Latin pater , father): The act of giving financial or political support to an artist. A person who provides financial support for an artist is known as a patron regardless of his or her gender. Sometimes patrons might seek to glorify their families or their countries. For instance, the Emperor Augustus was a patron for Virgil. Of Recession? Virgil wrote The Aeneid with the deliberate goal of when legalised in the uk, rousing Roman patriotism for the Augustan regime. Patronage was also a common way for situation ethics essay, aristocrats or wealthy merchants to was abortion legalised in the flaunt their wealth and boys, simultaneously give something of value to when was abortion their community. The De Medici family in Florence, for instance, provided patronage to famous Italian sculptors, poets, architects, and boys, painters.

In England, John of Gaunt and Richard II both served as patrons for Chaucer at various points in his career. Many literary works are dedicated to when legalised a patron. For instance, Shakespeare's early printed anthologies of sonnets are dedicated to a mysterious patron, W. H. Essay Modern? In Renaissance drama, acting companies were required to have an important noble or royal family member as a patron, for actors not in was abortion legalised in the the service of such illustrious individuals were punishable as vagabonds and tramps. Authorized acting companies were thus referred to as their patrons' Men or Servants. For most of Shakespeare's dramatic career, his acting company was first known as the mass culture Lord Chamberlain's Men. Legalised? After Queen Elizabeth died, the of recession name was changed to legalised uk the King's Men in 1603, when King James I ascended the throne and took up patronage of the company. PEACE-WEAVER : In Anglo-Saxon culture, a woman who is married to a member of an enemy tribe to establish a peace-treaty or end a blood-feud without paying wergild . This was a vital role for scottsboro boys, women in Anglo-Saxon custom--but probably also a stressful and dangerous responsibility. Hildeburh and Freawaru in when legalised uk Beowulf and what does moby dick, the speaker of The Wife's Lament are probably examples of was abortion uk, characters in Essay Modern Old English literature who are peace-weavers. PEASANTS' REVOLT : Also known as Wat Tyler's Rebellion , this uprising occurred in 1387 when lower-class Londoners and workers from the surrounding areas, fed up with repressive government measures such as the Labor Statutes of 1351, marched on London and incinerated the Savoy palace belonging to John of Gaunt and damaged property belonging to other noblemen, appealing directly to the young king, Richard II, for his intervention. The rebels burned unfavorable contracts and records of debt.

They also lynched a number of competing foreign workers from Flanders along with government officials whom they blamed for their economic woes. According to legend, they chanted, When Adam delved and Eve span, who was then the when was abortion in the uk gentleman? (i.e., when Adam and non monetary, Eve first existed, who was an aristocrat?) The revolt is commonly associated with Lollards, with John Ball's proto-communist doctrines, and with other disruptive religious groups in England. At the time of their march on London, they passed directly beneath Chaucer's residence. References to this rebellion appear directly or obliquely in several Middle English writers' works, including Gower and Langland. PEER-REVIEWED JOURNAL : Also called a refereed journal , a juried publication , a scholarly journal , or a critical journal , a peer-reviewed journal is a periodical publication with strict standards for accuracy and when legalised uk, clear thinking. Only peer-reviewed journals are considered suitable sources for academic research by college students. Most are published two to situation ethics essay four times a year. When Was Abortion Uk? These publications are held in such high esteem because, when an article is submitted for publication, it is situation essay passed on to two or three other experts in was abortion in the the field; they in cost turn critique the when was abortion author's thinking and check the article's claims and facts to situation ethics make sure it is as accurate as possible and (theoretically) free from distorting political, religious, ideological bias; citation errors; logical fallacies; and misattributions. This contrasts with a book, in which only a copy-editor or two will check for typos, but nobody challenges the author's ideas, and it contrasts even more starkly with a web page like this one, in which no official structure is consistently available to ensure scholarly accuracy let alone find all the was abortion in the typos. Good college students learn to use peer-reviewed journals; they do not rely on moby Google and web-browsing for their primary information. Some of the most important peer-reviewed journals for when was abortion uk, medieval literature students in English include The Journal of Medieval and scottsboro boys trial, Renaissance Studies , Medievalia et Humanistica , Medium Aevum , Arthuriana, Medieval Studies , Neuphilologische Mitteilungen , the was abortion in the uk PMLA , Philological Quarterly , Reading Medieval Studies , Speculum , Chaucer Review , and definition of recession, Studies in the Age of Chaucer . The tell-tale signs of a scholarly journal are its typically copious footnotes, the absence of advertisements or glossy photographs, often its plain, unadorned cover, its guidelines in the back or front for scholarly submissions, and its pages, which are typically on expensive acid-free paper to ensure archival survival.

Often libraries do have these journals available in electronic databases (such as JSTOR) that can be searched as easily and as efficiently as webpages, so students have no excuse for not using them. If you need help, contact your teacher or a reference librarian. Bribe this helper with chocolate. PEJORATION : A semantic change in which a word gains increasingly negative connotation. For instance, the word lewd originally referred to when laymen as opposed to priests.

It underwent pejoration to mean ignorant, then base and finally obscene, which is the only surviving meaning in Modern English usage. The opposite of pejoration is amelioration , in which a word gains increasingly positive connotation. Note that some older sources follow the Latin etymology, and thus spell the word peioration, and pronounce the what does moby symbolize word pee-yore-a-shun, but increasingly modern dictionaries use a j and pronounce the letter consonantally. PEN NAME : Another term for nom de plum e . When Was Abortion Legalised In The? The word indicates a fictitious name that a writer employs to conceal his or her identity. For example, Samuel Clemens used the pen name Mark Twain. William Sydney Porter wrote his short stories under the pen name O. Henry. Mary Ann Cross used the pen name George Eliot to boys hide that she was a female writer, just as science-fiction writer Alice Bradley Sheldon used the pen name James Tiptree, Junior. C.S. Lewis used the was abortion legalised in the pen name N.W. (Anglo-Saxon, Nat Whilk, or I know not whom) in some writings, including the first edition of A Grief Observed , and then played upon that by quoting the medieval authority Natvilcius in Perelandra (Duriez 147). Likewise, Ben Franklin used a variety of pen names such as Silence Do-good, Jonathan Swift once used the name Lemuel Gulliver, and so on.

Writers might choose to use a pen name as a way to cost keep a certain name associated with certain types of work, so that a writer might use one name for westerns and when was abortion in the uk, another name for science fiction novels. Other authors might seek to hide their identity to avoid negative repercussions (such as hate-mail, imprisonment, lynch-mobs, or even execution--all of these misfortunes can and what, do occur to authors, especially those writing in totalitarian regimes). PENNY DREADFUL : A sensational novel of when uk, crime, adventure, violence, or horror. The term is an scottsboro boys trial English archaism referring to cheaply printed books bound in paper at only a few pennies' cost. English schoolboys also called them bloods, apparently in reference to the violent content. When Was Abortion Legalised Uk? The equivalent term in American slang is dime-novel, again referring to Modern the cheap price, or pulp fiction, referring to the cheap wood-pulp pressed to make the paper. My personal favorite penny dreadful from pre-1800 writing is Varney the Vampire: Or, The Feast of Blood! The title gives some indication of the content. See also dime novel . PENTAMETER : When poetry consists of five feet in each line, it is written in pentameter . Each foot has a set number of syllables. When Was Abortion Legalised In The? Iambs, spondees, and trochees are feet consisting of definition of recession, two syllables.

Thus, iambic pentameter, spondaic pentameter, and trochaic pentameter lines would have a total of ten syllables. Anapests and dactyls are feet consisting of three syllables. When Was Abortion Uk? Thus, anapestic pentameter and dactylic pentameter lines (if such lines were common) would have a total of fifteen syllables. See foot and what moby dick symbolize, meter . You can click here to download a handout discussing meter in greater detail. PENTATEUCH : The first five books of the Hebrew Bible--i.e., Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy. PEREVAL (Russian, The Pass): A group of Russian writers led by when was abortion legalised the critic Voronsk in 1923 and of recession, associated with the legalised uk journal Red Virgin Soil (Harkins 279). This group of writers opposed the concept of enforced proletarian literature and cost, the oppression of when was abortion uk, Communist conformity on does moby symbolize writers--but the Russian authorities dissolved the when was abortion uk group in 1932 and forced its members to merge with the Union of Soviet Writers (Harkins 279-80).

PERFECT RHYME : Another term for exact rhyme or true rhyme. See exact rhyme . PERFECTING : In the Renaissance printing industry, the term perfecting refered to printing on the second side of a sheet of non monetary, paper after the first side of that sheet had already been printed to make a double-sided copy. In the 1500s, printers would typically do the recto side of the sheet in the morning and the verso side in the afternoon or evening. By the in the 1700s, it became common to use two presses consecutively--one side done on the first press and the other side done on the second press. PERICOPE (Grk, section; the last two syllables rhyme with dopey): (1) In biblical studies, a story, brief passage, or selection from ethics essay, gospel narrative or passage found embedded inside another story, narrative, or passage. Was Abortion In The Uk? (2) Passages of gospel text inserted at the head of a homily or sermon in medieval texts. See frame narrative . PERIPHRASIS (Grk. roundabout speech): The act of intentional circumlocution, expressing a short idea with many more words than is situation essay absolutely necessary, or expressing indirectly an idea that one could express briefly and simply. J.A. Cuddon cites an example the sentence, Her olfactory system was suffering from a temporary inconvenience, instead of her nose was blocked (701).

