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A tapestry of True Love brown and green Essay. 2nd Class Definition! The article A Tapestry Of Browns And Greens was written by Nalini Nadkarni, a pioneering canopy ecologist and True professor at The Evergreen State College. This article describes a rich tapestry of Essay personal stories, information, and illustrations, from True Love, science to symbol, culture, and eharmony religion. Nalini used the metaphor of Essay a tapestry that composed of different colored threads to reflect on her life, as she also came from the vividly mixed ethnic background of her Indian/Hindu and Brooklyn/Jewish parents. Forming Essay! She then described how her particular tapestry weaves threads of religion, art, and Love Essay social justice with her work as a canopy biologist. It started with a question from a childhood friend that makes Nalini come to good essay, realize that she was somehow different from others. Being born by her Indian father and Jewish mother, Nalini was the third child in the family with an Love Essay Indian face and darkest skin out of the five. On The Depths Night! Unlike other immigrant families who seem to True Love Essay, assimilate into Lithium-Ion Batteries, western culture as quickly as possible, Nalinis parents raised the children upon their traditional culture. They ate Indian foods, slept on mattresses on the floor, celebrated Jewish holidays instead of True Christmas, and practiced both Hinduism and Judaism in the house. However, the and Deception in A Man is by Flannery O’Connor deep cultural differences her family embodied did not create a conflict.

It set the way for True, Nalini to view nature, not as consisting of Single Point Incremental monochrome but many colors and textures. True Essay! Nalinis childhood experiences describe nature as protected and protector. When she saw her father in the backyard carefully transplanted young saplings from pricing, one part of the True Love yard to another, his benevolent attitude toward nature gave her a strong ethic of protecting nature. She also learned that nature protected her, through the Essay Depths Mother by Marsha Norman elm tree outside of her house that kept her company on scary windy nights. Nalini loved tree climbing, feeling the strong limbs of the trees gave her a sense that nature is a place of safety, a place that protected her and those she cared for. Education was important in her family.

Nalini studied hard to get straight A and participated in various school activities. Being well educated created another thread that she wove into True Love Essay, her relationship with nature, the and Deception in A Good by Flannery realm of the intellect and use of the scientific process to understand trees and forests. True Love Essay! While pursuing the study of Biology in college, she began to discover the good teacher essay world of forest ecology and enjoyed the challenge of untangling the endless puzzles she encountered in nature. She then received her PhD in Forest Ecology and started her forest canopy studies. She struggled to Love, convince the graduate committee to pricing, understand the importance of tree climbing. Eventually, they helped her carve out a dissertation project, a comparative study of the biomass held within the True epiphytes. Her work took place in of a teacher the spectacular temperate rainforest of the Olympic National Park and the tropical cloud forests of Costa Rica for 25 years. She produced over ninety scientific papers and three scholarly books about True, canopy ecology.

As the result of her studies, Nalini found out that small plant like epiphytic flowers that live high above the forest floor have tremendous ecological importance for 2nd class lever definition, the complex tapestry of rainforest ecosystems. As her career progressed, she recognized the necessary to reach out to other sources of information outside of academia that went beyond the scientific aspects of nature, and involved understanding of medical, political, recreational, aesthetic, and religious values of True Love nature. Incremental Forming! She began with health values by giving speeches to medical students about relationship between trees and health. She and True Essay her students create the Treetop Barbie Doll to encourage young women to Essay Depths of by Marsha, be interested in forest science and designed tree art stickers that are affixed to skateboards to remind the Essay youthful users that trees are connected to Point, what provides them their daily pleasure. To explore the political values, Nalini created the Legislature Aloft project, in which she invited twelve state legislators and their aides to come and True Love Essay discuss about forest management issues, government funding of science, the Essay on The Depths of Mother by Marsha reasons for True, high biodiversity in the canopy, and the importance of non-vascular plants in forest nutrient cycles. To connect the Point Incremental Essay urban youth with science and True Essay fieldwork, Nalini invited a young rapper named C.A.U.T.I.O.N. to accounting, come out to Love Essay, the field to eharmony, sing about the trees, clams, and bugs to True Love, the middle school children from Tacoma, Washington, which also opened her eyes to Technology Introducs Batteries, the many colors of nature that the True students saw with fresh eyes in the familiar forest of her own college campus. Incremental Forming! Nalinis love for trees led to her curiosity about how different cultures and religions assign spiritual values to trees. True Essay! By scouring religious texts and visiting different religions places of worship, she discovered that Christianity, Judaism, Hinduism, and Buddhism value trees for of Night Mother, both practical and spiritual reasons. Furthermore, she realized that science and religion didnt have to True Love Essay, conflict but rather could be extremely congruent in their understanding of nature and natural systems.

For 10 years of outreaching to non-traditional audiences, Nalini learned much more about trees than ever. La Belle Merci Analisi! Although people and tree are not of the same family, we can consider ourselves as being married into each others families, with the challenges, responsibilities, and True Essay benefits that come with being so linked. The passion and dedication Nalini has for Single Incremental Essay, trans-disciplinary collaborations shone through most poignantly when she described the Sustainable Prisons Project, a program she started in True which correctional facilities inmates rear endangered Oregon spotted frogs and cultivate mosses and wetland plants. While working on the project with the 2nd class lever definition inmates and seeing their collective work being used to True, protect the mosses, Nalini came to Essay of Mother by Marsha, the realization that all voices, all approaches, and True Love all types of people can contribute to keeping the great tapestry of financial examples nature intact. To do good research, researchers need to True, look beyond themselves in finding solutions and Point Incremental Forming ways to True Love Essay, include others to support their views. Essay On The Of Night Mother! Nalini Nadkarni appears to be so creative in Essay finding various resources like prisoners and others to assist her in her research to save the trees. With her great passion and perspective, she has successfully connected the pricing academia with the Love external world. Forming Essay! The reconnection of human kind with nature is True Love Essay, essential for the understanding and evolution of la belle dame sans merci this modern society. However, it takes a lot of effort, several well-chosen words, stories and Essay anecdotes to Technology Introducs Lithium-Ion Batteries Essay, make the young people today change the way they think, to teach them that passion and the courage to care and extend a hand to True Love Essay, someone who cares is important. Eharmony! And Nalini Nadkarni has taken this one step further.

I am very much impressed by Essay, the work of Nalini especially the way she is spreading the message about canopy and Technology Introducs Essay its importance in ecosystems. True Love! One really needs lots of determination, courage and skill to la belle sans merci, carry out Love Essay such type of Manipulation in A Good to Find O’Connor work. True Love! She is an of a essay absolutely amazing and inspirational person who we need more of in this world. Nadkarni, N. (2011). A TAPESTRY OF BROWNS AND GREENS. In The colors of nature: Culture, identity, and Essay the natural world (Revised/Expanded ed.). Minneapolis, Minn.: Milkweed Editions. Financial! Dr. Nalini Nadkarni nalininadkarni.com. Love Essay! (n.d.).

Retrieved August 14, 2014. Technology! University/College: University of True Love Arkansas System. Financial Accounting! Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter. Date: 23 April 2016. Let us write you a custom essay sample on A tapestry of Love Essay brown and eharmony pricing green. for only $16.38 $13.9/page.

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How to True Essay, Make a Resume: A Step-by-Step Guide (+30 Examples) For most people, writing a good resume is tough, and it takes time. And the worst part comes when you finally think that you have a great resume, but you're still not getting interviews. Wouldn't it be wonderful if you could figure out how to make a resume that would get you an interview almost EVERY time you applied for a job? It is examples if you follow the process that I am about to share with you step-by-step.

And BEST of True Love, all, this resume writing process is quick, and it's proven to land you interviews. That's true even if you want to write your first resume and have no experience, or if you're a professional who wants to know how to lever, write a resume that stands out. Here's what you're going to find: How to write a resume for a job with examples for True Essay, every section. Quick but little-known tips to follow to get up to 10x MORE INTERVIEWS. Answers to Point Incremental Forming Essay, all of your questions about how to make the best resume for a job. How to create a resume online that you can track and send to get more interviews. True Essay? A checklist that will help you make sure you know how to prepare a great resume.

Here's an example of how to make a good resume for work versus a great resume. What's the 2nd class difference? Is it the way it looks? Not only. We've optimized the sample resume on the right to follow the advice that I will share with you in this article. So how do you make a resume? Let me show you step-by-step: Resume vs.

CV. Essay? What's the difference? Hello, blank page. On The Depths Night Mother? Now, what? A resume is a document that showcases your work experience, education, and skills so that you can apply for a job. What's the difference between a resume and a CV? Curriculum Vitae (CV) is a Latin phrase meaning course of life and is a document that entails much more than a resume. True Love Essay? Not only is a CV longer than a resume, but it showcases accomplishments and experience in much greater detail. It's the ideal document for academics. So, knowing how to write an academic resume is knowing how to eharmony pricing, write a CV.

If you need to know more, read our guide: CV vs. Resume: What is the True Love Essay Difference? When to Point Incremental, Use Which (Examples) Once you know if you should write a CV or resume, it's time to Love Essay, choose the right format. How to Essay on The Depths Norman, Choose a Professional Resume Format. What does a resume look like? There are three types of professional resume formats: Most job seekers choose the reverse-chronological resume format. Here's what a sample resume looks like written in the reverse-chronological format: Traditional Familiar to Recruiters.

Experienced professionals can highlight skills. True Essay? Career changers can emphasize transferrable skills. Uncommon and not as familiar to recruiters. Not suggested for entry-level job seekers. Entry-level job seekers can emphasize skills instead of qualities of a good teacher essay, experience. Recruiters may think you're hiding something. Still not sure which professional resume format is best for True Love Essay, you? Need to see examples of resumes with different layouts? Read our guide: 3 Resume Formats: How To Choose The Best One [Examples] Contact Information Is Not as Basic as It Seems. Despite the professional resume format you choose, your contact information goes at accounting examples the top.

Here is how to write a resume contact section: Adding your address is optional. True Love Essay? It is no longer necessary to add it to financial, a modern resume. Plus, it might be better to exclude it if you are applying for a job that isn’t local. Your email address should be professional which means: Choosing a sophisticated email provider. Not using your current work email. Instead, create a professional, private email address.

Avoiding email addresses from True Essay, when you were in high school. It won’t amuse recruiters to lever, see johnlikesgoats@hotmail.com or sexysara@gmail.com . Essay? Okay, maybe it will amuse them a little bit, but they won’t call you for an interview. Adding URLs to your personal website or blog directs recruiters to your portfolio or extra work that you want to show without cluttering up your perfect resume. Pro Tip: Make sure you review your social media accounts to check for unprofessional content. When you add a link to your social media profiles, make sure they're optimized to eharmony, give recruiters the best impression. Not sure how to optimize your LinkedIn profile to attract employers? Read our guide: How to Optimize Your LinkedIn Profile To Get More Jobs Here’s How the True Essay Best Candidates Start Their Resumes. Again, what does a resume look like? Well, you know that contact information comes first. Single Essay? But what comes next?

Education? Experience? Does it matter where you put things when you're deciding how to make a resume? The short answer is yes, it does matter. That's because your best stuff should go in the top third of your resume. And the Love best way to start any killer resume is with an introduction to yourself. Think of Lithium-Ion, it like this: The top of your resume is the penthouse - the most important piece of real estate on Essay the document. But why? The average recruiter spends six seconds scanning your resume in between reading Facebook messages from grandma, drinking coffee, and Technology Introducs Batteries Essay deciding what's for lunch.

She is looking for very specific information, and she is True only going to look for it in the top third of Introducs Lithium-Ion Batteries Essay, your resume. If you do not grab her attention - game over. That's why a creative resume summary or objective can save the day. Here's a sample resume: What is a resume summary statement?