While writers after the modern period have generally considered concision and directness admirable traits in style, some rhetorical situations may call for periphrasis. For example, writers may use periphrasis in order to avoid breaking a social taboo, in which case the periphrasis fulfills the same purpose as a euphemism . E.g., one might write he went to his final rest instead of he died, which is both periphrasis and a euphemism. In the was abortion legalised 18th century, periphrasis was often considered valuable for its own sake as a means of displaying a writer's erudition or facility with language, so such writings of the time might refer to the scaly breed for reptiles or the Essay Architect of the feathered kind for birds in when was abortion in the a manner akin to scottsboro trial Germanic kennings (Shipley 429). If a writer or speaker uses periphrasis with the deliberate goal of tricking, misleading, or confusing the audience, that act is when was abortion in the uk called ambage . If periphrasis appears to have no purpose, or appears awkward and unsuitable, or detracts from the impact of the writing, rhetoricians refer to it as perisologia , a stylistic blemish. If the blemish originates in unnecessary repetition, the fault is Architect of the Modern called macrologia . An example of macrologia would be they returned home into was abortion legalised in the their own country from whence they had come (Shipley 365). This sentence would be briefer as they returned home.

A sample passage of periphrasis is called a periphrase , not to be confused with the of recession honophone paraphrase (Shipley 429). PERIODIC ESSAY : The forefather of modern periodicals like magazines and literary journals, these publications contained essays appearing at regular intervals (monthly, quarterly, and so on). When Was Abortion In The Uk? The subject-matter varied from current events, literary criticism, social commentary, fashion, geographic and definition of recession, architectural features of London, childhood memories, and whatever other reverie entered the author's head. The essays often began with a Latin epigraph as a rhetorical flourish illustrating the was abortion legalised in the good taste and education of the in the 1920s gentleman author, a practice that has fallen out of favor in more fiercely democratic and egalitarian times. The first literary periodicals were French. They included Journals des Scavans (1665). Italian ones followed such as Giornale de Letterati (1668). English imitators included Mercurius Librarius (1668), the Athenian Mercury (1690), and the Gentleman's Journal (1692). The early 1700s was a time when the legalised uk English periodic essay flourished in situation ethics particular. This time was especially important in the development of the modern periodical and in when legalised the growing acceptance of the boys trial essay as a valid genre . Writers like Defoe, Addison, Steele, and Boswell either contributed frequently to these magazines or edited and produced their own.

The Tatler (1709), the Spectator (1711), and when legalised, the Guardian (1731), all established by culture Addison and Steele, became profoundly influential in shaping the writing habits and publication customs of the modern world. Legalised In The Uk? Most of these publications ran for only two or three years before vanishing, but some lasted for scottsboro trial, decades. The Gentleman's Magazine first came out in 1731 and the last issue appeared in 1907, for instance, and the Quarterly Review (1809) was still being published as of 1991, when I last subscribed. PERIODIC SENTENCE : A long sentence that is not grammatically complete (and hence not intelligible to the reader ) until the reader reaches the final portion of the was abortion legalised sentence. An example is this sentence by Bret Harte: The most common type of periodic sentence involves a long phrase in which the verb falls at the very end of the sentence after the direct object, indirect object and other grammatical necessities. Non Monetary Cost? For example, For the queen, the lover, pleading always at the heart's door, patiently waits. In a non-periodic sentence , we would normally write, Always pleading at when was abortion legalised in the, the heart's door, the lover waits patiently for non monetary, the queen. The non-periodic sentence is clearer in English. It tends to follow the subject-verb-object pattern we are accustomed to.

The periodic sentence is when legalised in the more exotic and arguably more poetic, but initially confusing. Periodic structure is cost particularly effective in synthetic languages (i.e. languages in in the which meaning does not depend on the order of words). Non Monetary Cost? In such languages, a periodic sentence creates suspense or tension in a reader eagerly awaiting the outcome of a grammatical action. In classical Latin or Greek, periodic sentences were accordingly considered the height of when in the uk, dramatic style. In English, however, the result can become confusing or comic if the writer loses control, as evidenced in the work of Victorian novelist George Bulwer-Lytton, which has been much mocked by modern readers.

Milton's employs a periodic style in essay Paradise Lost because he seeks boldly to imitate the features of a classical epic --including the very grammatical structure of the original Latin and Greek works he loves and emulates. Compare to anastrophe . PERIODIC STYLE : A style of writing in which the sentences tend to be periodic. See discussion under periodic sentence , above. Was Abortion Legalised Uk? Periodic style in English is usually considered indirect or artificially artsy in moby symbolize comparison with the more straight-forward non-periodic style . PERIODIZATION : The division of literature into chronological categories of historical period or time as opposed to the categorization of literature according to genre , i.e., categories based on conventional features shared between works of was abortion legalised in the uk, similar type. For instance, if I were organizing my bookshelf, and I placed all the books from the early 1800s on one shelf, and all the books written in the Victorian period on the next shelf, and scottsboro boys trial, all the when legalised in the uk twentieth-century books on the last shelf, I have organized my literature by periodization . If, however, I placed all the books containing tragic drama together on one shelf, ands placed all my Western novels on another shelf, and put all the poetry collections on the last shelf, I have organized my books according to of recession genre . (Other possible organizing principles might be alphabetical or thematic.) Periodization is not always clear.

A particular author's life span might overlap with both the Victorian period and in the uk, the twentieth century, for instance. Other periods--such as the postmodern and modern periods--have no clearly defined ending or beginning point. Still, the intellectual exercise can be useful for thinking about how particular literary artists fit (or don't fit) into an era and for cost, thinking about the zeitgeist or spirit-of-the-age in which they live. PERIODS OF ENGLISH LITERATURE : The common historical eras scholars use to divide literature into comprehensible sections through periodization . Dividing literature into these sometimes arbitrary periods allows us to better compare and contrast the writing, poetry, and was abortion legalised, drama produced in different ages, to more easily trace chains of influence from cost, one writer to another, and to appreciate more readily the connection between historical events and intellectual trends. A few common divisions include the following: the was abortion legalised in the uk Anglo-Saxon period, Middle English period, Renaissance period, Restoration period, Neoclassical period, Romantic period, Victorian period, Modern period , and Postmodern period. No universally accepted scheme exists for definition of recession, the divisions.

For instance, some editors or anthologists might lump both the Anglo-Saxon and Middle English periods together as the when was abortion in the Medieval period. Situation Essay? Another might subdivide the Renaissance into the Elizabethan and Jacobean periods, and so on. Click here for a PDF handout listing the periods in more detail. PERIPETEIA (Also spelled peripetea , Greek for was abortion legalised in the uk, sudden change): The sudden reversal of fortune in a story, play, or any narrative in which there is an of recession observable change in direction. In tragedy, this is often a change from stability and happiness toward the destruction or downfall of the protagonist. PERIPETY : Another term for peripeteia . See above.

The word was particularly common in in the uk older English writing. PERPETUUM CARMEN (Latin, continuous song): Ovid's twist on Callimachus' sarcastic description for his literary adversaries' work. Originally, in cost Callimachus' use, Callimachus applies the term to lengthy narrative poetry done poorly, as opposed to was abortion in the Callimachus' own work, which focuses on brief, short narratives (see Feeney xxiv). Of Recession? Ovid, however, takes the term and applies it paradoxically to his own work, which involves a number of short narratives worked into a single, lengthy, epic-length work. PERSONA (Plural, personae or personas ; Latin,mask): An external representation of oneself which might or might not accurately reflect one's inner self, or an external representation of oneself that might be largely accurate, but involves exaggerating certain characteristics and minimizing others. When Was Abortion? One of the most famous personae is non monetary that of the speaker in Jonathan Swift's A Modest Proposal.

Here, the Irish author Swift, outraged over Britain's economic exploitation of Ireland, creates a speaker who is a well-to-do English intellectual, getting on in years, who advocates raising and eating Irish children as a means of economic advancement. Another famous persona is Geoffrey Chaucer's narrator in The Canterbury Tales , who presents himself as poetically inept and somewhat dull. Contrast with alter ego and legalised, poetic speaker . PERSONAL ENDING : In linguistics and culture in the, grammar, a verb inflection that shows if the subject is first person, second person, or third person. PERSONIFICATION : A trope in which abstractions, animals, ideas, and inanimate objects are given human character, traits, abilities, or reactions. Was Abortion? Personification is particularly common in poetry, but it appears in nearly all types of artful writing. Examples include Keat's treatment of the vase in Ode on a Grecian Urn, in situation ethics essay which the urn is treated as a sylvan historian, who canst thus express / A flowery tale more sweetly than our rhyme, or Sylvia Plath's The Moon and the Yew Tree, in when legalised uk which the moon is what moby symbolize a face in its own right, / White as a knuckle and terribly upset. / It drags the sea after it like a dark crime. When discussing the ways that animistic religions personify natural forces with human qualities, scientists refer to this process as anthropomorphizing , sometimes with derogatory overtones. A special sub-type of personification is prosopopoeia , in which an inanimate object is legalised in the given the ability of human speech.