A resume summary is a short, snappy introduction that highlights your career progress and Essay skill set. Essay Depths Of Mother Norman? It should also demonstrate why you'll be a valuable hire. Boyfriend Material experienced at laying coats over mud puddles, opening doors, and Essay pulling out chairs. Charming, funny, and a great conversationalist seeking to leverage 10+ years of experience delivering anecdotes to entertain you through boring social events. Has an accounting examples, MA in hand holding and Essay a license to cook romantic dinners. What is Single Incremental Essay a resume objective statement? A resume objective achieves the same thing as a resume summary. The difference is True Essay how you write one and who should use it.

Experienced Chef interested in becoming a Zoo Keeper. Tons of experience with picky clients who need to accounting, be fed with the True Essay right food at the right time. Essay? Want to Love Essay, apply my patience and understanding of complicated clients to taking care of Lithium-Ion, angry lions at the Zoo. This candidate chose an True Love Essay, effective resume objective over 2nd class lever definition, a summary because he is changing his career from chef to zookeeper. Either way, the point is to focus on the employer's needs and not your own. Who should use an objective for True Love, a resume? Entry-level Applicants and Students Career Changers Professionals Targeting Specific Positions. You can also choose to qualities good essay, write something called a professional profile . When considering how to write a resume profile, think of True Love, it as a hybrid that crosses elements of the pricing objective and the summary. A good resume profile lists your qualifications, experience, and True Essay education regarding the eharmony pricing company’s needs and values. It can be formatted as a paragraph or as a list with resume bullet points.

Wouldn't it be nice to have some resume examples of summaries tailored specifically to your profession? Read our guide: A Resume Summary That Will Get You The Job [7 Secret Steps] How to True Love, Write a Resume Experience Section That's More Than a List. The first section that should appear in eharmony, the body of an excellent resume is the section that will best show off your skills and accomplishments. For most of Love, you, that will probably be the experience section. Let's say you're learning how to make a student resume, or have little or no work experience. In that case, lead with your education or skills section. But do you know how to write a resume employment history? When you start writing a resume experience section you will want to on The Depths by Marsha, keep a few things in Love Essay, mind: Write your job history in reverse-chronological order - start with your current position. Include around six bullet points describing the scope of your responsibilities. Eharmony Pricing? Tailor each of Essay, these bullets points to reflect the skills listed in the job description.

Follow the bullet point format (see below), and include facts and Single Point figures. You should try to include achievements that show your professional impact. Tell a career story that reinforces your professinal persona. Sample Resume Experience Entry: Spearhead a global brand strategy for our top performing product. True Love Essay? Analyze market trends and recommend solutions resulting in a 10% upswing in sales annually. Prepare Portfolio Deployment Plans. Lever Definition? Head up a team of 10+ marketing specialists.

Organize marketing materials. Essay? Responsible for brand strategy. Responsible for analyzing market trends. Responsible for a team of Introducs Essay, marketing specialists. Now, what if you have career gaps in your job history or a habit of job hopping? Let’s face it.

Not all of us have a pristine job history. And it's difficult to know how to create a resume that addresses career gaps without cheating. One approach is to include a brief explanation next to each job. By briefly stating that your stay became short lived due to downsizing or relocation, you will reassure the recruiter that you're not a risky candidate. Chronic career hoppers may be tempted to tamper with dates, leaving only the years in their experience section: Excluding the months makes it look like you worked a year instead of three months.

But it's a dirty trick that employers know well, which makes it a big no, no. Pro Tip: Feel free to Love, list “non-traditional” work in your experience section - like volunteer jobs or freelance work. Is Your Education Section Underperforming? It Might Be. You should also write your education section of your resume in Technology Introducs Lithium-Ion Essay, reverse-chronological order, with your most recent degree appearing first. Usually, you will want to include the type of degree, your major, your university, and any honors or awards you received. You can skip your GPA. Love? But if you're a recent college graduate who's making a student resume, it's okay to add your GPA if it's 3.5 or higher. You can also include a coursework narrative. For professionals, the inclusion of a coursework narrative is another way to reinforce a professional persona. Do you know how to Point Incremental Essay, make a resume when you have a GED or didn't graduate?

Not sure how to write a degree on a resume? We can help with that. Check out our article: How To Put Your Education On A Resume [Tips Examples] Why You Need to Focus on Your Skills Section. When you consider how to True Love, make a good resume that stands out Forming Essay , it has everything to do with sprinkling your skills throughout your resume. But, it also makes sense to have a big section labeled “ SKILLS .” Use the True Love key skills listed in the job description. Point? This will also help you create a modern resume for a job that will pass through Applicant Tracking System (ATS) software. More about that later.

Recruiters should be able to Love Essay, see two things when they look at your skills for a resume: You have the skill set they want and requested in Single Essay, the job post. You have extra skills that prove you are a valuable worker. Do you want to know how to make a great resume for a job that showcases the True Love Essay best resume skills? I thought so. Read our guide: What Skills To Put On a Resume [Examples + 6 Proven Tips] How to Add Other Resume Sections While Making an Effective Resume. Here are some additional resume sections you can consider adding if you don't feel the traditional resume sections are doing it for you.

Students and fresh graduates - you may want to consider adding a separate section for Single Point Incremental Forming Essay, awards or honors, or a section for True Essay, extracurricular activities. If you've got a technical background - you might want to consider an extra section for certificates, licenses, or software. Some professionals who have opted for making a resume for work over an academic CV might still want to add a section for publications or conferences. Others may want to eharmony, add a section that shows off their command of languages or other achievements and projects. Whatever you decide to add, just make sure that your additions don't overwhelm your resume. True? You still want everything to fit onto one page if possible. No One Adds a Hobbies Section, But It Works So Well. The hobbies section of a resume is optional.

But, I recommend adding one if you have space. Adding your interests shows off extra skills for a resume, makes your resume stand out, and gives the hiring manager a fuller image of you. Your interests are also a way to Essay on The Mother, make yourself more attractive and memorable to your potential employer. You can always cut this section later if your resume is too long. Not convinced? Well, it's true. True Love? Adding a hobbies and interests section can boost a contemporary resume. Find out how: Best Examples Of Hobbies Interests To Put On A Resume (5 Tips) How to Write a Perfect Resume Tailored to the Job Description. Did you know that R2D2 might run a scan on your resume before a human does?

On average, a corporate job offer attracts up to Depths of Night Norman, 250 resumes . True Love? Of those, 4 to 6 candidates will get invited for definition, an interview. And only Love Essay one person will get the job. With that many resumes to sift through, recruiters are using something called Applicant Tracking System (ATS) software. The software compares your resume to eharmony, the job description based on keywords. How to prepare a resume that will make it through ATS? You need to tailor your resume. Tailoring a resume to True Essay, the job description is adding keywords and information from the job offer. For starters, you're going to want to make a master resume. A master resume is an on The by Marsha, updated version of all your work experience, skills, and accomplishments.

When you sit down to write a tailored version of your resume, you will pick and choose material from your master resume to match the True Love Essay specific job for which you are applying. To further tailor the content to the job description, you're going to 2nd class lever definition, add keywords that you find in the offer. Let's say you want to True Essay, apply for a job as a copywriter. The job description says: Able to work on Incremental Forming several campaigns at once, sometimes under pressure and often to tight deadlines. To tailor your basic resume, you will want to add some of the Love phrases verbatim to your experience section. For example: Work on Technology Lithium-Ion Batteries Essay several campaigns at Essay once. To make it more powerful, you can add details such as the number of campaigns you can juggle at once. Here is an example of Depths by Marsha Norman, a resume job description with all of the keywords highlighted along with a resume sample that we've tailored to match. Need more in-depth information about how to make a resume that's tailored to the job description?

Need more resume samples? Read our guide: 6 Proven Tips On How To Tailor Your Resume To The Job Description How to Prepare a Resume That Will Attract ANY Recruiter. If you're struggling with how to make a good resume stand out, all you need to do is make things quantifiable. True Essay? Wherever possible. Everywhere. Accounting Examples? Because using numbers gives the recruiter some tangible proof of an Essay, achievement. Here are some basic resume examples of achievements: The hiring manager now sees quantifiable, specific proof of your achievements. Using numbers also improves the readability of the text, and draws the eye of the recruiter. No One Adds Achievements, But It Works So Well.

Adding achievements to your resume is an extremely effective way of selling your skills and experience. All you have to do is add your achievements as resume bullet points in your experience section. You will want to use the Single Forming PAR ( Problem Action Result ) Approach to writing your achievements: Here're a few right and wrong resume examples of how to write achievements: Problem : My previous employer wanted to increase revenue. Action : I created a new marketing campaign on Facebook. Result : We saw an increase in sales by True Love Essay, 15% and accounting an increase in revenue by 10%.

Not sure how to Essay, quantify your achievements? Want more examples of accomplishments to put on a contemporary resume? Read our guide: Examples of Professional Achievements To Put On A Resume [3 Tips] Turn Boring Words Into Action Words - Here’s How. How many times have you used the phrase responsible for in your experience section? More than once? You may want to consider mixing up your vocabulary. Overusing words and phrases like “responsible for” or “manage” is boring. Now, while you should avoid jargon and empty words, action verbs can spice up your resume and make it stand out.

Also, be sure to use the present tense when describing your current role. Here're a few before and after resume examples: Pro Tip: Don't overdo it. Single Incremental Forming Essay? You don't want to sound like a freshman English major flexing a large vocabulary. And avoid resume buzzwords like synergy. Trust me. The Best Candidates Know How to True, Show Their Career Progression. What makes a good resume?

CEO, Director, Manager - all you need is a big, impressive title, right? At this point, you probably figured out accounting that knowing how to Love Essay, build a resume goes far beyond listing fancy titles. What really matters, is whether those titles are backed up by a story of career progression. For example, describing yourself as a social media manager won’t be credible if all you did was the marketing for your parent’s pizza place. You have to show a steady progression into a management position. Each former role should reinforce your place in good essay, the next one. Rather than repeating duties when you describe previous roles, write about the new tasks you took on when you advanced. Responsible for True, the creation of a global brand strategy for a major category. Prepare Category and Portfolio Deployment Plans. Analyze market trends and recommend solutions.

Team Management (10 marketing specialists). Marketing Specialist / Senior Marketing Specialist: Planned and implemented promotional campaigns. Cooperated with interactive agencies. Managed project budgets and timeline control. Researched information. Assisted during promotional campaigns. See how these responsibilities evolve? What if you're a student and need to know how to make a resume with no experience. Read our dedicated guide on how to write a resume for students: The Complete Guide To Writing A Student Resume [13 Tips, Examples] How to Technology Introducs Batteries Essay, Create a Resume That Draws Attention to Promotions. Highlighting your promotions shows potential employers that your previous supervisors valued your work performance.

Even lateral moves suggest that you were able to handle diverse responsibilities. Here are a few ways to describe your promotions while writing a resume: Repeatedly recognized for top performance through fast-track promotions and selection for high-priority initiatives. Earned promotion following a superior performance, and Essay demonstrated ability to qualities, quickly learn and master complex concepts. What if you moved up within the same organization?

You don’t have to mention the name of the same company more than once. It will make even the best resume look messy. True Love? Here’s what to do instead: COMPANY NAME City, State, 2001 to Present. Describe responsibilities and achievements. Describe responsibilities and essay achievements. Describe responsibilities and achievements. Here's a Quick Tip on Essay How Make Your Resume Easy to Read. Need to know how to make a resume easy for a recruiter to read?

It's as simple as aligning your text to the left. To make your text even more skimmable use the lever definition same resume font and font size, and make strategic use of bold, italics, and caps. The bulk of your resume will consist of True Essay, bullet points. Here's how to Essay on The of Mother Norman, construct them: Spearheaded a targeted email campaign that resulted in True Love, a 15% upswing in newsletter registration. You might also want to consider how to create a resume using templates. On The Depths Of By Marsha? Professional resume templates can make your documents cleaner and True easier to read. They also save you time and energy.

Let's face it. No one likes trying to Technology Lithium-Ion Essay, control one-inch margins in Word. Is a Font Ruining Your Awesome Resume? While choosing a basic resume font may seem like a silly chore - it's not. A good font will ensure that your resume is readable. What is the best font for a resume? The best font for a resume is True Love Essay one that a recruiter can read with no effort.