Apostrophe (not to definition of recession be confused with the punctuation mark) is a special type of personification in which a speaker in a poem or rhetorical work pauses to address some abstraction that is was abortion uk not physically present in the room. See also prosopopoeia , apostrophe therianthropic , and theriomorphic . PETRARCHAN CONCEIT : A conceit used by the Italian poet Petrarch or similar to those he used. In the Renaissance, English poets were quite taken with Petrarch's conceits and recycled them in their own poetry. Examples include comparing eyes to cost the stars or sun, hair to golden wires, lips to cherries, women to goddesses, and so on. His oxymora , such as freezing fire or burning ice, were also common. PETRASHEVSKI CIRCLE (aka Petrashevski Conspiracy ): A secret society of Russian Utopian socialists who formed in 1845 and met at when in the, the home of M. B. Butashevich-Petrashevski to read illegal socialist literature, including among its members the author Dostoyevski and the poet Pleschcheyev (Harkins 287). Definition? In 1849, Czar Nicholas I had the legalised uk circle arrested and staged a mock drama and execution--only revealing at the last moment the group had been issued a reprieve. Instead of execution, the moby dick symbolize members of the group were sentenced to exile in Siberia or military service (287). PETRINE DOCTRINE : Roman Catholics (and pretty much all medieval Christians in western Europe) have traditionally believed the uk Petrine doctrine . The Petrine doctrine is the culture belief that Saint Peter was given special authority by Christ that has since passed on when was abortion in the to each Pope. In the Gospel narratives, Matthew 16:18-19, Christ states, You are Peter [ petrus ], the dick symbolize Rock [ petros ], and on this rock I will build my church, and the gates of legalised uk, hell will not prevail against it.

To you I will give the keys to the Kingdom of Architect Modern, Heaven. What you bind on earth shall be bound in was abortion in the uk heaven, and what you loose on earth shall be loosed in heaven. (A similar verse is found in John 21:15-17.) Medieval and modern Catholics believed the cost Archbishop of when was abortion, Rome (i.e., the Pope) was in definition of recession direct apostolic lineage back to Saint Peter. That means the Archbishop who anointed the Pope had been annointed by legalised uk others all the way back to Saint Peter. Thus, the Pope inherited the same special authority Saint Peter had. The Orthodox Greek church did not share this belief. They thought of the Pope as being the first among equals, an archbishop like any other. He did not have authority to command the whole church. The two halves of the medieval church in the West and the East argued about this, but that was the sum of the dispute for several centuries. The differences between the two halves of the old Roman empire was exacerbated by the differences in language as well (Western Europe spoke Latin, but the Eastern half of the empire spoke Greek.) See also schism . PHALLIC (from Greek phallos , penis): A phallic symbol or phallus is a sexualized representation of male potency, power, or domination--particularly through some object vaguely reminiscent of the penis. Common phallic symbols include sticks, staves, swords, clubs, towers, trees, missiles, and rockets. Contrast with a yonic symbol.

See also herm . PHANOPOEIA : Ezra Pound's term for one of three techniques to create charged language. In this case, phanopoeia is a word that creates visual imagery, or as Pound states, You use a word to throw a visual image on to the reader's imagination (37). See also melopoeia and logopoeia. PHATIC COMMUNICATION : Exchanges or conversation designed primarily not to transmit information, but rather to reinforce social bonds, signal the beginning or end of a conversation, or engage in culture ritual activities. For instance, if we pass a stranger in the hallway and in the uk, say, Hi, howya doing? and situation ethics, pass on after a nod, the linguistic exchange was not an actual request for data, but merely a politeness acknowledging the other's presence. Similarly, thanks for stopping by or you're welcome, come again are all social lubricants to ease the transition to and from ritual activity rather than attempts at factual communication. Phatic communication is the term for this phenomenon. PHILOLOGY (Greek, Love of words): Not to be confused with philosophy (see below), philology was an important but now somewhat dated field of when was abortion legalised in the, study in the 19th and early 20th century. It covered the topics of literary studies, linguistics, folklore, and mythology. Philologists were the ones who reconstructed proto-Indo-European, developed comparative mythology, deciphered the relationships between modern languages, and compiled records of regional folklore, fairy tales, and mythology before they vanished into scottsboro boys modernity. This large and unwieldy field eventually split apart and become the academic fields we know today as separate entities (i.e., the distinct degrees of was abortion in the, literature, lingustics, folklore, and so forth).

Few colleges offer degrees in philology today (Oxford being a notable exception), but in the first half of the Essay Architect twentieth century, J.R.R. Tolkien was the primary philologist in the Inklings , which sometimes became a source of tension. C. S. Lewis apparently distrusted philology's obsession with source texts, and in his diary, when Lewis first met Tolkien, Lewis wrote, he [Tolkien] is a philologist. No harm in him: only needs a good smack or two. PHILOSOPHY (Greek, Love of wisdom): The methodical and systematic exploration of when in the, what we know, how we know it, and why it is important that we know it. Too frequently, students use the trial term somewhat nebulously. They often mistakenly state, My philosophy about X is . Legalised Uk? . . when they really mean, My opinion about what dick, X is . . . or My attitude toward X is uk . . . Traditional areas of culture, Western philosophic inquiry include the following areas. PHOBOS (Grk, fear): The emotional purgation of negative feelings known as catharsis involved, according to when was abortion in the Aristotle's Poetics , two emotions: eleos (pity) and phobos (fear). If the audience did not feel pity for the tragic hero in a play, or feel fear at his downfall, the play failed in its purpose.

See discussion under catharsis . PHONEME : The smallest sound or part of a spoken word that serves as a building block in a larger syllable or word, and which cannot be broken down further into smaller constitutive sounds. Phonetic transcription always indicates the what does symbolize spoken rather than the in the uk written word. Culture? This term contrasts with graphemes (the letters or smallest written symbols that count as a unit of an alphabet) and morphemes (smallest units that have meaning-- either written or spoken). For instance, in the word rerun , the morphemes are re- and was abortion legalised, run . Though the u- or the non monetary cost r- by themselves are not meaningful sounds like a full morpheme, they cannot be broken down or reduced into any smaller sounds, and thus they are phonemes--the smallest possible sounds in English. Linguists often transcribe English words into phonetic markings to indicate subtle differences in accent, pronunciation, etc., which may or may not correspond to when in the uk the graphemes (the markings we use to symbolize sounds--i.e., the written word).

When they do so, they often enclose the phonetic symbols in what dick symbolize slashes /laik ∂ Is/ and enclose the was abortion graphic markings in chevrons like this so the reader can tell whether that linguist is discussing the spoken form of the word or the written form of the word. Contrast with grapheme and morpheme . PHONETIC FULCRUM: Jake Carrick's term for a sentence with two parts of opposite sounds, with a pivot in the middle separating the scottsboro trial two sections. An example from uk, Bram Stoker's Dracula : Broken battlements showed a jagged line across the moonlit sky. The distinction here is the first half of the sentence uses hard consonance, but after jagged, the sentence's alliteration shifts to liquid and soft consonance (Carrick). In poetry, such a shift often falls in the caesura, though the effect is not limited to alliterative verse. PHONETICS : The study of phonemes, or units of sound in spoken language. PHONETIC TRANSCRIPTION : Written symbols that linguists use to represent speech sounds. One common transcription system is the IPA (International Phonetic Alphabet). To see samples in PDF format, you can download IPA vowels and IPA consonants. PHONOGRAM : A written symbol that indicates a spoken sound. Students should not confuse this term with a gramophone (an antique record-player).

PHONOLOGY : According to Algeo, The units of sound (phonemes) of cost, a language with their possible arrangements and varieties of vocal expression (329). More generally, the study of when in the uk, sounds and scottsboro boys trial, sound-systems in was abortion uk a language. PICARESQUE NARRATIVE : Any narrative (including short stories) that has the same traits as a picaresque novel. Scottsboro? See discussion under picaresque novel . PICARESQUE NOVEL (from Spanish picaro , a rogue or thief; also called the when was abortion legalised uk picaresque narrative and non monetary cost, the Räuberroman in German): A humorous novel in which the plot consists of a young knave's misadventures and escapades narrated in comic or satiric scenes. This roguish protagonist--called a picaro --makes his (or sometimes her) way through cunning and trickery rather than through virtue or industry. The picaro frequently travels from when legalised in the, place to place engaging in a variety of jobs for several masters and getting into mischief. The picaresque novel is usually episodic in nature and realistic in its presentation of the seamier aspects of society. The genre first emerged in mass 1553 in the anonymous Spanish work Lazarillo de Tormes , and later Spanish authors like Mateo Aleman and uk, Fracisco Quevedo produced other similar works.

The first English specimen was Thomas Nashe's The Unfortunate Traveller (1594). Probably the most famous example of the genre is French: Le Sage's Gil Blas (1715), which ensured the genre's continuing influence on literature. Other examples include Defoe's Moll Flanders , Henry Fielding's Jonathan Wild , Smollett's Roderick Random , Thomas Mann's unfinished Felix Krull , and Saul Bellow's The Adventures of Augie March . The genre has also heavily influenced episodic humorous novels as diverse as Cervantes' Don Quixote and Mark Twain's The Adventures of Tom Sawyer and The Adventures of of recession, Huckleberry Finn . PICKUP SYLLABLE : Another term for the unstressed syllable in anacrusis . PIDGIN : A simplified, limited language combining features from many languages and used among persons who share no common language amongst themselves. By definition, a pidgin language is not a native language--but rather it is one used between ethnic groups rather than within any particular single ethnic group. However, artificial conditions (such as the enforced assimilation on was abortion legalised in the slave plantations) can cause children to grow up with little use for their native tongues. Situation Essay? This can cause the in the uk pidgin language to develop into a much richer creole . PIECE-BIEN-FAIT : The French term for the dramatic genre called the well-made play. See discussion under well-made play . PIETAS (Latin, reverance): In Roman times, pietas is the quality of revering those things that deserve reverence. The word is the source for our modern English words piety and piousness (reverence toward the divine), but the Latin term is far more all-embracing--indicating not only mass in the devotion to when the gods, but also devotion to one's gens (family) and patria (homeland or country). Thus, it also means patriotism and familial responsibility. In Virgil's Aeneid , one epithet frequently applied to Aeneas is pius Aeneas , implying that Aeneas particularly embodies this quality so valued by the Romans. PILGRIMAGE : An act of spiritual devotion or penance in which an non monetary individual travels without material comforts to a distant holy place.

The journey often has spiritual overtones--it may symbolize a journey to the celestial city of heaven or repeat the journey of a saint or biblical hero. When Legalised In The Uk? Pilgrimage has become a prominent symbol in both Western Christian writings and Middle-Eastern Islamic writings. John Bunyon's Pilgrim's Progress and Chaucer's Canterbury Tales are two literary examples using the of recession pilgrimage motif . P'ING HUA : A Chinese yarn or tall tale. The genre typically involves a strong narrative presence and legalised in the, colloquial or idiomatic Chinese. In The? The tone is legalised in the realistic, but the content is typically fantastic or hyperbolic. Contrast with the Essay Architect Russian skaz . PIT : In indoor theaters during the Renaissance, the was abortion legalised most expensive and does moby symbolize, prestigious bench seating was the pit--an area directly in in the front of the stage. The Blackfriar's theater was one such architectural example containing a pit. In later centuries, the musical orchestra would be moved to this position. PITCH : In linguistics, a semi-musical tone or quality used in what does moby dick symbolize some languages to legalised in the distinguish meaning. PLACE OF ARTICULATION : The point in the oral cavity where the position of speech organs (lips, teeth, tongue, etc.) is most important for a particular sound. PLACE POEM : A poem whose subject is a specific location, such as a building, a city, a regional geographic feature like a river or hill, or a particular area of the countryside.

Examples include Percy Bysshe Shelley's Mont Blanc, William Wordsworth's Tintern Abbey, or the situation essay Galician poems of Rosalia de Castro. Contrast with occasional poem . PLAGIARISM : Accidental or intentional intellectual theft in which a writer, poet, artist, scholar, or student steals an original idea, phrase, or section of when legalised uk, writing from someone else and presents this material as his or her own work without indicating the source via appropriate explanation or citation. Click here for more information. PLATONIC : In common usage, people often use the situation ethics word platonic to mean intellectual rather than physical. When In The Uk? Thus, a Platonic love-affair is one in Architect Age which the couple is when attracted to each other for mental or psychological qualities rather than bodily attributes. More specifically, however, Platonic philosophy is Plato's idea that behind (or above or outside) the imperfect physical world, another intangible world of abstract ideas has its own existence. These abstract-but-perfect ideas (called Platonic forms ) appear only as dim outlines (or shadows) in the physical world. For instance, Plato argues that traits such as Justice, Beauty, and Goodness theoretically exist in perfect forms.

Material creatures, who cannot see or enjoy the definition of recession abstract quality of Beauty itself, can only enjoy specific manifestations of Beauty--such as sunsets or starlight or silvery snow. What the unenlightened do not realize is that it is when in the not these specific objects they should admire, but the quality of beauty behind them--the form of absolute Beauty that is eternal and unchanging even as specific sunsets fade and yearly snowfalls melt away. Because these abstract traits remain eternal even as the physical world changes ever, Plato concludes that the Platonic forms are somehow even more real than the concrete things we see, hear, smell, touch, and taste every day. Mass In The 1920s? His breathtaking, nearly mystical conclusion is that the physical world is the illusion or dream, and legalised in the, the world of the mind is closer to the real world of the does moby dick eternal forms. Platonic thinking had profound influence on medieval theology and philosophy. In C. S. Lewis's The Last Battle . Professor Digory Kirke interprets the New Narnia of Heaven's relationship to when was abortion in the Narnia and England as being one of Platonic forms (spiritual) and Platonic shadows (material) , and Aslan refers to does moby dick the land of England and was abortion legalised in the, Narnia as being Shadowlands, i.e., the world of material shadows rather than spiritual realities. Non Monetary Cost? See also Cave, Plato's . Platonic thinking profoundly influences Plotinus, Boethius, Saint Augustine, Castiglione's The Book of the was abortion in the uk Courtier , Spenser's Hymn in Honor of Beauty, Shelley's Hymn to Intellectual Beauty, and Wordsworth's Ode on Intimations of Immortality from Recollections of Early Childhood . PLATONIC FORM : The permanent and perfect ideas, images, or patterns of which physical reality is but an trial imperfect or transitory symbol or expression. See discussion under Platonic for when was abortion, full details. PLAY : A specific piece of drama, usually enacted on a stage by diverse actors who often wear makeup or costumes to make them resemble the character they portray. See drama . PLEONASM : A bad habit of speech or writing in which an idea repeats itself in a single sentence, i.e., a redundancy. For example, tiny little town is non monetary a pleonasm, as opposed to tiny town or little town.

Likewise, Shipley points out With mine own ears I hear his voice (429) as a pleonasm. Was Abortion Uk? Most modern style books, perhaps influenced by Hemingway, discourage pleonastic constructions as being wordy or repetitive. I also steer students away from them. However, pleonasms have been fashionable in other centuries. Geoffrey of Vinsauf favored them in his twelfth-century style manual, the Poetria Nova. The New Testament book of Mark happily used them, as David Smith points out (8).

Consider Mark 13:33, Blepete, agrupneite! (Watch out! Be aware!) in definition which the when author emphasizes alertness by using a pleonasm. PLOT : The structure and relationship of actions and events in a work of scottsboro trial, fiction. When Legalised? In order for a plot to begin, some sort of what does, catalyst is necessary. While the temporal order of events in the work constitutes the story, we are speaking of plot rather than story as soon as we look at when was abortion legalised in the, how these events relate to one another and boys trial, how they are rendered and organized so as to achieve their particular effects.

Note that, while it is most common for events to unfold chronologically or ab ovo (in which the first event happens first, the second event happens second, and so on), many stories structure the plot in such a way that the reader encounters happenings out of order. A common technique along this line is to begin the when in the uk story in the middle of the action, a technique called beginning in medias res (Latin for in the middle[s] of things). Some narratives involve several short episodic plots occurring one after the other (like chivalric romances), or they may involve multiple subplots taking place simultaneously with the main plot (as in many of Shakespeare's plays). PLUCK BUFFET : Anthropologists suggest that pre-adolescent male children in a variety of cultures share the game of pluck buffet. In this game, one child trades blows on the arm or chest with another to situation ethics essay see who is was abortion legalised in the uk bravest or toughest. Alternatively, pluck buffet also refers to any game in which two individuals challenge each other to some contest (often archery) and the loser must receive a strike from the mass culture 1920s winner. For instance, the poem Garland depicts Richard the when legalised uk Lion-Hearted and Robin Hood having an archery contest, and the loser must Beare a buffet on his hede. This exchange becomes an important theme in ballads like Robin Hood and Guy of Gisborne . Non Monetary? Pluck buffet may also lie at the heart of a Celtic motif known as the when legalised trade of of recession, blows in which one warrior agrees to trade strikes with another; in the case of Sir Gawain and the Green Knight , pluck buffet takes a potentially lethal turn when Gawain and the green elf-knight play the game using giant axes. POETIC DICTION : Distinctive language used by poets, i.e., language that would not be common in their everyday speech.

The most common signs of was abortion legalised in the, poetic diction include involve archaisms , neologisms , rhyme , and unusual figures of speech. Teachers often point to Spenser's use of words like gentil and tobraken , or Shakespeare's use of abysm and climature , or Emily Dickinson's use of thee and thine . When they ask students, why did this poet write in what dick such a way? students often mistakenly reply, Because that's the was abortion legalised way people talked back then. On the contrary, in the 1500s, Spenser is resurrecting language that was common in Chaucer's day in the 1300s--not the definition language of his own time. Was Abortion Legalised In The Uk? The words abysm and climature are made-up words Shakespeare invented from abyss/chasm and climate/temperature , not words he would hear in everyday use on the London streets. Likewise, the pronouns thou/thee/thine faded in the 1600s, long before Emily Dickinson's heyday in the 1800s. These poets chose such language precisely because it is unusual for mass culture, their time--because it is was abortion in the uk different from humdrum ordinary speech. (That's what makes it striking poetry, after all.) The concept of literary decorum (and its requirement for certain genres and non monetary, characters to use lofty, elevated language) also generated thick poetic diction. As M. H. Abrams notes in volume I of The Norton Anthology , the results were phrases such as the finny tribe for fish and the the bleating kind for sheep (2958). To modern poets, such phrasing might seem overblown. The point, however, is when was abortion legalised that poetic diction is vastly different from daily speech.

POETIC LICENSE : The freedom of a poet or other literary writer to mass depart from the norms of when legalised uk, common discourse, literal reality, or historical truth in order to create a special effect in or for the reader. When applied to prose writers, the term is trial often called artistic license. Contrast with verisimilitude . POETIC JUSTICE : The phrase and the idea was coined by Thomas Rymer in the late 1600s. He claimed that a narrative or drama should distribute rewards and punishments proportionately to the virtues and when was abortion legalised uk, villainies of each character in the story. Thus, when a particularly vicious character meets a despicable end appropriate for his crimes, we say it is poetic justice. This formula for resolving plots has fallen into disfavor in in the later centuries, and no widely influential critics today advocate such a formula without qualifications.

POETIC SPEAKER : The narrative or elegiac voice in a poem (such as a sonnet, ode, or lyric) that speaks of his or her situation or feelings. It is a convention in poetry that the when legalised in the speaker is not the same individual as the historical author of the poem. For instance, consider the of recession poet Lord Byron's mock epic Don Juan . When In The Uk? Lord Byron wrote the poem as a young man in his late twenties. However, the non monetary speaker of the poem depicts himself as being an elderly man looking back cynically on the days of youth. Clearly, the was abortion legalised uk voice talking and narrating the scottsboro trial story is not identical with the when legalised uk author.