Stick with fonts that sound like hipster baby names - Arial, Helvetica, Calibri, and eharmony pricing Verdana. What is the best resume font size? The Goldilocks font size is 10-12 points - not too big and not too small. Keep it uniform. The bottom line is making sure you don't sacrifice resume margins, white space, or font size in an attempt to cram everything onto True Love Essay one page. Still not sure about lever, what font to choose while writing a resume? Read our guide about the best resume fonts: What Is The Best Font For A Resume (+10 Examples Tips) Here Is the True Best Way to Save Your Resume. When you're done writing your perfect resume, it's time to consider how to make a resume file.

And that's not as obvious as it sounds. The best advice is to Technology Lithium-Ion Batteries Essay, save your resume as a PDF and give it your name. When you save your resume as a PDF, there is no chance that the formatting will glitch and get messed up when a recruiter opens the file. Do keep in mind that if your resume has to pass ATS software, Cylons don't like special formatting or graphics. Read the instructions explaining how to send your resume, because you may need to Essay, send something other than a PDF. How should you name your files?

The recruiter won’t have to search for that crazy space smuggler’s resume when they want to good teacher essay, refer to it. Not sold on saving your file as a PDF document? Need to see some pros and cons about True Love, different file formats? Read our guide: Word VS PDF Resume: What Is The Best Resume Format? Here Is an eharmony pricing, Easy Way to Keep a Resume Short. How long should an ideal resume be?

One page or two? Most contemporary resume guidelines will tell you that while making a resume, you should do your best to Essay, keep it to 2nd class lever definition, one page. But you don’t want to force it, and that isn't true for everyone. The best thing to do is to go through at Love Essay the end and trim as much fat as possible without losing the value. Here are three tips on how to make a resume for a job shorter: If you aren't sure how long your resume should be or need more advice on lever how to make a resume shorter, read our guide: How Long Should a Resume Be? Everything You Need To Know Little Known Tools That Will Proofread Your Resume for Love, You. One of the worst things you can do is Incremental Forming send out True a basic resume that is full of grammar and spelling mistakes.

You need to proofread your resume. It doesn’t matter if you already know how to write a resume that stands out. Even the best resumes need to be proofread by a second person. Whoever you chose can also give you an objective opinion about Depths of Night Mother by Marsha, how you’ve presented yourself. Start by proofreading your resume with the help of apps like Grammarly, Language Tool, or other language tools.

Next, ask your mom, your partner, your best friend, your neighbor - whoever - to read over True Essay, your resume for you. How to Clean Up Your Online Image. Before sending your resume, you will want to check your online presence. That's because 59% of recruiters research candidates online after reading their resumes. Let's say you're sure you know how to write a resume and you follow all of our advice. Essay? That won't matter if you skip this step. Start by entering your name into Google to see what comes up in the results. Most of Love, you will find links to your social media profiles. Financial Accounting? As long as you cleared your profiles of unprofessional content, you should be good to go. If you have a more common name like Jane Smith, for True, example, you may not find much about yourself at all.

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It also needs to be tailored to Love, the job for which you are applying. As for resume references, they're the one thing you truly don't need anymore. So, lose the Single Point Incremental Forming Essay phrase references upon True Love, request. Okay, so you need a cover letter. But do you know how to write an 2nd class, application letter?

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Essay on Rural Development in India. Read this essay to learn about Rural Development in India. After reading this essay you will learn about:- 1. Introduction to Rural Development 2. Activities and Experiments Undertaken for Love Rural Development 3. The Rural Development Programmes 4. Institutions 5. Observations and Problems 6. Suggestions. Essay on the Introduction to Rural Development Essay on the Activities and Experiments Undertaken for Rural Development Essay on the Rural Development Programmes Essay on the Institutions for Rural Development in Technology Lithium-Ion India Essay on the Observations and Problems of Rural Development Essay on True, the Suggestions for Essay Depths of Night Mother by Marsha Rural Development in India. 1. Essay on the Introduction to Rural Development: The definition of Rural is residuary become all over the world that is Love defined as an urban area and whatever is not urban known as rural.

In India a settlement is defined as urban if it fulfils either of the following conditions, were adopted in the 1991 census: (i) All statutory towns, i.e.; all places with a municipality corporation, municipality board, cantonment board or notified town area etc. (ii) A minimum population of 5,000. (iii) At least 75 per cent of the Male working population engaged in non-agricultural and allied activity, (iv) A density of population of at least 400 persons per square kilometres. Thus, the term Rural essentially means an area, which is lever definition characterised as non-urban style of life, occupational structure and True Love Essay, settlement pattern. Development in general refers to the process of Essay on The Night by Marsha, a general improvement in levels of living together, decreasing inequality in incomes and the capacity to sustain continuous improvements overtime. Thus the term Rural Development is viewed as an activity of a series of activities or a process, which either improves the True immediate living conditions-economic, social, political, cultural and environmental or increases the potential for future living or both of the rural people. The Royal commission on Norman, Agriculture defined Rural Development as: We cannot too strongly state our conviction that the directorship of Love, agriculture is one of the key posts in Rural Development and Single Essay, that agricultural advance must in a very great degree depend upon True Love Essay, the stability of the officer. The taskforce appointed by the Planning Commission on Integrated Rural Development in 1972 defined Rural Development as: After a careful consideration we have belatedly decided to take what might be considered a rather restricted view of the expression. Of A Teacher Essay! Rural Development we have chose to equate it with agricultural development in the widest sense so as to embrace besides crop husbandry, all the Love allied activities. According to lever, the view of World Bank Rural Development as a strategy design to improve the economic and social life of a specific group of Love, people The rural (people) poor. It involves extending the benefits of development to the poorer among those who seek a livelihood in rural areas. The group includes small-scale farmers, tenants and the landless.

Rural Development means a strategy to of, improve the economic and social life of the True Love rural poor and the rural weak in the overall spectrum of development and growth. Financial Accounting! It is not only important to raise the agricultural productivity and the rate of overall economic growth in the rural areas, but also it is to ensure that the poor and weaker sections share the benefit. Rural Development as a process in complex and involves the interaction of economic, social, political, technological and other situational factors. These have to be integrated with Government policies and plans with the Essay objective of accounting examples, improving the quality of life of the people in the villages. Rural Development encompasses: (i) Improvement in levels of living, including employment, education, health and nutrition housing and a variety of social services. (ii) Decreasing inequality in distribution of rural incomes and in rural-urban balances in Love incomes and economic opportunities and. (iii) The capacity of the rural sector to sustain and accelerate the pace of these improvements. The critical element in the Rural Development is improvement living standards of the poor through opportunities for better utilisation of their physical and human resources in the absence of this utilisation of rural resources has no functional significance.

Making the process of rural development self-sustaining of capital and Forming, use of technology for the benefit of the Love poor but their active involvement in the building up of institutions as well as functioning of these. There are a number of definitions of rural development. But that varies according to time, priority and Depths of by Marsha, nature of rural activities. Despite of differences, the academicians, planners and policy makers have always laid emphasis for the all-round development of the rural activities. However, Rural Development as a concept and as series of experiments in Essay alternative methods of organising production, welfare and exchange in rural activities has a long history and is not the monopoly of any single system or country. Its recent popularity however is mainly symptomatic of the failure of technocratic and growth strategies pursued by most developing countries in the 1950s and of Mother, 1960s. Academics, nationals and international policy makers are carrying out the search for solution to the twin problems of rural poverty and unemployment. True Essay! The noted Western economists like, Kuznets, Gerschenkron, Floud and Mccloskey provide useful insights into the history of economic development of the present day developed countries. The growth of output and productivity in these countries during last 10 to 15 decades has been qualitatively different from that observed in earlier periods. Modern Economic growth since the late 18th century is different from Single Incremental Forming periods of growth in earlier times in three specific respects. Firstly, the ownership and use of economic surplus were 34 Rural Development in India separated for the first time.

Those who used this surplus as capital in the production process did not necessarily own it as they did in the land-based feudal pre-industrial system. Secondly, extensive use of an acceptable unit of exchange called money helped in expansion of market, which made specialization and mobility possible. Lastly, mobility of both capital and labour in pursuit of higher gains to urban areas and distant lands occurred on True Essay, an unprecedented scale. The consequent increase in Lithium-Ion output and productivity were substantial and sustained over a long period of time. These impressive increases were also accompanied by growth of population and large-scale migration from not only rural to urban areas but from nation to Essay, nation and from continent to continent.

Historically experience suggests that, when seen in long-term perspective, economic growth has been accompanied by specialisation centralization, maximization, urbanization and Lithium-Ion Essay, industrialization. History shows that, poverty has been diminished by Love Essay, the growth of labour increased productivity in the agricultural sector and migration of Essay of Night Mother Norman, labour to urban non-agricultural activities. The population movement occurred mainly because industry could offer the incentive of True Love, higher wages and better employment opportunities. The role of the Essay State has been changing significantly since the Eighteenth Century. Traditionally the Governments activities could be divided into three departments namely, defense, Public works and internal administration. True! A healthy balance among the Introducs three ensured stable regimes with the advent of modern economic development; the True Essay Public works component has been an expanding area of State activity.

Modern development policy makers while, recognising the importance of infrastructure have been rather ambiguous about the contents of infrastructure is one of the very few illuminating contributions on the subject. Infrastructure includes all things provided by the State, which promote directly or indirectly productive activities. Transport, irrigation, power, water supply, health, education and urban services are considered important elements of infrastructure. In a mixed economy, with a relatively important public sector, provision of lever definition, infrastructure has to be carefully planned and provided by the State. The State playing an important role in Love development. Policy makers and planners have started devoting more to rural development in their declarations and documents on Essay, national planning policies. In various ways and for various motives they have attempted to Love Essay, relate to the problems of Single Point Incremental Forming Essay, their own rural poor. Despite, substantial and impressive increase in growth of agricultural and food outputs in some regions of a number of developing countries the plight of small and marginal farmers, agricultural and Essay, landless labourers, artisans and small retailers has not been improved significantly. In India the term Rural Development is not a very old phenomenon. Eharmony Pricing! Early in Essay the century their exist the British rule.

In that time, rural development was a minor symphony in the governmental orchestra. The functions of the Government were limited and even the spread of each function was narrowly restricted. Thus, Development cannot but be of minor meaning and Introducs Lithium-Ion, significance in the structure of the priorities of Love, colonialism, which was also reflected in the rural areas. The decade 1920-30 was very significant from the view of early pioneering efforts at rural development in India. The noted social Thinkers, Educationists, Politicians started such efforts in our country; in early 20s. 2. Essay on the Activities and Experiments Undertaken for Rural Development:

Programmes and Projects in Pre-Independence Periods: The important activities and experiments undertaken for rural development in Essay on The Depths of Mother by Marsha Norman Pre-Independence periods are: (i) Sriniketan Experiments: This programme was pioneered by True Essay, noted scholar of the country Rabindranath Tagore. The important objective of the experiment was Economic and Moral rehabilitation of the Essay Depths of Mother by Marsha rural community. (ii) Martandum Project:

One Rural Reconstruction Programme was initiated by Spancer Hatch at Martandum (South Travancore) in 1921. True! Martandum rural reconstruction Centre was opened with a five- sided programme popularly called as The Five Sided Triangle Comprising Spirit, Mind, Body, Economic and Social side. The philosophy of rural reconstruction embraced principles known as Pillars of Policy. The principle of Self Help was maintained. Definition! The project became the centre of comprehensive programmes of rural development. (iii) The Gurugaon Experiment: The important village uplift movement was initiated by I.L.Brayne the Love Deputy Commissioner of Gurugaon district in 1920. This village development programme called as the Gurugaon Scheme. The Gurugaon Scheme claimed to deal with the whole life and the activity of the peasant and his family and to present a complete remedy from the terrible conditions in with they lived. (iv) Rural Reconstruction Movement in Baroda:

The important rural reconstruction centre was set up in Batteries 1932 and the work commenced in a group of villages round Kosamba (Navasri district). The movement aimed at improvement in all aspect of rural life, changing the outlook of the agriculturists, the attainment of higher standard of living. (v) Sarvodaya Scheme of Bombay: This scheme was based on the Gandhijis idea of Sarvodaya. The important aim of the project is to stop migration of youths to Love, nearest towns and cities. The supply of food for Point Incremental Forming all, adequate medical facilities, free education, local self-Government, self-employment through cottage industries were highlighted in the programme. (vi) Firka Development Scheme:

The Firka Development Scheme aimed at the attainment of the Gandhian ideal of True, Village Swaraj by brining about not only the Essay on The Depths Norman education, economic, sanitary and other improvements of village along with the revitalisation of the spirit if people and to make them self-confident and self-reliant. The schemes involved close coordination with the various Government services like, agriculture, veterinary, irrigation, industries, medical and communication departments. The scheme was later merged with the National Extension Services in 1953-54. Programmes and Love Essay, Projects in Post-Independence Period: Programmes and projects were also launched in post-independence and pre-planning periods. The important among them are: (1) The Pilot Development Project of Etawah: The Project began under the sponsorships of the provincial Governments of Uttar Pradesh in late 1948. The important objectives of the project were to increase the Technology Lithium-Ion degree of productivity, social improvements, promotion of self-confidence and cooperation. The pilot project at Etawah treated as one of the most successful rural development project of the World. The project also exhibited the exemplary Cooperation and Coordination of Government, volunteers and True Love Essay, others.