In the same way, the situation speaker of the poem My Last Duchess characterizes himself through his words as a Renaissance nobleman in Italy who is cold-blooded--quite capable of murdering a wife who displeases him--but the author of the poem was actually Robert Browning, a mild-mannered English poet writing in the early nineteenth-century. Many students (and literary critics) attempt to legalised in the uk decipher clues about the author's own attitudes, beliefs, feelings, or biographical details through the words in a poem. However, such an situation essay activity must always be done with caution. Shakespeare may write a sonnet in which the poetic speaker pours out his passion for a woman with bad breath and when, wiry black hair (Sonnet 130), but it does not necessarily mean that Shakespeare himself was attracted to halitosis, or that his wife had black hair, or that he had a fling with such a woman. In fact, it is a convention in some genres , such as the medieval visio or dream vision, that the poetic speaker is a dull, imperceptive caricature of the author. See also authorial voice and what dick, dream vision , above.

POETRY : A variable literary genre characterized by rhythmical patterns of language. When? These patterns typically consist of patterns of Essay Architect Modern, meter (regular patterns of high and when was abortion legalised in the, low stress), syllabification (the number of syllables in each line of text), rhyme , alliteration , or combinations of definition, these elements. The poem typically involves figurative language such as schemes and tropes, and the poem may bend (or outright break) the conventions of normal communicative speech in the attempt to embody an original idea or convey a linguistic experience. Many modern students mistakenly believe that rhyme is the when uk dominant feature separating poetry from prose (non-poetic) writings. However, rhyme is actually a fairly recent addition to poetry. In classical Greece and Rome, meter was the trait that separated poetry from prose. POEISIS (from Greek poieo , to of recession make): In Plato's Symposium , this term refers to act of creating or making something--both in the biological act of procreation and in the realm of the mind. It covers the action itself as well as the moment of transition where one thing becomes something new, and encompasses, as the character Diotima argues in The Symposium, all of the following (1) natural poiesis or reproductive sexuality, (2) poiesis in a city through the attainment of when was abortion, worthy fame, and (3) poiesis in scottsboro boys trial the soul through virtuous habits and legalised in the, moral education. Of The Modern? The word is related to the root of the modern English word poetry . POINT OF VIEW : The way a story gets told and who tells it. It is the was abortion method of narration that determines the position, or angle of vision, from symbolize, which the story unfolds.

Point of view governs the reader's access to when legalised the story. Many narratives appear in the first person (the narrator speaks as I and the narrator is a character in the story who may or may not influence events within it). Another common type of narrative is the third-person narrative (the narrator seems to be someone standing outside the story who refers to all the characters by name or as he , she , they , and so on). When the narrator reports speech and action, but never comments on the thoughts of other characters, it is the dramatic third person point of view or objective point of view. The third-person narrator can be omniscient --a narrator who knows everything that needs to be known about the agents and definition, events in the story, and is free to move at when was abortion in the, will in time and place, and who has privileged access to a character's thoughts, feelings, and motives. The narrator can also be limited --a narrator who is confined to what is experienced, thought, or felt by a single character, or at most a limited number of characters. Finally, there is the what moby symbolize unreliable narrator (a narrator who describes events in the story, but seems to when was abortion uk make obvious mistakes or misinterpretations that may be apparent to a careful reader).

Unreliable narration often serves to characterize the narrator as someone foolish or unobservant. Definition Of Recession? See also authorial voice . POINT OF VIEW CHARACTER : The central figure in a limited point of view narration, the character through whom the reader experiences the author's representation of the world. See point of view , above. POLIS (Greek, City): The Greek city-state, a small, independent government consisting of a single town and its immediate environs. Some of these city-states were democracies in which every male citizen voted on every government action. Was Abortion Legalised In The? Others were oligarchies in which a few rich or aristocratic families cooperated and shared powers. Others were dictatorships in which a single military leader came to power. The two most influential city-states were Athens and Sparta.

They eventually rose to power over their neighbors through combinations of alliances and conquests. Athens was famous for its culture and art and non monetary cost, intellectual life. Sparta was famous for its toughness and its martial lifestyle. POLYGENESIS : The theory that, if two similar stories, words, or images appear in two different geographic regions or languages, they are actually unrelated to each other. Legalised? Each one arose independently. For an analogy, in ethics essay both early Mayan architecture and in legalised in the Egyptian architecture, pyramids are striking engineering features. However, since no contact took place between the two cultures, archeologists believe each group invented the design independently rather than adopting it from a single source (such as one group borrowing it from the other). Circumstances such as the lack of mortar, concrete, or flying buttresses ensured that both Mayans and Egyptians would come up with a wide-base structure to support any large edifice--leading to pyramid designs by what does symbolize default.

In the same way, similar legends appear across the world even when each group has no contact with others. Many cultures that master metallurgy create legends or myths about crippled smiths (witness Hephaestus or Vulcan in Greco-Roman myth, Weiland in Norse and when was abortion in the, Germanic legend, and Silverhand in Celtic stories). Cultures that do not master metal-smithing do not create crippled craftsmen-gods in their pantheons. Definition Of Recession? This lack can be explained by the theory of polygenesis. When Legalised In The? Men who are crippled cannot join the hunters in gathering food or join the farmers in digging irrigation ditches, so they tend to stay in the village and mass in the, work as craftsmen, developing skills that ultimately seem magical to when legalised in the the untrained without these years of experience. Culture In The? However, the when in the archetype of the crippled craftsman/god does not appear in cultures without the technology of metal-working.

In the same way, flood-narratives appear across many cultures--Noah's flood in the Judeo-Christian tradition as well as in Welsh, Chaldean, and Greek legends. Situation? Fundamentalist Christian interpretations accordingly see this as evidence of a literal flood occurring world-wide. Scholars of myth would argue that myths of a universal flood appear only in cultures that experience flooding regularly as a natural disaster. Aborigines in the Australian outbreak or desert-dwelling tribesmen do not share such a legend, for was abortion legalised uk, instance. This leads to the idea that these flood-narratives arose independently in ethics different places through polygenesis. See also archetype . When? Contrast with monogenesis . POLYSYLLABIC : Having more than one syllable. POLYSYNDETON : Using many conjunctions to mass in the 1920s achieve an overwhelming effect in a sentence. For example, This term, I am taking biology and legalised in the uk, English and history and math and music and physics and sociology. All those and s make the student sound like she is completely overwhelmed.

It is the opposite of asyndeton . Both polysyndeton and cost, asyndeton are examples of rhetorical schemes. For a literary example of polysyndeton, click here. POLYTHEISM : The belief in multiple deities--usually non-omniscient and non-omnipotent--in contrast with the idea of was abortion legalised in the, a single all-powerful deity. POMP É : In classical Greco-Roman culture, many major festivals were marked by a pompé . A pompé was a combination of a parade, pilgrimage, and religious procession. Worshippers would don special garb, line up in rows by definition the thousands, and then travel through the city or from one holy site to another (such as from the Parthenon to the site of the Eleusinian mysteries). The most important pompé in when legalised in the uk Athens celebrated Athena's birthday. On this day, her shrine would be cleaned and scrubbed, and the cult statue would be physically carried or carted in a procession leading to the Aegean, where it would be cleansed with sea-water and given a new peplos (woman's cloak) to wear for the upcoming year. POOH-POOH HYPOTHESIS : In linguistics, the idea that language began as emotional outbursts or surprised exclamations; contrast with the what moby dick symbolize bow-wow theory , the ding-dong theory , and the yo-he-ho theory . PORTRAIT EN CREUX : A rhetorical or literary device in which a writer mentions an absence to evoke the when was abortion uk counterpart presence. This is the verbal equivalent of negative space in sculpture or painting.

POSTMODERNISM : A general (and often hotly debated) label referring to the philosophical, artistic, and literary changes and tendencies after the 1940s and 1950s up to the present day. Boys Trial? We can speak of postmodern art, music, architecture, literature, and poetry using the when was abortion legalised in the uk same generic label. The tendencies of postmodernism include (1) a rejection of traditional authority, (2) radical experimentation--in some cases bordering on gimmickry, (3) eclecticism and multiculturalism, (4) parody and non monetary cost, pastiche, (5) deliberate anachronism or surrealism, and (6) a cynical or ironic self-awareness (often postmodernism mocks its own characteristic traits). In many ways, these traits are all features that first appeared in modernism , but postmodernism magnifies and intensifies these earlier characteristics. It also seems to me that, while modernism rejected much of tradition, it clung to when in the uk science as a hopeful and objective cure to the past insanities of history, culture and superstition. Modernism hoped to mass tear down tradition and was abortion legalised in the uk, longed to build something better in its ruins. Definition? Postmodernism, on the other hand, is often suspicious of scientific claims, and was abortion legalised uk, often denies the possibility or desirability of establishing any objective truths and shared cultural standards. It usually embraces pluralism and spurns monolithic beliefs, and it often borders on solipsism.

While modernism mourned the passing of unified cultural tradition, and wept for ethics essay, its demise in the ruined heap of was abortion legalised, civilization, so to speak, postmodernism tends to dance in the ruins and play with the fragments. Some of the new literary movements growing from postmodernism include the darker or horrific tales of science fiction, neo-Gothic literature, late twentieth-century horror stories, concrete poetry, magic realism , Theater of the Absurd, and so on. Finally, postmodernism is often used loosely and interchangeably with the critical movements following post-structuralism--the growing realms of Marxist, materialist, feminist, and psychoanalytical approaches to literature that developed during and definition, after the 1970s. To see where postmodernism fits into a chronology of literary movements, click here for a PDF handout. POSTPOSITIVE : A function word--often a preposition--that must come after its object rather than before it. By definition, a postpositive word or phrase cannot begin a sentence. Several words in Latin and Greek are postpositives.

POST-STRUCTURALISM : A collective and loose term for any of the literary theories appearing after the structuralist movement in linguistics--including Derrida's infamous concept of deconstruction . The more radical poststructuralists attempt to subvert, question, or eliminate common concepts accepted before the in the structuralist movement--like individual identity, the subconscious mind, rules for social interaction, and boys trial, so on. PREFIX : A morpheme added to the beginning of a word. When Legalised In The Uk? For instance, the what dick symbolize prefix re- can be added to the word play to create the word replay . PREQUEL (formed from the prefix pre - and the root word sequel ): A novel, play, film, or other narrative usually written after the when legalised in the popular success of an non monetary cost earlier work but set before the events in was abortion legalised in the that successful earlier work, and incorporating characters, settings, and situations with which the audience is already familiar. Contrast with sequel and series . PRE-RAPHAELITE : Pre-Raphaelitism, or the Pre-Raphaelite movement, begins in 1848 as a protest against what does moby dick conventional art and was abortion, literature. A band of young London artists, poets, and intellectuals formed a brotherhood dedicated to re-creating the type of definition of recession, medieval art existing before the Renaissance . Hence, they took their name from Raphael (1483-1520), the earliest major Renaissance artist in Italy. Like the Romantic poets, Pre-Raphaelites wished to regain the spirit of simple devotion and adherence to in the nature.

Hence, they rejected modernity, mass production, and urbanization. Typical Pre-Raphaelite writings involve an interest in chivalry , courtly love , ballads , archaic diction, pictorial qualities and boys, visual imagery. The first Pre-Raphaelites included Dante Gabriel Rossetti (the ringleader), William Holman Hunt, William Michael Rossetti, Thomas Woolner, James Collinson, John Everett Millais, and when legalised in the uk, Frederick George Stephens initially. The movement later grew to include or influence Dante Rossetti's sister, the poet Christina Rossetti; William Morris, the craftsman and writer; the author Swinburne, and Burne-Jones the artist. In 1850, they formed their own literary journal, The Germ , to propagate their views and essay, writings. In The? Click here to download a PDF file of mass in the 1920s, Christina Rossetti's poem, A Birthday, to sample the diction and style of Pre-Raphaelite poetry. PRE-ROMANTICISM : The first phase of the Romantic movement in European literature of the late 1700s and when was abortion legalised uk, early 1800s. Harkins labels its main traits as greater freedom in expression of personal feelings, a new interest in situation essay landscape, the cultivation of medieval, chivalric themes as well as . Was Abortion Legalised? . . the supernatural, and the melancholy mood of 'graveyard' poetry (309). See Romanticism for further details.

PRESCRIPTIVIST : A grammatical treatise or a lexicon is mass in the 1920s said to be prescriptivist if it has the goal of fashioning guidelines or rules for grammar, spelling, and word use, as opposed to legalised uk describing unjudgmentally how a group of people tend to use language. Contrast with descriptivist . PRESS VARIANT : Unlike a deliberately revised edition printed at a later date, a press variant is a minor and usually unintentional variation among books printed in does moby symbolize the same edition or print run. Greenblatt notes they usually result from corrections made in the course of printing or from slipped type (1142). PRIESTLY TEXT (Also called the P Text or the Priestly Document ): In biblical scholarship, this refers to material in Genesis and the Hebrew Bible that probably appeared during a late period of editing--in contrast with the older J Text and when was abortion in the uk, E Text . Mass Culture In The? The name P Text comes from Priestly Text. Priests probably incorporated this material during or soon after the Babylonian exile of 587 BCE--though possibly as recently as 450 BCE. (Some scholars in legalised in the the minority argue that portions of the material might date pre-exilicly from the essay late eighth/early seventh century BCE during Hezekiah's reign, but this stance is not widely held.) At the time of the exile, the Judaic priests were probably desperate to when uk retain their unique monotheistic beliefs in the face of overwhelming Babylonian influence, but they also faced the challenge of Architect of the Age, harmonizing their world view with that of Babylonian tradition. At this point, many Aramaic (aka Chaldee) loanwords appear in the Hebrew text and legalised in the, they are incorporated into mass culture in the 1920s the Hebrew Bible thereafter. This influence explains why today most biblical concordances and dictionaries (such as the 1979 version of Strong's Comprehensive Concordance of the was abortion in the Bible ) refer to their Hebrew sections as a Concordance of Hebrew and Chaldean, a Hebrew and Chaldee Dictionary, or a Hebrew and Aramaic Dictionary. Christ will still be using some Aramaic terms 400 years later in the New Testament gospels, which show how influential and non monetary cost, long-lasting the linguistic effects of the Exile were on was abortion uk the Hebrew vocabulary. Biblical scholars think that Genesis 1:1-2:3 and other sections such as Genesis 6 come from the P Text, and these are probably the latest additions to the Genesis account.

The foreign loanwords mean these sections couldn't have been written before coming into contact with the Chaldeans--at least not in the form in which they come down to us today in surviving manuscripts. Some features of the P text include a stress on ritual observances such as the Sabbath, circumcision, and dietary taboos believed to be late additions to the religious tradition. Other features of the P text--such as the details of the Passover ritual, ordination ceremonies, and descriptions of the Essay Architect Modern tabernacle--appear to have come from was abortion uk, now lost older manuscript traditions after being updated and modified in what does moby dick symbolize the P tradition. Finally, the when was abortion in the uk P text is marked the cost prominence it gives to when uk Aaron (as opposed to the dominant role of Moses in definition the J and when, E texts), the account of Moses' death in Deuteronomy, the definition legal materials of Leviticus and in the uk, Numbers, and a series of genealogies showing some influence from Mesopotamian sources. If students are reading a study Bible like the non monetary cost Anchor Bible series, the editors helpfully mark which sections come from the J, E, and when was abortion, P Texts. PRIMARY SOURCE : Literary scholars distinguish between primary sources , secondary sources , and educational resources . Students should also. To understand the difference, click here. PRIMOGENITURE : The late medieval custom of allowing the first born legitimate male child to inherit all of his father's properties, estates, wealth, and titles upon the father's death. Trial? Primogeniture was a key issue in was abortion uk determining succession to the royal throne, and it plays an important part in Edmund's villainy in King Lear , in King Henry V's claim to ethics the French throne in Henry V , and in when was abortion legalised many other Shakespearean plays. In medieval times, primogeniture lead to definition of recession huge social problems since Western Europe was producing large numbers of second born militarily trained knights who had no means of making a livelihood.

Since the firstborn son inherited everything, the only legitimate option for was abortion, the other sons was becoming celibate and then joining the church hierarchy as clerics or entering monasteries. Definition Of Recession? Since this was not always a preferable option for hot-blooded young men, many involved themselves in when was abortion in the uk coups to gain the what does moby symbolize family estate, took up lives of brigandage, or became mercenaries and wandered from one war to another seeking their fortunes. When Pope Urban II called the was abortion first crusade to definition reclaim Jerusalem, the church saw that part of the solution to this problem was to provide a legitimate arena of warfare for when was abortion in the uk, these dispossessed knights. The opposite custom of what does, dividing inheritance is known as partible succession . PRINTING PRESS : Chinese and Japanese inventors developed simple printing techniques centuries earlier in monasteries, but in the 1440s and 1450s, Europe developed printing independently. When? Even though forerunners of the printed book might have existed in Holland, the most important developments were in Mainz, Germany, where Indulgence was printed in 1454, and the Gutenberg Bible in 1456. John of Gutenberg is credited with the invention by fifteenth-century writers, and the invention spread rapidly to Italy, France, Holland, and other countries. William Caxton set up a printing press in definition Europe (Bruges) in 1475, and there printed the first book in English, The Recuyell of the Historyes of Troye . Returning to England in when was abortion legalised in the 1476, Caxton set up his second printing press in Westminster.

He next printed a number of Latin texts before printing in Architect Modern English the Dicts or Sayings of the was abortion uk Philosophers (1477), Chaucer's Canterbury Tales (1483), Malory's Le Morte Darthur (1485), and in the, others for was abortion in the uk, about a hundred titles in total. His assistant, Wynkyn de Worde, took over situation essay the business after Caxton's death and published perhaps 800 additional titles. The printing press was a revolution comparable to legalised in the uk the modern internet revolution. It made books for the first time cheap enough for mass production and mass purchasing, ensuring a rise in literacy, blurring dialectal vocabularies, spreading geographic and cultural knowledge, and fueling the flames of trial, religious reformation. PRIVATE SYMBOL : In contrast with an uk archetype (universal symbol), a private symbol is one that an individual artist arbitrarily assigns a personal meaning to. Nearly all members of an Architect Modern ethnic, religious, or linguistic group might share a cultural symbol and legalised uk, agree upon its meaning with little discussion, but private symbols may only be discernable in the context of boys, one specific story or poem. Examples of private symbols include the elaborate mythologies created by J. R. R. Tolkien in The Silmarillion (such as the One Ring as a symbol of power lust) or William Butler Yeats' use of Constantinople as a symbol to represent poetic artifice in when was abortion legalised Sailing to boys trial Byzantium, or Yeats' use of a gyre to symbolize the was abortion legalised uk cycles of history and the sphinx as an emblem of the Antichrist in non monetary cost The Second Coming. See also token and emblem . PROBLEM PLAY : There are two common meanings to legalised uk this term. (1) The most general usage refers to any play in which the main character faces a personal, social, political, environmental, or religious problem common to his or her society at large. Arthur Miller's Death of a Salesman is representative of a problem play in ethics that Loman must face the when was abortion uk challenges of what the mass culture in the author considers false values in a capitalistic society. (2) In a narrower sense, Shakespearean scholars apply the term problem play to a group of Shakespeare's plays, also called bitter comedies, especially Measure for Measure , Troilus and Cressida , and All's Well That Ends Well . These plays explore dark and ignoble aspects of human psychology without attempting to when was abortion legalised solve or resolve the moby dick symbolize plot to when uk the reader's satisfaction beyond a superficial level.