(2) The Nilokheri Experiment : India divided in 1947. The Rehabilitation of displaced persons coming from Pakistan gathered importance. In order to provide them gainful employment a new township was developed at Nilokheri in teacher essay 1948 with the efforts of Sri S.K.Dey. Sri Dey evolved a faith were to Love, activate and support a triple charter of rights such as: (i) Right to live, (ii) Right to work for living and. (iii) Right to receive what is earned. To give a practical shape to this charter or rights a new scheme known as the Mazdoor Manzil was drawn up. The basic concept of the Mazdoor Manzil was to stop the one-way traffic of labour, material, skill and culture from villages to town.

The township was intended to include institutions for medical relief and sanitation, Higher Education, Technical and good essay, Vocational Training, Veterinary aid and agricultural extension embracing agriculture, horticulture, poultry, piggery, fishery, sheep breeding and other forms of animal husbandry. Essay! The project was highly appreciated by the then Prime Minister Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru. The Planning for Rural Development have been received utmost attention by the planners and policy makers along with the on The Mother Norman National Plan for Economic Development. The rural development strategies were also adopted by planners as per the methods and Love Essay, strategies adopted for the economic development of the eharmony country. India adopted both the centralised and decentralised planning models in True Love the process of its planned economic development. The First Five Year Plan (1950-51 to 1955-56) adopted the Harrod-Domar model of capital accumulation and saving mobilisation as its methodological approach towards planning. Under this approach, the process of economic development must start from the villages. In this context, the mobilization of peoples participation was required. In order to implement this ideology the Community Development Programme (CDP) was conceived.

The Block administration was created as a centre of Rural Development activities. This programme failed as blocks were quite big and left the weaker section untouched. The programme was also implemented in Orissa. The State planning machinery followed the objectives and Introducs Lithium-Ion Batteries Essay, guidelines fixed by Central Government. The Second Five Year Plan (1955-56 to Love, 1960-61) based on Feldman-Mahalnobis model of eharmony, sectoral growth. This strategy emphasised investment in heavy industry to Love Essay, achieve industrialization, which was assumed to be the definition basic condition for rapid economic development. A good deal of reliance was placed on cottage and small industries with the aim of reducing rural under employment, unemployment. As against this background no important specialised rural development programme was launched during the second plan period. However, steps were taken to True Essay, strengthen the Technology Lithium-Ion Batteries Essay ongoing community development programme. True Love Essay! In this respect the, need for viable institutional base was felt and the Panchayati Raj System was introduced during the plan period. Besides, specialised rural economic development programmes like, Intensive Agricultural District Programme (IADP), Khadi and Village Industries Programme (KVI), Multi-purpose Tribal Development, Village Housing Projects/Schemes were also introduced in rural areas of the country.

As a part of the Union, the specialised sectoral development programmes were also introduced in Orissa. In the Third Five Year Plan (1960-61-to-1965-66) all round agricultural development was envisaged. Increased agricultural production in of Night Mother by Marsha the farm sector and activities allied to agriculture received topmost priority during the plan period. The important agricultural development programmes bringing green revolution strategy like Intensive Agricultural Area Programme (IAAP) and High Yield Varieties Programme (HYVP) were implemented in the country. It is Love Essay observed that, the benefits accrued only to rich and progressive peasants. Once again, landless and agricultural labourers were left untouched. 2nd Class Definition! Besides, rural industries project for the promotion of village industries was also launched during the said plan period. Health and Nutrition is regarded as important inputs required for improvement in the quality of life.

To ensure appropriate and adequate nutrition to True, the children, for their growth Applied Nutrition Programme was introduced during the Third Five Year Plan. The Fourth Five Year Plan (1969-74) in the name of Growth with social justice initiated efforts towards uplifting the vulnerable sections of rural society. In this connection a number of area development oriented and Target Oriented programmes were introduced. Programmes such as Small Farmers Development Agency (SFDA), Small Farmers and Agricultural Labourers Development Agency (MFAL), Drought Prone Area Programme (DPAP), Tribal Area Development Programme (TADP) were introduced as the important rural development programmes. These rural development programmes did succeed, but only in eharmony limited areas and numbers. This plan paved the path for a number of rural development and poverty alleviation programmes in the country. These programmes were implemented through the existing administrative apparatus at block and village levels. Employment generation programmes like, Crash Scheme for Rural Employment and Pilot Intensive Rural Employment Programme were also launched during the plan period.

The Fifth Plan (1974-79) based on the Inter-sectoral transactions model of Leontief which emphasised on strengthening the inter-sectoral linkages for balanced growth in sectors. The most important objectives of the Fifth Plan Period was: (i) Removal of poverty and. (ii) Achievement of self-reliance. In order to attain these objectives. The Programmes like, Command Area Development Programme (CADP), Hill Area Development Programme (HADP), Minimum Needs Programme (MNP), Food for Work Programme (FFW) were introduced, during the plan period. Besides, in order to promote small-scale, village and Love Essay, cottage industries the District Industries Centres (DICs) were set up in all districts of the country. The 20-point Economic Programme was also introduced during the said plan period. The Sixth Five Year Plan (1980-85) aimed at the removal of poverty, growth, modernisation, self-reliance and social justice. In order to attain all-round development in rural areas, one single integrated programme called Integrated Rural Development Programme (IRDP) was conceived. IRDP is regarded as a multi-level, multi-sector and multi-section concept of rural development.

As a multi-level concept it encompasses rural development at various levels such as viable cluster of pricing, village communities, districts and blocks. As a multi- sector concept, it embraces development in various sectors and sub-sectors of the rural areas such as agriculture, industry, education, health and transportation etc. As a multi-section concept, it encompasses socio-economic development of various sections and sub-sections of rural population such as Small farmers, Marginal farmers, Landless and agricultural labourers, Artisans, Scheduled Castes and True Essay, Scheduled Tribes. Besides IRDP, the of a teacher essay employment generation programmes like, National Rural Employment Programme (NREP), Rural Landless Employment Guarantee Programme (RLEGP), Economic Rehabilitation or Rural Poor (ERRP), Training of Rural Youth for Self-Employment (TRYSEM), Self Employment for the Educated Unemployed Youths (SEEUY). Love Essay! Development of Technology Lithium-Ion Batteries Essay, Women and Children in Rural Areas (DWCRA) etc. were also introduced during the said plan period. The important objectives of the Seventh Five Year Plan (1985-90) were; building an independent self-reliant economy, establishment of social system based on equity and justice, reduction of regional imbalance and adoption of advanced technologies. The plan intended; to True Love, continue the rural development programmes launched/implemented during the of a essay Sixth Five Year Plans. Besides, some rural infrastructural development programmes like, Indira Awas Yojana (IAY) Integrated Rural Energy Planning Programme (IREP), Jawahar Rozgar Yojana (JRY), Million Wells Scheme (MWS), etc. were implemented as the special rural development programmes during the plan period.

The Eighth Five Year Plan (1992-97) aimed at generation of adequate employment opportunities, Universalisation of elementary education, provision of safe drinking water and primary health care facilities, and strengthening the infrastructure. The special rural development and poverty alleviation programmes implemented in earlier plans were also intended to continue during the Love Essay Eighth Five Year Plan. In order to boost earlier infrastructure and employment generation programmes the new and Depths Mother, culmination programmes like, Intensified Jawahar Rozgar Yojana (IJRY), Employment Assurance Scheme (EAS), Operation Black Board (OBB), and District Primary Education Programme (DPEP) were introduced. The Ninth Five Year Plan (1997-2002) aimed at generating employment opportunities in Love the secondary sector, all-round development of definition, agricultural sector, strengthening the rural economy through development of agro-based industries, small- scale village and cottage industries and elimination of poverty. As against these objectives, the programmes for self- employment, and supplementary wage employment and other programmes intended to continue during the Ninth Plan with some modifications. These important antipoverty programmes include the IRDP, TRYSEM, JRY, IAY, IJRY, SFPP, DPAP and EAS etc. The IRDP, DWCRA, TRYSEM, MWS were in operation till the end of 1998-99.

It was felt that; this fragmented approach with a multiplicity of True Essay, schemes was not able to focus on 2nd class lever definition, the needs of the Love rural poor in a coherent manner. Of Night By Marsha Norman! Hence these schemes were amalgamated by Government of India and True Essay, merged into on The Night a single new scheme called Swarnajayanti Gram Swarojgar Yojana (SGSY) with effect from 1.4.1999. In order to create adequate infrastructural development the Jawahar Gram Samridhi Yojana (JGSY) was also implemented on the same date. All the True Love Essay plan strategies for 2nd class lever rural development based on various approaches like, growth-based approach in first Three Five Year Plans (First Five Year Plan, Second Five Year Plan, Third Five Year Plan), which was popularly known as trickle down approach. The Fourth Five Year Plan based on Target group approach. The Fifth Five Year Plan highlights the target group approach with equal importance to Minimum Needs approach to rural development. The Sixth, Seventh, Eighth and Ninth Five Year Plan in our country adopt the target group approach for rural development.

The important elements of rural development strategies are: (1) Appropriate Institutional Arrangements. (2) Labour Intensive agriculture and Minor development works. (3) A hierarchy of Love Essay, development centres to bridge the wide gap between rural and eharmony, urban areas and True Essay, self- reliance. (4) An active policy for social development, and. (5) Appropriate Organisational arrangements. The Rural Development Programmes based on various approaches and strategies.

These are varies according to plan and 2nd class lever definition, the Nature of the programme. However, all the Rural Development Programmes have its own feature, objectives finance system, implementation and monitoring as well as success and failure. The discussion on some of the important rural development programme will throw light in this respect. 3. Essay on the Rural Development Programmes in India: India started her planned economic development through Five Year Plans in True Love Essay the year 1950-51. The economy of the financial accounting Country has been dominated by the rural and traditional economic sectors. True Love Essay! The productivity of these sectors has not changed significantly over the period of 50 years. The existence of Essay, massive unemployment and Love Essay, poverty is the common feature of Indian economy in general and rural economy in particular. The infrastructure of the country has not developed up to the world standard. It is proper to mention here that, we have achieved little over the period of 50 years of planned economic development. The planners and policy makers have been laid best possible efforts for the development of the economy and Single Point Essay, rural development.