Because of the uneasy endings, the plays do not seem to follow the standard conventions of Renaissance comedy . PROCATALEPSIS (Greek anticipation): Procatalepsis is a rhetorical strategy in which the writer raises an objection and then immediately answers it; by doing so, the rhetor seeks to strengthen his argument by dealing with possible objections before his audience can raise counter-arguments. PROFANITY ACT OF 1606 : This law passed under King James I required that any profanity in a publicly performed play or in published material would result in a ten-pound fine for the performer or printer, a substantial sum. Essay? Three of Shakespeare's quartos show signs of when was abortion legalised in the, revision to ethics essay meet the legalised in the requirement of the Profanity Act, such as omissions of obscenity, the word God changed to heaven, or Jove, etc. Contrast with the Censorship Ordinance . PROLIXITY : A type of wordiness or periphrasis characterized by unnecessary rambling or excessive detail, as Shipley puts it (429). A writer or speaker who has this tendency is said to be prolix. Ethics Essay? See dicussion under periphrasis . PROLOGUE : (1) In original Greek tragedy, the prologue was either the action or a set of introductory speeches before the first entry ( parados ) of the chorus. Here, a single actor's monologue or a dialogue between two actors would establish the play's background events. (2) In later literature, a prologue is a section of any introductory material before the first chapter or the main material of a prose work, or any such material before the first stanza of in the uk, a poetic work. PROMPTBOOK : A manuscript of a play adapted for performance by a theatrical company--usually with extra stage directions, notes on special effects or props, and last minute revisions or corrections.

In some promptbooks, the characters' names and scottsboro, speech prefixes are scribbled out and replaced with the names of the actors playing those roles. PROMYTHIUM : A summary of the moral of when was abortion in the, a fable appearing before the main narrative. If the summary is found at the end of the narrative, it is called an epimythium . Contrast with prologue . PRONUNCIATION SPELLING : A new spelling of an old word that more accurately reflects the current pronunciation than the scottsboro boys original spelling does. PROPAGANDA (Latin, things that must be sent forth): In its original use, the term referred to a committee of cardinals the Roman Catholic church founded in when 1622 (the Congregatio de propaganda fide ). Essay? This group established specific educational materials to be sent with priests-in-training for foreign missions . The term is when was abortion legalised in the uk today used to refer to information, rumors, ideas, and artwork spread deliberately to help or harm another specific group, movement, belief, institution, or government. The term's connotations are mostly negative. When literature or journalism is propaganda and when it is not is hotly debated. For instance, the Roman Emperor Augustus commissioned Virgil to write The Aeneid for specific goals. He wanted Virgil to glorify Rome's greatness, instill public pride in Rome's past, and cultivate traditional Roman virtues such as loyalty to trial the family, the Empire, and was abortion legalised in the, the gods. Is this propaganda?

Or patriotism? Typically, readers claim a work is propaganda when it sets forth an argument with which they personally disagree. Mass Culture? In other cases, readers will call a work propagandistic if they can perceive that the characters or the author advances particular doctrines or principles. Harry Shaw notes: Propaganda is when was abortion uk attacked by of recession most critics and was abortion in the, general readers because it is an situation ethics attempt to influence opinions and actions deliberately, but by this definition all education and most literature are propagandistic (220). PROPARALEPSIS (plural: proparalepses ): A type of neologism that occurs by adding an extra syllable or letters to the end of a word. For instance, Shakespeare in uk Hamlet creates the word climature by adding the end of the what does moby symbolize word temperature to climate (1.1.12).

The wizardly windbag Glyndwr (Glendower) proclaims that he can call spirits from the vasty deep in 1 Henry IV (3.1.52). We would expect him to speak of the vast deep normally. Proparalepsis is an example of a rhetorical scheme. PROPORTIONAL : One of several possible numbering methods in a language's grammar. For a discussion of was abortion in the uk, proportionals, see multiplicatives . PROPS (abbreviation of stage properties): Handheld objects, furniture and similar items on scottsboro boys stage apart from costumes and when legalised in the uk, the stage scenery itself used to provide verisimilitude , to reinforce the setting , to situation help characterize the actors holding or wearing them, or to provide visual objects for practical, symbolic, or demonstrative purposes on the stage. PROSCENIUM : An arch that frames a box set and holds the curtain, thus creating a sort of invisible boundary through which the audience views the on-stage action of a play. PROSE : Any material that is not written in a regular meter like poetry. Was Abortion In The? Many modern genres such as short stories, novels, letters, essays, and symbolize, treatises are typically written in was abortion legalised in the uk prose.

PROSKENION : A raised stage constructed before the skene in scottsboro boys classical Greek drama. Legalised In The Uk? The proskenion sharply divided the actors from the chorus, and the elevated height made the actors more visible to the audience. PROSODIC SIGNAL : Algeo defines this as the [p]itch, stress, or rhythm as grammatical signals (327). PROSODY (1) : the mechanics of verse poetry--its sounds, rhythms, scansion and meter, stanzaic form, alliteration, assonance, euphony, onomatopoeia, and rhyme. (2) The study or analysis of the previously listed material. This is also called versification . PROSOPOPOEIA (Grk prosopon , face): a form of personification in what does dick symbolize which an inanimate object gains the when was abortion uk ability to speak. For instance, in the Anglo-Saxon poem, The Dream of the Rood, the wooden cross verbally describes the non monetary cost death of Christ from its own perspective. Ecocritical writers might describe clearcutting from the viewpoint of the tree, and so on. See personification , above. PROSTHESIS : Adding an extra syllable or letters to the beginning of a word for when was abortion in the, poetic effect.

Shakespeare writes in his sonnets, All alone, I beweep my outcast state. He could have simply written weep , but beweep matches his meter and is more poetic. Too many students are all afrightened by the use of prosthesis. Non Monetary? Prosthesis creates a poetic effect, turning a run-of-the-mill word into something novel. Prosthesis is an example of a rhetorical scheme. It results in a neologism . PROTAGONIST : The main character in a work, on whom the author focuses most of the narrative attention. See character . PROTO-INDO-EUROPEAN : The reconstructed ancestor of all Indo-European languages. Many scholars use this term interchangeably with Indo-European. When Was Abortion Legalised In The? Click here for more information.

PROVIDENCE : The theological doctrine stating God's sovereignty--especially his omniscience--allows complete divine control over the universe in the past, present, and future. Scottsboro Boys Trial? It connects closely with questions of was abortion legalised in the uk, omniscience, free will and predestination. In John Milton's Paradise Lost , Milton emphasises providence as one of his themes, depicting a universe in which God allows complete free will, but one in which God will ultimately use providence to turn even evil choices and Architect of the Modern Age, decisions to when legalised in the a greater good in the long run through his own mysterious means. Cf. Augustinian time . PRYS (also spelled pris ): The French noun prys , meaning worthiness, is situation a cognate with the was abortion in the uk English word price. Prys was rich in connotations, appearing frequently in French chansons de geste and medieval romances . Definition Of Recession? It embodies knightly worthiness on was abortion uk a number of ethics, levels. A knight who has prys is loyal, brave, polite, courtly, proud, refined in taste, and perhaps a bit foolhardy and arrogant, quick to take anger at an insult and fast to when uk accept a challenge or dual.

Chaucer uses this term to Modern Age describe the Knight in the General Prologue of The Canterbury Tales : PSYCHOLOGICAL REALISM : The sense that characters in fictional narratives have realistic interiority or complex emotional and intellectual depth, including perhaps subconscious urges and legalised uk, fears they are not aware of. On an outward level, this realism typically involves reacting to external characters and situations in a manner consistent with the expectations of readers ( verisimilitude ). On an internal level, it may involve the revelation of characters' thoughts and internal meditations about culture in the, themselves and others. Such internal machinations are a standard part of when was abortion legalised in the uk, Elizabethan drama in the form of the boys soliloquy . However, psychological realism is associated most closely with the movement toward realism and in the uk, naturalism in the nineteenth- and twentieth-centuries. After psychoanalysis appeared, Freudian ideas influenced many writers who sought to incorporate his theories into their own depictions of characters. Whether or not we can speak of psychological realism in does moby literary works before the Renaissance is a thorny issue. Medieval saint's lives ( vitae ) , chivalric romances , sagas , and most other pre-Renaissance literary texts pay little attention to psychology, rarely describing a character's internal thoughts beyond a sparse assertion that a character was angry, sad, or lonely (and that assertion often made as part of a stock formula, such as Then King Arthur fared wondrously woode.) Often ancient works are so focused on allegory to the exclusion of psychology that some critics assert pre-Renaissance writers and readers had very little sense of interiority or any unique self apart from when uk, tribe, family, religious caste, occupation, or social standing. The difference is so marked that some scholars like Harold Bloom speak of the boys invention of the human in the Renaissance. On the other hand, it is difficult to was abortion legalised uk read something like The Confessions of Saint Augustine without getting a sense of a real human being intensely aware of his own psychology. Possibly, the difference is rooted in conventions of literature rather than any actual historical change in human self-awareness, but the debate continues. PSYCHOPOMPOS (Greek, soul procession or soul carrier): A spirit-guide who leads or escorts a soul into the realm of the dead.

Such a character often appears in Essay Age the motif of the descent into the underworld . Examples of a psychopompos would be deities like Hermes and Charon in Greek mythology, or the characters of Virgil and Beatrice in legalised uk Dante's Inferno . PULP FICTION : Mass market novels printed cheaply and intended for a general audience. The content was usually melodramatic, titillating, or thrilling. The earliest samples are the mass culture in the 1920s penny dreadfuls or bloods of the eighteenth century, which were followed in the nineteenth century by so-called dime novels (which were sold for ten cents). Examples included westerns, Horatio Alger novels, soft science fiction series, murder mysteries in serialized format, and melodramtic crime stories. The designation pulp comes from the paper quality--these novels are usually printed on the cheapest newsprint available. PUN (also called paronomasia ): A play on two words similar in sound but different in meaning. For example, in Matthew 16:18, Christ puns in Koine Greek: Thou art Peter [ Petros ] and upon this rock [ petra ] I will build my church. When Was Abortion In The Uk? Shakespeare, in Romeo and mass culture 1920s, Juliet , puns upon Romeo's vile death ( vile = vial , the vial of poison Romeo consumed).

Shakespeare's poetic speaker also puns upon his first name ( Will ) and when was abortion in the, his lover's desire (her will ) in the sonnets, and John Donne puns upon his last name in Hymn to God the Father. Originally, puns were a common literary trope in serious literature, but after the mass culture eighteenth century, puns have been primarily considered a low form of humor. A specific type of pun known as the equivoque involves a single phrase or word with differing meanings. For instance, one epitaph for a bank teller reads He checked his cash, cashed in his checks, / And left his window. / Who's next? The nineteenth-century poet, Anita Owen, uses a pun to side-splitting effect in her verse: They tell sweet lies of Paradise; And in those eyes the when in the lovelight lies. And lies--and lies--and lies! Another type of pun is the asteismus , in which one speaker uses a word one way, but a second speaker responds using the word in a different sense. For instance, in Cymbeline (II, i), Cloten exclaims, Would he had been one of non monetary cost, my rank! A lord retorts, To have smell'd like a fool, twisting the meaning of rank from a noun referring to noble status to an adjective connoting a foul smell.

Yet another form of pun is the paragram , in which the wordplay involves altering one or more letters in a word. When Was Abortion Legalised Uk? It is often considered a low form of cost, humor, as in various knock-knock jokes or puns such as, What's homicidal and lives in the sea? Answer: Jack the Kipper, or in Chapter Four of C.S. Lewis' The Silver Chair , which is titled A Parliament of Owls (a pun on Chaucer's Parliament of Fowles ). When Was Abortion Legalised Uk? In spite of the pun's current low reputation, some of the best writers in English have been notoriously addicted to puns: noticeably Shakespeare, Chaucer, and James Joyce. PURGATORY (Latin, purgare , to purge): Donald Logan writes:

The medieval and Catholic doctrine of cost, purgatory stated that Christian souls who had accepted rites of baptism and was abortion in the, been accepted into Modern the body of the faithful church, but who died unexpectedly with unconfessed sins or minor venial faults, would not be sent to hell, but would rather spend an indeterminate period in a spiritual place of was abortion legalised in the, temporal punishment. The same temporary suffering was believed to be the fate of non monetary, baptised infants who had not yet reached the when was abortion in the uk age of reason where they could choose to accept Christian doctrine and make first confession. In this spiritual place, popularly called purgatory, such souls would suffer for a time as an act of penance. This would purify them so they could enter heaven. Scottsboro Trial? The Council of legalised in the uk, Florence (1431 AD) was the does moby dick first time the church officially embraced purgatory as a doctrine, but the when was abortion uk belief in purgatory had long been a part of church practice going back to the patristic period of the fourth century, when Epiphanius mentions the definition of recession practice of praying for deceased souls in order to lessen their time in purgatory. It is clear, however, that at this early point, the issue of hell, purgatory, and the afterlife was still a matter of when was abortion legalised uk, dispute among proto-Christians, as theologians like Acrius denied the doctrine. The popularity of purgatorial doctrine increased, and by the tenth century, it was practically universally accepted in what does symbolize the church.

In the Middle Ages, some heretical groups like the Albigensians, the was abortion legalised uk Waldensians, and the Hussites challenged the belief, but the of the Modern first serious breach with the doctrine appears in the sixteenth-century during the when was abortion in the uk Protestant Reformation. At that time, Martin Luther initially considered retaining the doctrine of essay, Purgatory in the Lutheran Church, as witnessed in the Leipzig Disputation, but as the breach between Catholics and Protestants increased, political pressure to make a clean break with popishness decided the in the uk issue. The rejection of purgatory became practically universal among the Protestant churches. John Calvin's doctrine was especially sharp in non monetary its break, and Calvinist teaching included the doctrine of infant damnation, in when was abortion in the uk which all children who die in the womb, in childbirth, or during infancy were damned for eternity in hell. Calvin went so far as to trial term the legalised Catholic position exitiale commentum quod crucem Christi evacuat . Culture 1920s? . . quod fidem nostram labefacit et evertit ( Institutiones , lib.

III, cap. When Was Abortion Legalised In The? v, 6, quoted in The Catholic Encyclopedia ). Culture 1920s? The modern Greek Orthodox church has also discontinued the purgatorial doctrine. Click here for a link to The Catholic Encyclopedia 's discussion of purgatory that is when was abortion in the uk much more thorough than mine. The doctrine and imagery of situation essay, purgatory is especially prevalent in medieval literature. It is the legalised in the uk focus of Marie de France's Saint Patrick's Purgatory . The Purgatorio , the second book of Dante's Divine Comedy , involves a spiritual journey through purgatory just after the poet's trip through the Inferno . C. Of Recession? S. Lewis explores the question of purgatory in The Great Divorce , where he attempts to was abortion legalised have his cake and eat it too by suggesting purgatory does and does not exist simultaneously, arguing that we experience purgatory temporally and perceive it as a real thing, but in Augustinian time , we are able to see that purgatory (and material life on earth) on some level always have been heaven or hell, when we examine the afterlife sub specie aeternitatis . PURIST GRAMMAR (also called Grammatical Purism ): The belief in an absolute or unchanging standard of correct grammar. PURITAN : Most familiar to modern Americans as the religious denomination of the Mayflower colonists, the Puritans were a Protestant sect particularly active during the scottsboro boys sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. In a positive sense, Americans associate Puritanism with the struggle for religious freedom since the Puritans colonized America to escape religious persecution; however, the idea is something of a misconception since the Puritans' hope was to create an all-encompassing Puritan culture in the new colony, not to create a cosmopolitan, tolerant society open to when legalised in the other branches of Protestant Christianity, much less Catholicism, Judaism, or other religions. (That sort of religious tolerance comes about in American culture largely as a result of the Deism fashionable among intellectuals in the eighteenth century during the writing of the Constitution.) In its negative sense, the word Puritan often evokes the of recession idea of dour, grim, religious conformity, since Puritans stereotypically wore only black and white; they frowned upon drinking, dancing, and displays of was abortion legalised in the uk, sexuality; burned aging misfits as witches; censored literature, and dick symbolize, closed Shakespeare's playhouses in England because of acting's immorality. These tendencies have led to H. L. Mencken's jest defining Puritanism as the haunting fear that someone, somewhere, may be happy. Puritanism forms the when was abortion in the backdrop of The Scarlet Letter and of recession, The Crucible in American literature. Shakespeare uses a Puritan named Malvolio as the party-pooping villain in Twelfth Night . When Legalised Uk? See also Roundhead and Puritan Interregnum . PURITAN INTERREGNUM (Latin, inter + regnum , between reigns): The term refers to both the Puritan government established under Oliver Cromwell after a civil war against of recession the British monarch and when was abortion, those years in definition which that government lasted (1649-1658). This interregnum marks the end of the English Renaissance. It came into being after a long civil war between two political factions, the was abortion in the uk Roundheads , non-aristocrats who supported Puritan reforms, and the Cavaliers , the aristocratic courtiers loyal to the monarchy.

Ultimately, the Stuart monarch was captured and executed, and his supporters fled to what does dick the continent with the heir to the throne, leaving the when was abortion legalised uk Puritans in power. The Puritans called their regime the Essay of the Modern Age Commonwealth, and was abortion in the, it was nominally a parliamentarian government but a de facto dictatorship under Cromwell. Culture In The 1920s? This government fell apart upon Cromwell's death. At that point, the English royal heir returned to claim the throne, leading to the Restoration . See also Puritan , above. PURPLE PATCH : A section of purple prose or writing that is too ornate or florid for the surrounding plain material, which in turn looks too tranquil or dull by the incongruity of the startling purple patch. The colorful image for this term comes from Horace's Ars Poetica 2.3.14-19, where he refers to the purpureus pannus , the purple piece of royal or princely cloth that is a colorful but irrelevant insertion into a plain-speaking work. PURPLE PROSE : Writing that seems overdone or which makes excessive use of imagery, figures of legalised, speech, poetic diction, and polysyllabication. These artifices become so overblown that they accidentally become silly or pompous. See also purple patch . PUSHKIN PLEIAD : A group of young Russian poets, friends and contemporaries of Pushkin, who shared his general poetic outlook--including Vyazemski, Dadydov, Delvig, Yzykov, Venevitinov, and Baratynski (Harkins 323). PYRRHIC : In classical Greek or Latin poetry, this foot consists of definition, two unaccented syllables--the opposite of a spondee . At best, a pyrrhic foot is an unusual aberration in English verse, and most prosodists (including me!) do not accept it as a foot at all because it contains no accented syllable. When? Normally, the of the context or prevailing iambs, trochees, or spondees in surrounding lines overwhelms any potential pyrrhic foot, and a speaker reading the foot aloud will tend artificially to stress either the first or last syllable.

See meter for more information.