Due to a number of factors, desired success has not been achieved so far. However, we would like to discuss some of the True Essay important rural development programmes implemented in our country as well as the states and Union Territories from time to time. The aims and objectives of these programmes are national in nature and eharmony, the progress and Essay, achievements are based on qualities good teacher essay, the secondary data available. As one of the under developed state, the progress and achievements of rural development programmes of Orissa. Some comparative analysis of the R.D. Programmes implemented in the country and the State Orissa is also made. Since 1951 a number of rural development programmes have been implemented in our Country.

Among such programmes/schemes, twenty five important rural development programmes considered for analysis. These programmes covers all plan periods i.e.; First Five Year Plan (1950-51 to Love, 1955-56) to Eighth Five Year Plan (1992-97). (i) Community Development Programme (CDP): India as an independent Country started its planned economic development process in the year 1950-51. The First Five Year Plan 1950-51 to 1955-56 based on lever, methodical approach. The noted Harrod-Domar Model of development was adopted in the said plan. The model emphasised on capital accumulation and saving. The process of economic development must start from the village was also emphasised in the first plan.

In this context, the mobilisation of peoples participation is essential and to implement this ideology, the Community Development Programme (CDP) was conceived. The Community Development Programme was launched on 2nd October 1952. A general village community in True Essay India can be divided into six main groups as follows: (i) The owners of Essay on The Depths of Night Mother Norman, land and those who have hereditary rights of True Love Essay, tenancy. (ii) The sub-tenants or tenants at will. (iii) Landless Agricultural labourers. (iv) Village Artisans. (v) Money lenders and Shopkeepers. (vi) Persons in the professions or in personal services, e.g. doctors, lawyers, barbers, village officials. Taking all into consideration the objectives of lever definition, Community Development Programme was framed. The important objective of Community Development Programme is to create an urge among the rural people for a better life and to show the way to satisfying this urge predominantly by means of self-help.

This objective is to be attained by revitalising the existing village institutions and True, creating new ones where ever necessary. The programme emphasized to give effects to an intensive and comprehensive programme covering all aspects of rural life; i.e.; agriculture, rural industries, education, housing, health, recreation and services etc. and aimed at utilizing under a democratic set up the surplus labour force in rural areas for development purpose. It also aims at eharmony, the largest possible extension of the True principle of cooperation and every effort to made to make rural families credit worthy. The Community Development Programme as a peoples programmes introduced and implemented through Local-self Government and the rural people. The Local Self Government get further boost after the recommendation of Essay on The Depths of Mother, Balwantrai Mehtas formulation of Democratic decentralisation in the forms of village Panchayats, Panchayat Samities and True Love, Zilla Parishads. The Finance for the Community Development Programme is drawn both from the people and the Government. Being a peoples programme prescribes a qualifying scale of voluntary contribution from the people in the form of labour as well as money. The State Government and the Central Government with due sharing basis meet the balance expenditure in a block.

The Community Development Programme was launched in selected blocks of the State Orissa, as pilot programme. The Community Development Programme received its momentum during Second Five Year Plan. The total expenditure of Rs. 822.91 lakhs was incurred during the Second Plan period for the said programme. By the eharmony pricing end of the Third Five Year Plan (1965-66) period there were 147 Stage I blocks, 139 Stage II blocks bringing the total number of blocks to 314. Thus, all the blocks were covered under Community Development Programme. The total expenditure under this programme was Rs 1767 lakhs. The Community Development Programme has attained its pick during the Fourth Five Year Plan (1969-1974).

During the said period all the Stage I block converted to Stage II and large number of stage II block to post-stage II blocks. It is observed that there were 43 CD blocks in stage II and the remaining 271 blocks in the post stage II or in stage III. True Essay! Total Fund of Rs 850 lakhs were earmarked for the programme. Besides, special development schemes on irrigation, Agriculture extension, animal husbandry, horticulture, drinking water and communication were also implemented in seven backward districts of the State. In this respect a total sum of Rs 225 lakh has been earmarked. The contribution of Community Development Programme to the rural development are: (1) The setting up of a network of community development blocks covering the length and breadth of the country, thus enabling the government to reach the rural population in almost any aspect of Introducs Essay, their life, (2) The transfer of powers and functions for implementing the programme to the elected representatives at the village, block and district levels, thereby paving the way for democratic decentralisation through a three-tier Panchayati Raj System. The National Institute of Community Development conducted a survey to assess the impact of CDP They concluded that the process of modernisation has reached all strata, and going to do so at a faster pace in future, but this has not resulted in any violent reaction on the part of the lower classes. The ideology of peoples participation through Panchayati Raj System, in absence of proper education and discipline resulted in conspicuous alienation of the weaker sections of the rural communities by Love Essay, the privileged classes. The latter could secure the financial accounting benefits of the True Love Essay programme because their contribution was not free but charged with consideration. It is observed that the whole programme suffered from lack of vitality, and was tending to generate only into a number of accounting, material benefits for a limited few.

The official agencies responsibility for implementation of development activities lacked in understanding the True new climate because they were manned by those officials who were trained in the particular framework. Besides, their bureaucratic approach also appeared to be a hindrance in initiating the programmes. The critics complained that the Community Development Programme has given a new look but not the food to the rural poor. Lever! It is no denying a fact that the expenditure on building the institutions for True Love Essay social change was larger than the expenditure incurred on productive purposes. Thus, its social contents superseded the Single Forming Essay economic contents though it was assumed to the instrument of economic transformation. (ii) Intensive Agricultural District Programme (IADP): The Intensive Agricultural District Programme (IADP) as a package programme was very strongly recommended by Agricultural Production Team of the Ford Foundation (USA) on 1959. This programme was put into action during 1960-61. The important objective of the True Essay programme was to improve the agricultural production in a integrated and intensified manner.

This programme was introduced in 2nd class selected districts of the country. The selection of True, these districts was made on the basis of: (a) The district should as far as possible have assured water supply. (b) It should have a minimum of natural hazards, (c) It should have well developed village Institutions like Cooperatives and Panchayats. (d) It should have maximum potentialities of increasing agricultural production within a comparatively short-time. Taking the criteria into consideration Sambalpur district was selected in Technology Batteries Orissa. It was decided to implement for True Love the development of pricing, Rabi Crops in Love 1962-63. This programme was introduced in financial accounting all the 29 blocks of the district. In the second phase of the programme main thrust was given on the increase of higher yielding paddy in the Khariff extending the area under various commercial and horticulture crops and on promoting efficient soil and water management practices.

Required inputs, know how and True, financial provisions are made for the success of the programme. Financial! Sambalpur district not only self-reliant in Rice Production but also treated as a main rice-producing district of the True State. The IADP has been a Path finder for successful programme. (iii) Intensive Agricultural Area Programme (IAAP): The Third Five Year Plan (1960-65) aimed to achieve self- sufficiency in Introducs Lithium-Ion Batteries Essay food grains and increase agricultural production to meet the True Love Essay requirements of industry and exports. Besides, the mid-term appraisal of the Third Five Year Plan observed that Much greater emphasis should be given to the development of scientific and progressive agriculture in an intensive manner in areas where a high agricultural production potentialities. The Government of India formulated the Intensive Agricultural Area Programme (IAAP) with a view to cover at least 20 per cent to 25 per Point Incremental Forming cent of the cultivated area of the True country and pricing, this area should be selected for the intensive development of import crops such as wheat, paddy, millets, cotton, sugarcane, potato, pulses etc. The programme was launched in 1964-65.

The aim of IAAP was to bring about a progressive increase in the production of main crops in selected areas by an intensive package approach i.e.; the Love Essay use of inter-related factors physical, social and institutional-in-strategic combination which were likely to of a good, exert an Love Essay impact on agricultural production. It was decided to implement such programme in the selected blocks of the country as well as the eharmony pricing state. The selection criteria were the True Love blocks having a minimum irrigated area of 5 thousand acres. In Orissa a total of 86 blocks were covered under the Intensive Agricultural Area Programme during the Point period of Fourth Five Year Plan an additional 46 blocks were brought under the True programme, taking total coverage of blocks up to accounting, 132. The required funds for the programme were met from the plan and non-plan expenditure of the Agriculture and allied activities. The programme paved the way for the introduction of Green Revolution in Love India. The Introduction of High Yielding Varieties Programme (HYVP) reduced the qualities importance of IAA Programme in True Love Essay the State as well in the country. (iv) High Yielding Varieties Programme (HYVP):

The High Yielding Varieties Programme (HYVP) was launched in the country from the kharif seasons of 2nd class definition, 1966-67 as a major plank of new agricultural strategy under the economic planning system. The important objective of the programme was to attain self-sufficiency in food by True Essay, the end of 1970-71. The programme envisages the introduction and spread over fairly large areas of the newly identified and evolved high yielding variety of paddy, wheat, maize, jowar and 2nd class definition, bajra. The HYVP proposes to True, make a technological break-through in Indian agriculture which consists of the introduction of new and high-yielding varieties of improved seeds, increased application of the right amount of fertilizers and extension of the use of eharmony pricing, pesticides so that the crop produced is not destroyed by insects. To enable the farmers to Essay, undertake this agricultural practice, the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) agreed to relax the usual terms and conditions in definition respect of Central Cooperative Banks (CCBs) for the purpose of True Love Essay, financing such cultivators.

During the Fourth Five Year Plan about 742.6 thousand hectares of land was brought under the HYV programme in Orissa. This has increased to about 1860 thousand hectares of land during Fifth Five Year Plan with an investment of about Rs. 2 Crores. This programme mainly confined to good land and to those farmers who have the resources and the adaptability to embrace the progress of technology. This programme became successful in the states like Punjab, Haryana and a part of Gujarat, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu in Single Forming general and Punjab, and True, Haryana in particular, where wheat is the main food crop. The rice and other commercial crops reported insignificant improvement in their production. Orissa as non-wheat producing state received insignificant growth in food production. (v) Small Farmers Development Agency (SFDA): The Reserve Bank of India appointed All-India Rural Credit Review Committee on 1969, under the Chairmanship of Sri B.Venkatappiah. The committee in its-interim report recommended for the establishment of Small Farmers Development Agency (SFDA) in following words: The special efforts proposed are to be restricted to those cultivators who can be developed into surplus farmers if they adopt improved techniques on definition, the basis of support in terms of supplies, irrigation, services of machinery etc. Appropriate schemes have to be drawn up by technical experts with reference to local resources and requirements, so that such cultivators can undertake specific lines of investment (e.g. sinking of wells) adopt a suitable crop pattern, use modern inputs and so on.

It is to deal with this limited problem that in institutional setup in the form a Small Farmers Development Agency may be established in certain selected districts. The important functions of the True Love Essay Agency was to: (i) Investigate and identify the problems of small farmers and financial, endeavour to True, see that the provision of various services and supplies to small farmers is ensured, (ii) Help small farmer to secure loans from co-operative banks and other assistance like obtain improved seeds, fertilizers and other inputs, (iii) The agency is to provide various services such as spraying of insecticides, hiring out of tractors and land leveling to small farmers through the agro-industries corporations or other appropriate bodies and institutions including cooperatives and local authorities such as Zilla Parishad and extension services, (iv) To draw up plans for investment and production activities to be undertaken by Technology Introducs Batteries, the cultivators participating in the programme, (v) To explore the possibility of adding to the income of the small farmers by assisting them in taking up animal husbandry activities such as dairy and poultry, (vi) It should endeavour to promote the flow of short-term, medium- term and long-term co-operative credit to small cultivators for True Love appropriate purposes from the Agricultural Credit Societies and Central Cooperative banks on qualities of a good essay, the one hand and the land development banks on the other. The scheme was included in Love the Fourth Five Year Plan. However, the Single Point Incremental Forming Essay scheme actually started functioning on a significance scale in the year 1971-72. The schemes were implemented in selected districts by a separate agency constituted under the Love Essay Societies Registration Act. The scheme was financed by the State and Central Government on matching basis. The provision of subsidy was also made by Batteries, the agency at the rate of 25 per cent to Love, non-tribal small farmers, 33.3 per eharmony cent to non-tribal marginal farmers and 50 per cent to True Love Essay, Tribal farmers in capital investments and inputs subject to of a good teacher essay, maximum of Rs 3000 and Rs 5000 respectively for any farmers. In Orissa, the Small Farmers Development Agency was implemented in three districts.

They were Bolangir, Dhenkanal and Ganjam. During first two years of the programme, could not make much headway because of a number of initial difficulties. The loans were advanced to the farmers under this scheme were utilised mostly for productive purposes. Orissa stand second in utilisation of Essay, loans in all-India basis after Kerala. The State utilised about 83.6 per cent of the loans sanctioned under the scheme. During the period between 1971-72 and 1980, about 272 lakh families in 115 blocks less than seven SFDA were benefitted. The total loans mobilised stood at Rs. 38.4 crores. Pricing! A total expenditure incurred towards subsidies and agency staff was Rs.

14.8 crores. The SFDA was the first rural development programme in the country where the Love Central Government, State Government and Financial Institutions maintained proper linkage for the success of the programme. However, the programme had been merged with the Integrated Rural Development Programme since 2nd October 1980. (vi) Marginal Farmers and Agricultural Labourers Development Agency (MFALDA): The Marginal Farmers and Agricultural Labourers Development Agencies were set up along with SFDA on the recommendation made by Rural Credit Review Committee (1969). The principal objective of the programme is to assist the marginal farmers and qualities essay, agricultural labourers in maximum productive use of their small holding and skills by undertaking horticulture, animal husbandry and other economic activities, like rural industries etc. The important functions of the programme were to: (i) Identify eligible beneficiaries and True Love, their problems.

(ii) To formulate economic programmes for providing gainful employment to the participants, (iii) To promote infrastructural facilities for accounting examples production, processing, storage and marketing of products. (iv) To promote rural industries. The necessary credit for productive investment was provided by Institutional Financing Agencies like, Cooperatives and Commercial banks. Besides provision of True, matching subsidies were also provided to the beneficiaries. The non-Tribal Marginal farmers and Agricultural labourers were eligible to receive subsidies worth 33.3 per good teacher essay cent on the capital investments and Love Essay, inputs, whereas this was 50 per cent for eharmony tribal beneficiaries, subject to maximum of Rs 3000/- and Rs 5000/- respectively. The Marginal Farmers and Agricultural Labourers Development Agency was launched during the year 1971-72 in the districts of Cuttack and Keonjhar. During first two years both short and medium-term loans amounted to Rs 61.32 lakhs and Rs 45.97 lakhs respectively were advanced to about 9 thousands and 8 thousand Farmers respectively. A total sum of Rs 1.6 cores was earmarked in the year 1974-75. This amount has increased to Rs 4.2 crores in the year 1975-76. Under the project 2.6 lakh Marginal farmers and 0.3 lakh Agricultural Labourers were identified and Love, benefitted under the programme.

Among them about 70 per cent of the beneficiaries were enrolled as members of cooperative societies. (vii) Drought Prone Area Programme (DPAP): A Rural works programme was initiated in 1970-71 with the objective of providing development investment in definition drought prone areas. During the Fourth Five Year Plan the main emphasis of the programme was on True Love Essay, labour intensive works such as medium and minor irrigation, road construction, afforestation, soil conservation and provision of drinking water. In the Fifth Plan, this scheme was re-oriented as an area development programme. The strategy of this programme was to improve the economy of the areas covered, through a package of infrastructural and on-farm development activities with the eharmony objective of Love, optimum utilisation of land, water, human and livestock resources. This programme was also targeted the weaker sections of the society like, Small and financial accounting examples, Marginal farmers, Agricultural Labourers and True Essay, other rural poor, who have no assured source of income.

Co-operative societies were organised to qualities of a good teacher, act accordingly. This programme implemented in the areas where the monsoon is most unpredictable vis-a-vis it also laid emphasis for the inclusion of target group people. Thus, this programme was the first in its category, which included both the Essay area approach and target group approach. The DPAP was implemented in the chronically drought affected districts of Orissa. Considering the concentration of weaker sections as well as drought prone area the programme was implemented in 11 blocks of Kalahandi and 14 blocks of Phulbani district in Orissa.

During the Fourth Plan the scheme was fully financed by eharmony pricing, the Government of India. The Government of India revised the True Love Essay programme during Fifth Five Year Plan. As per the revision the programme was financed by Central State Governments on 50:50 matching basis. In Fourth Five Year Plan the Incremental Forming Essay Central Government sanctioned an amount of Rs 3.4 Crores to Orissa for the programme. During the years 1974-80 expenditure on the programme was stood at Rs 14.2 Crores on different schemes. The programme has been extended to 14 more blocks of Bolangir and Love, Sambalpur districts (8 blocks in Bolangir and 6 blocks in Sambalpur) bringing total blocks to 39 in 4 districts of the State.

The State Plan allocation for qualities good teacher essay the Sixth Plan was Rs 7 Crores against the anticipated expenditure of Rs 7.1 Crores. The total plan expenditure for DPA Programme during the Seventh Five Year Plan (1985-90) was Rs 26.5 Crores. The launching of Eighth Plan was delayed by two years due to political instability in the country. However the programme received Rs 12.7 Crores in 1990-91 and 1991-92. The Drought Prone Area Development Programme is being operated in Love Essay 47 blocks (2 blocks each in Boudh, Sonepur, Dhenkanal, 12 blocks in Phulbani, 10 blocks in Kalahandi, 8 blocks in Bolangir, 6 blocks in Bargarh and Point Incremental Forming, 5 blocks in Nuapada districts) Spread over to 8 districts of the State during the Eighth Five Year Plan (1992-97). The Total expenditure incurred under the plan was Rs 36.9 Crores. True Love Essay! The total Funds available during 1997-98 at; the all-India level was about eharmony, Rs 913 lakhs. The total Expenditure incurred during the year was Rs 436 lakhs. The expenditure was thus 47.8 per cent of the total funds available under the programme.

The percentage share of Love, total expenditure to total funds available was about 48.6 per cent. (viii) Integrated Tribal Development Agencies (ITDA): Next to Africa, India has the largest concentration of the tribal population in the World. Though all the states have tribal population in various degrees of good essay, concentration, majority of them is Love found in Bihar, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Orissa, Rajasthan and West Bengal. Economic backwardness of the tribal population has undoubtedly occupied considerable interest among our planners. The First Five Year Plan laid down its priorities for tribal development in three broad categories namely education, economic uplift and eharmony pricing, health, housing and other schemes. Since then each five year plan has chartered new strategies for achieving these basic objectives. During the Second Five Year Plan, multi-purpose tribal blocks were set up which were later re-named as Tribal development blocks in the Third Five Year Plan.

Expenditure on Love Essay, tribal development too, increased several fold over the plan periods. However, these efforts did not bring about any substantive change among the majority of the tribal population. It is noticed that, in the first three plans emphasis was placed on sectorial plans under various subjects such as agriculture, industry, transportation, health and education etc. Most of Incremental, these were conceived at the National or at the State level. The Fourth Five Year Plan gave importance to planning at the district level and to experimental studies on growth centres for evolving a planning strategy at the grass-root level. In this context, the Government of India has sanctioned pilot projects for tribal development in the central agricultural sector. Among the Six projects sanctioned in True Love All-India level, Ganjam and Koraput districts were selected in Forming Essay Orissa.

The outlay on each of these projects was Rs 2 Crores. Under the Tribal Development Agencies (1972-73) the Tibetan Re-settlement scheme at Chandragiri of Ganjam district and a Saura Development Scheme in Koraput district were brought out. A new strategy has been evolved for planning the development of the Love tribal communities during the Fifth Plan period. The new strategy envisages the preparation of a sub- plan for 2nd class definition the tribal areas. The first exercise in this regard is to demarcate the True Love tribal areas based on the tribal population. (i) Areas, where the tribal concentration of 50 per cent or above. (ii) Areas of dispersed tribal population below 50 per cent.

(iii) Extremely backward and isolated little communities. In order to implement the sub-plan programmes 21 ITDAs were constituted covering 118 out of 314 blocks in the state. Each ITDA has a project level committee under the Chairmanship of Collector with official and non-official and Tribal women as members. They have to draw up the plan and programmes at good teacher essay, ITDA level and review and monitor the developmental activities of different Department. Each ITDA is headed by a Class I officer with supporting staff like Special Officer, Assistant Engineer, Junior Engineer, Statistical Assistant, Soil Conservation/Agricultural Extension Officer and other clerical staff. 15 Project Administrators have been declared as Additional District Magistrates for exercising powers under different regulatory laws.

There were about 47 thousand villages in Orissa; out of that 18.7 thousand villages were in Tribal sub plan of which 14 villages were declared as ITDP villages. They were spread over to about 98 blocks of the State up to 1977-78. A total financial outlay of Rs 189 crore was earmarked for the programme in True Love Essay 1979-80 with a view to cover about 2 thousand families. The total estimated flow of resources during the sixth plan period was Rs 700 Crores. It is observed that 36 per cent of the Technology Introducs Lithium-Ion total outlay of the State during Sixth Plan Period was earmarked for investment as against Essay 23 per cent during fifth plan period. About 5.0 lakh tribal families were assisted under various anti- poverty programmes (including IRDP ERRP) during Sixth Plan Period. During the Seventh Plan period, about 7.6 lakh families were covered under the Essay on The by Marsha plan with the True Love Essay plan expenditure of Rs 1440 Crores. The plan allocation for the sub-plan during the year 1990-91 and 91-92 was estimated at teacher essay, Rs 391 crores and Rs 590 crores respectively. The proposed flow of funds for the Eighth Plan Period (1992-97) was estimated at Rs 3885 Crores.

The Flow of funds during 1992-93 was of the order of Rs 459 Crores. This covered about Love Essay, 34 families. The total funds for the year 1993-94 have increased to Lithium-Ion Essay, Rs 466 crores. Further more the Love Essay plan expenditure under the programme was Rs 568 Crores. Under the plan 43 thousand families were benefitted in the year 1993-94. Where as this stood at 41 thousand during 1994-95. During 1995-96 about 96 thousand tribal families were benefitted with a total financial investment of Rs 626 Crores. The total plan out lay for the year 1996-97 and 1997-98 was Rs 862 Crores and Rs 749 Crores respectively. (ix) Modified Area Development Approach (MADA): Article 46 of the pricing constitution enjoins up on Love Essay, the State to promote with special care the educational and lever, economic interest of the weaker sections and in particular Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes and to protect them from social injustice and Love, all forms of exploitation.

The approach for development of Scheduled Tribes was first laid down by the first Prime Minister of India, Late Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru in his Tribal Panchseel more particularly emphasised on the preservation of tribal culture. The Tribal Sub-plan approach was operated in mid seventies. The objectives of the Tribal sub-plan strategy have basically remained two fold: (i) Socio-Economic Development of S.Ts. and. (ii) Protection of tribals against of a exploitation. Integrated Tribal Development Programmes in the form of Love, Integrated Tribal Development Agencies (I T D A) were implemented in the areas where the concentration of Single Point Incremental, tribal population is True more than 50 per cent, and definition, they live in extremely backward areas. For the all-round development of the Tribals outside the True Sub-plan areas a new programme called Modified Area Development Approach (MADA) was launched in eharmony pricing 1978- 79. True Love Essay! The criteria for selection of this area was areas having a population of ten thousand or more with at least 50 per cent tribal concentration.

The identified areas called as MADA Pockets. In these pockets individual family-oriented schemes as well as community benefit oriented programmes are to examples, be implemented. There is True Love a MADA level Advisory Committee for each MADA Sub-Collector concerned with officials and non- officials like peoples representatives as members. This Advisory Committee is responsible for drawn up programmes and overseas the implementation. During Fifth Plan Period 30 Modified Area Development Approach Pockets were identified and Rs 1.2 Crores was earmarked for the development of Tribal people living in Single Point Forming Essay those areas. The number of True Love, pocket has increased to 37 during Six Plan period. A Total sum of Rs 5.5 Crores was allocated for the programme, where about 10 thousand Tribal families were received assistance. There are, 45 MADA Pockets covering about 47 blocks of the State, during Seventh Plan Period. The total amount of Rs 7.2 Crores was earmarked for the implementation of different schemes. Under different schemes about 13 thousand Scheduled Tribe families were benefitted during the said plan period.

In two annual plans i.e.; 1990-91, and 1991-92 about Five thousand families benefitted under the programme. The total investment of Rs 2.2 crores and Rs 2.5 crores were made for the year 1990-91 and 1991-92 respectively. The number of MADA pockets increased to 2nd class lever definition, 46 during the Eighth Plan (1992-97) period. A total Fund of Rs 16.4 crores was utilities for implementation of different programmes in the MADA Pockets. True! During the plan period about Single Point Forming Essay, 20 thousand tribal families were covered in different programmes. (x) Command Area Development Programme (CADP): The Command Area Development Programme was introduced in the Country in 1974-75 with a view to realising a fast and True Essay, optimum utilisation of the irrigation potential created in the major irrigation projects. In Orissa, the programme was launched in 1976-77 covering 52 blocks in the districts of Cuttack, Puri, Balasore, Sambalpur and Bolangir. It was spread over to about 5.3 lakh hectares of land of three major Irrigation Projects of Mahanadi, Salandi and Hirakud.

The basic concept of the Programme was to step up agricultural production by optimum utilisation of water by controlled irrigation and Point Incremental, adoption of multi-cropping pattern on an extensive scale. The components of True Love Essay, C A D Project which are given highest priority in realising these objectives are: (i) Construction of field channels. (ii) Warabandi i.e; regulated and Introducs, assured water supply to the farmers. (iii) Consolidation and. (iv) Adoption of Multi-cropping pattern. As against this background four Command Area Development Authorities have been registered as Societies under the True Societies Registration Act 1860. Funds sanctioned for the various schemes by State and Central Government are placed at their disposal in shape of grant-in-aid. A special loan account was also set up by the ARDC with 50% contribution from Central Government and on The Night Mother Norman, 25% each by the State Government and ARDC to finance on-farm development works for Love Essay the ineligible and unwilling beneficiaries. During the Fifth Plan the major achievement was, conducting of a large number of multi-crop demonstrations to Point Incremental, make the True Love farmers aware of the needs for having three cropping patterns. Small and Marginal farmers were also involved themselves in qualities good essay the programme and became members of Co­operative Societies.

A modest beginning was also made in demonstration of proper water Management by Construction of field channels to Love, serve about 3 thousand hectares of land. A total financial provision of Rs 12.5 Crores was made for the programme. The principle components of the Command Area Development Programme during the Sixth Five Year Plan (SO­BS) have been: (i) Construction of field channels including field drains. (ii) Topographical Survey. (iii) Soil Conservation and Survey. (iv) Rotational water supply to the beneficiary farmers. (v) Multiple Crop Demonstration, including mini-kits and farmers training. During the said plan period about 2nd class definition, 1.5 lakh hectares field channel was constructed with the total expenditure of Rs 6.9 Crores. The Command Area Development Programme expanded to 58 blocks in Essay the districts of Cuttack, Puri, Balasore, Sambalpur, Bolangir and Koraput.

An area of lever definition, 2.7 lakh hectare Culturable Command Area has been covered under field channels at Love Essay, the end of Seventh Five Year Plan. The Principal Component of CAD Programme during the Eighth Five Year Plan (1992-97) was: (i) Survey Planning and Design. (ii) Construction of field channels, drains and land leveling. (iii) Rotational water supply. (iv) Adaptive Trails. (v) Farmers participation.

(vii) Conjunctive use of surface and ground water. (viii) Marketing and pricing, Communication and. (ix) Monitoring and evaluation. The programme has been extended to 83 blocks in 17 districts with a Culturable Command Area of 7.4 lakh hectares during Eighth Plan Period. A total sum of Rs 18.4 Crores was spending under the programme during said plan period. It is observed from the available data that, during the Seventh Five Year Plan about 11.14 million hectares field channels were constructed. About 1.93 million hectare of land leveling activities and 4.96 million hectare Warabandi work was also completed during the True Essay said plan period.

The total achievement during the Eighth Plan Period on 2nd class lever definition, construction of field channels, land leveling and Warabandi was about True Love Essay, 1.75 M.ha, 0.14 M.ha, and Incremental, 2.75 M.ha respectively. The achievement of Eighth Plan reduced due to other alike rural development programmes introduced in the country. The introduction of specialized watershed scheme was one of the same programmes. 4. Essay on the Institutions for Rural Development: The Rural Development in India is a very old phenomenon. True Love! Social scientists and organisations had experimented this noble attempt in pre-Independence period. Those programmes were not highlighting a unique problem of the Technology Introducs Essay rural poor and the necessary solution therein.

However, the attempts so undertaken were focused mostly to the social, economic and cultural aspects of human well-being. The noble attempts made by great and intellectual sons of the Love Essay soil could not spread over to all part of the country due to lack of government attitude and patronage. Eharmony Pricing! The British Government had never felt the importance of rural development in the country. The rulers felt that, rural development was a part of Love Essay, social welfare, which is perhaps contradictory to the British ideology and policies. India became an independent nation in August 1947, from political point of Night by Marsha, view but attend its economic independence only on Essay, January 1950. After attaining the economic independence, India started its planned Economic Development Programmes with the adoption of Five Year Plan. During the process of planned economic development, Rural Development received utmost attention by the rulers, planners and policy makers. Since 1952, a number of rural development programmes were introduced, implemented and discontinued in the country.

The programmes are varied in nature and approach. Some of the programmes proved to be successful and some failures. The success and failure of the programmes governed by a number of on The Depths Mother by Marsha, factors important among them are: (i) Nature of the programme, (ii) Approach of the programme, (iii) Finance for the programme, (iv) Implementation of the programme. Good nature, right approach, adequate finance and proper implementation may bring success to the programme. True! In this connection, the of a essay last factor, proper implementation gathers top most importance as it co-ordinates other factors of success. This can be achieved through good and right institutions. As against True this background, we would like to discuss the structure and functions of the institutions established exclusively for eharmony pricing Rural Development from Essay time to time. These institutions can be classified into two such as: (i) Main institutions and. (ii) Ancillary institutions.

The main institutions are those, which are directly responsible for the planning, implementing, monitoring and evaluation of the rural development programmes and Introducs Lithium-Ion, permanent statutory in nature. The ancillary institutions are those, which are indirectly responsible for planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation and True, temporary in nature. In India, a structure of policy formulating and implementing institutions has been built up in the country for Rural Development. Some of them are at the national level, some are single purpose, some relate to a particular target groups, some relate to area, sector and commodity. However, all these institutions aim at fulfilling the national objectives of economic development in general and rural development in particular. The administrative organs of Central and State Governments involved in the process of rural development are at the Centre of the Organisational Structure. The spatial structure of rural development administration mainly comprises Centre, State, District, Blocks, Gram panchayats and Village.

At the Centre, the Ministry of Rural Development is in charge of all rural development a programme including those relating to land reforms, village and cottage industries, town and country planning and rural roads etc. Single Point Forming Essay! This is the nodal responsibility for elementary education, adult education, rural health, rural electrification, rural water supply, housing for landless rural labour, nutrition and sanitation programmes. The ministry has also responsible for all aspects of rural reconstruction and Essay, development. The Ministry lays down broad policies, devises suitable programmes and 2nd class definition, determines Central assistance etc. In addition to the Ministry of Rural Development, the ministries of Agriculture, Commerce and Civil Supplies, Energy, Irrigation and Industry also perform functions related to Love Essay, rural development. The Ministry of Agriculture is in charge of agricultural extension, Ministry of Commerce and Civil Supplies has within its purview the Development Commissioner of Handlooms, several Commodity Boards and the public distribution system. The Ministry of Essay of by Marsha, Energy and True Love, Irrigation deals with all matters pertaining to water resources development and irrigation and accordingly has important functions pertaining to rural development.

The Central Silk Board, Coir Board, Khadi Village Industries Commission are attached to the Ministry of Industry. The Ministry of Rural Development, for rural development with proper co-operation and coordination from other ministries. The other ministries are also take active role in the rural development programmes so formulated. Besides, the Ministries, the Reserve Bank of accounting examples, India in the past and Love, NABARD at Single Point Incremental Forming Essay, present play the catalytic role for True Love the success of rural development. NABARD as the apex level financial institution for rural development provide refinance to the financial institutions working at the state level. At the State level, the State Governments have the primary responsibility for the administration of developmental programmes. The Departments of agriculture, animal husbandry, irrigation, forests, education, public health and good teacher essay, sanitation, industries, power. Government has also take active part on the monitoring and implementation of rural development programmes in the State. The State Government also formulates State level special rural development programmes other than the Essay Central Governments Programmes.

However, The State Level Organisational Committee is headed by of a good essay, the Secretary for Rural Development, who is in the rank of True Love Essay, Commissioner of Technology Introducs Batteries, rural development is assisted by one Deputy Commissioner three Assistant Commissioners and a number of True Essay, technical officers and subject specialists. Besides, a representative of the financial Ministry of Rural Development, Government of India is associated as a member of the Love Essay Committee. There are a number of Statutory Corporations, Boards and other agencies providing infrastructural, promotional and qualities teacher, supporting services for rural development. Important among them are: (i) Rural Electrification Corporation, (ii) The Central Ground Water Board. (iii) Minor Irrigation and tube well Corporations. (iv) Central and Love Essay, State Warehousing Corporations. (v) Central and State Seed Corporations. (vi) Food Corporation of India.

(vii) The Jute and the Cotton Corporation of India. (viii) National Cooperative Development Corporation and Cooperative banks in pricing the State. (ix) National Agricultural Cooperative Marketing Federation. (x) State Trading Corporations, (xi) The Handicraft and Handloom Corporations. (xii) The Boards for Coffee, Tea, Rubber, Cardamom, Tobacco, Cashew and Coconut etc. (xiii) The National Dairy Development Board. (xiv) The Khadi and Village Industries Commission.

(xv) State Khadi and Village Industries Board. (xvi) The Central Silk Board. (xviii) The State Finance Corporation. (xix) The Agro-Industries Corporation. (xx) The Marketing Regulation Boards etc. The statutory corporations and Boards works for the implementation of various rural development programmes to their expertise. At the State level the Financial Institutions also play vital roles for formulation, implementation of various rural development programmes.

They form one State Level Coordination Committee taking the representatives of all financial institutions like, Cooperative banks, Nationalised Commercial banks and Regional Rural banks. Besides, the representatives of various government departments are also participate in Essay the formulation and lever, Implementation strategy of the rural development programmes. The representative from NABARD is Essay also participating in the committee. One Nationalised Commercial bank acts as the convener of the committee. The Third Stage of qualities of a teacher, Institutional Structure for Rural Development is the District Administration. The District Collector is True Love Essay responsible for law and order, Revenue Collection and developmental activities. In the past, the developmental programmes so formulated by the central and state governments were channelised through the District Administration, known as the District Development Coordination Committee.

This committee consisting of the 2nd class Project Officer, the Managing Director of the Central Cooperative Societies, one/two representatives from Cooperative Societies and a Special Rural Credit Officer. Prior to October 1980, the rural development programme particularly beneficiary and area oriented programmes operated through specially constituted agencies. They are, Small Farmers Development Agencies, (SFDA) Marginal Farmers and Agricultural Labourers Development Agencies, Drought Prone Area Programme (DPAP) and Integrated Tribal Development Programme (ITDP), etc. In 1980 the integrated rural development programme was launched. In successive time period some special programmes related to rural development are also implemented.

All the programmes are to be implemented by a single agency called as District Rural Development Agency (DRDA). The earlier agencies functioning at the district level are merged with the DRDA. The District Collector/Deputy Commissioner heads the True Love Essay DRDA. Besides the agency has a full time Project Officers followed by pricing, Assistant Project Officers in agriculture, animal husbandry, and cooperation, a credit planning officer, rural industries officer and an economist/statistician. In addition there is one Research Officer, two senior economic investigators followed by Love Essay, regular supporting staff. The peoples representatives like, the Chairman Zilla Parishad, Member of Parliament, the MLA and the representatives of Weaken Sections and women are also take active part in the planning process at the district level. The representatives of the lead bank, financial institutions also take active role with the DRDA to formulate District Credit Plans. According to the Indian Constitution Amendment (74th) Act 1992 The State Governments constituted the District Planning and financial accounting, Development Board to provide necessary guidelines and direction to district planning units and to approve the district plans prepared by the planning units. The board consists of a Chairman, a Vice-chairman and True, other members, viz.; all Sub-divisional Officers, all Chairman of Night Mother by Marsha Norman, Panchayat Samities (Block) in the district, the head of lead Bank and Presidents of all Municipal Committees. The Chief Planning and Development officer acted as the Member Secretary.

The district-planning unit comprised the Chief Planning and Essay, Development Officer, an economist, a Planning Officer, a Credit Planning Officer and other supporting staff. The position of the Introducs Lithium-Ion Batteries Chairman of DPB varies from state to state. In some State a Minister of True, State Government chairs it and the district Collector is the Chairman in some other. The Block is the Fourth Important Institution for pricing planning and Love Essay, implementation of on The Depths of Norman, rural development programmes. The overall resource situation, to identify human resource situation, particularly from the point of view of Love Essay, employment, to review the ongoing development activities to formulate a package of schemes/programmes to optimize production and augment employment and income, to identify gaps in infrastructure and to devise measures for filling these gaps. The Planning Commission appointed an Expert group to frame guidelines on the basis of the Essay Depths of Mother by Marsha Norman recommendations of Prof. M.L. Dantewala working group. As per the guideline issued on 1978 the block level plan should have the following component: (i) Production programmes for the target groups in the rural areas. (ii) Manpower planning and skill development in relation to True Love Essay, production programmes. (iii) A supplementary works programme, where necessary to good essay, clear off the backlog of unemployment.

(iv) A programme for the self-employed in the trades and services sector. (v) Programme for rural Infrastructure like, market, roads, rural electrification etc. (vi) A programme for Love Essay the provision of examples, Social Services, including basic minimum needs. (vii) A programme for Institutional support to the rural poor. The Administrative setup of the Blocks was defined during the First Plan Period with the inception of Community Development Programme. With the Essay implementation of Integrated Rural Development and other special developmental schemes/programmes in early 80s. The Administrative setups of the definition blocks were revised accordingly. The Block Development Officer is intended to be the steering wheel of the new developmental administration.

The BDO is to be assisted by extension officers from different fields like; agriculture, animal husbandry, irrigation and works, cooperation, Panchayats, social education, public health, village industries and women and child welfare etc. Below the extension officer there are about 10 village level workers (VLWs) or Lady Village Level Workers (LVLWs) working for Essay the implementation or rural development programme. There is a Progress Assistant who coordinates the Technology Introducs Lithium-Ion development committee. The peoples representatives like; Chairman Panchayat Samiti, MLA and Love Essay, representatives of Weaker Sections and women also participate in the Developmental Planning at the block level. Eharmony! The representatives of the financial institutions also take part in the committee while undertaking credit plans at the Block level. Village Panchayat is the last recognised institution responsible for planning and True Love Essay, implementation of rural development programmes. The village Panchayat as an qualities executive body implements the policies and decisions of the Gram Sabha comprising the entire population of the village. The social sanctions of the people generally strengthen the hands of the Panchayat and act as a deterrent to arbitrariness. The Panchayat organise local manpower for the developmental purposes. In almost all the states; the Gram Sabhas have been statutorily recognised and True, assigned the specific functions to direct and supervise the activities of the Village Panchayat and to some extent to the Blocks.

The important functions performed by the Panchayats are: (i) Civic amenities. (ii) Social welfare activities and. (iii) Development works. The broad functions of the Technology Panchayat are: The peoples representatives like Ward Members; Sarapanch also took part in decision-making and implementation of the Love programmes. Qualities Of A Good! The village level worker represents the block in village committee.

Besides, the Panchayat Secretary, Secretary of the Cooperative Societies, the Revenue Inspectors also play active role in the village committee. Thus village committee comprises of the: (i) Village level worker. (ii) Panchayat Secretary. (iii) Secretary of the Love Cooperative Societies. (iv) Revenue Inspector. (v) The Sarapanch.

(vi) The ward members. (vii) The villagers are the General body members. It is to conclude that, the planning and Implementation of the rural development begins from the root i.e.; village and flows upward to the national level. Experience shows that the rural development programme decisions in respect of Single, formulation, strategy approach are undertaken at the national level and that flowing downward to the village in a Trickle down approach. The Bottom up approach although exist in the country does not exist in practical sense of planning and implementation. However, the institutions for rural development are closely connected with each other, whether there exists Trickle down or Bottom up approach of planning and implementation of the rural development programmes in our country as well as the state. 5. Essay on the Observations and True Essay, Problems of 2nd class lever, Rural Development : India is an economically underdeveloped country. The condition of rural economy is worse.

The economic activities and Love, people employed therein have not also achieved required development/growth. In order to break the qualities good teacher essay jinx of rural economic sector, Government through its different plans introduced a number of rural development programmes. The programmes are also varied in True Love Essay nature. They are of sector, area and target oriented programmes. The Formulation, Implementation of the programmes has also undertaken by some specialised Agencies of Government. In addition the NGOs, the Technology Batteries Panchayati Raj institutions, financial institutions involved themselves in the success of the True Essay programmes. In course, of their function they also encountered a good number of problems. The problems were also varied in nature. As the book/based on the macro level information/data.

The problems so encountered by both the implementing agencies and Essay Depths Mother by Marsha, the beneficiaries of the programme are highlighted based on Essay, the general observations and macro-based data/information available. The problems mainly highlights the problems encountered by the Government as the planning and lever, implementing machinery the Associated/ancillary agencies inevitable for the fruitful implementation of such rural development programmes, they are the Rural Development agencies/institutions/Departments, Financial Institutions, Non-Governmental Organisations, working as intermediary agencies for the implementation of rural development programmes/schemes. The last agencies are the people likely or receive benefits from the rural development. They can also belong to the area and sector approach rural development programmes. Thus, we can classify the rural development agency into three as; Government, Intermediary/Ancillary agencies and the targeted people/beneficiaries. All the problems and observation based on the facts, information and literatures available from the secondary sources. These may not hold good in True all respects. Rural Development Programmes have been conceived for the all-round development of the rural areas. However, the rural development programmes are launched in the context of general problems of the rural areas.

It fails to give importance to some particular and area issues. The rural development programmes should be micro in nature and growth oriented based on real values. As per the Guidelines all the developmental programmes in the rural areas are to be planned/formulated by the DRDA in lever definition cooperation and coordination of True Love Essay, other departments and financial institution, agencies of peoples representatives etc. It is often observed that these agencies, organisation failed to maintain proper coordination among each other. All the agencies/organisations are trying their best to stick to their own principles and ideologies. In the process cooperation and good, coordination are not maintained. The Agencies responsible for True Love the formulation, Implementation and evaluation of the Rural Development Programme is Point required to maintaining good co­ordination among them. (iii) Based on Ruling Party Principles and Ideologies : In India, the rural development programmes are conceived/launched as per the principles and ideologies of the ruling party. Besides, in the participation for planning, formulation and implementation through their representatives tried to True Love Essay, maintain such principles and Introducs Batteries Essay, ideologies.

The said representatives often interested to fetch more benefit to their party affiliated peoples/workers. This does not cover the problems of all class people. The Rural Development Programmes should be based on reality and highlight the real problems of the rural areas as well as the people. The political personalities are required to change their attitudes in this respect. The rural development programmes require more capital investment. True Essay! The Economic Sectors of rural areas remain more or less traditional. These sectors also adopt traditional methods of production. Teacher Essay! In order to Essay, attain rural development the transformation of technologies is Incremental Forming Essay required. The conditions of weaker sections people are not improved after 50 years of planned economic development. The upliftment of their socio­economic condition also require high dose of investment.

In our country, a fixed amount of True, funds are allocated for a particular rural development Programme. These are distributed among the States/District as per the importance, such as geography, concentration of weaker section population etc. The share of the Fund to cope with the local problems seems to be inadequate. Contributions from the public or other viable private organisations are not seeked by the Government. Qualities! Thus inadequate fund is a major concern for Essay the attainment of the rural development. Indias rural economy being primarily land-based, all major developmental programmes of rural India are linked with agricultural developments. It is also evident that most of the available resources are controlled by few, this reinforces the Introducs Batteries hegemony of the few over many and the benefits do not tickle down to those who need them most. Besides, the precarious land and man ratio suggests that by introducing radical land redistribution in rural India very limited egalitarian goals can be achieved and if done so, that will mean only sharing of poverty and no real development.

Rural development plan implementation is required to be accepted by the local level functionaries who attend the District consultative committee meetings and that they are in a position to mobilise financial and organisational resources to fulfil accepted commitments. It is observed that the authority structure in the administration and the banks is such that those who attend such meetings are neither in a position to accept firm commitments on behalf of their departments, banks without reference to higher authorities not to act accordingly. Although some powers are conferred to Love Essay, the officers to exercise but these are seems to be very limited. All the decisions are required due approval from the higher authorities. It is observed that, there is considerable leakage of benefits to non-target sectors and groups. Most of the rural development programmes are conceived to improve the Socio-Economic condition of the weaker sections like small, marginal farmers, agricultural and Depths of Mother, non-agricultural labourers, rural artisans, scheduled castes, scheduled tribes and deprived women etc. It is observed that the benefits are not properly reaching to these classes. It is often found, that, the vulnerable class of the society enjoys the real benefits. The subsidy components of the rural development programmes tend to allow to Love Essay, non-target groups, specially the programme implementing bureaucratic class, rather than including expansion of production base of the beneficiaries. Due to illiteracy and ignorance the real benefits sometimes enjoyed by the Third party commonly speaking the eharmony middlemen and the village touts including the petty personnel having a little political affiliation.

It is observed that a considerable number of rural development programmes/schemes having no or little sustaining impact for changing the socio-economic status of the beneficiaries. The assets created from the credit assistance of financial institutions and subsidies of the Love development/administrative agencies are short lived (Particularly in-case of livestock assets) failed to push the beneficiaries up on the scale of qualities teacher, production and productivity. This is True Essay perhaps due to the existence of low or no developmental approach/thoughts. This factor again dominated by the lack of awareness about the programmes. (ix) Dominance of Welfare over Productivity:

In India, most of the rural development programmes are based on the basic welfare principles. Accounting Examples! These schemes are backed by both credit and subsidy components. Besides, development of infrastructure facilities is also emphasised under these programmes. It is also evident that provision of long-term credit and based on the principle of write off by political parties also have adverse effect on the productivity of economic sectors. It is True Love observed that the accounting subsidy component is often extending up to 100 per cent in some selected schemes and class of beneficiaries. This reduces the Essay productive motive, attitude of the beneficiaries. (x) Based on pricing, the Principles and Policies of Political Parties : In our country most of the rural development programmes are either based on True Love, the principles of the Depths of Mother by Marsha political parties or biased by True Love, their ideologies. Besides, the programmes again ruled/governed by cheap popular slogans or election; manifestos. Accounting! Due to these, causes the programmes failed to attain the expected success. It is also observed that after the completion of one political partys rule the next political party, which assumes power, hesitates to carry out the same. Besides, the new party is also dont hesitate to wind up the ongoing programme despite of Love, its importance and Batteries Essay, success.

In India, due to these problems, the rural development has not attained after five decades of the planned economic development. 6. Essay on the Suggestions for Rural Development in India: 1. In India, the rural people in general and the weaker section people in particular are to depend upon traditional rural economic sectors for their livelihood. The rate of True Love Essay, literacy in Single Incremental Forming Essay rural areas is very low in comparison to urban areas. Due to Love, low literacy level, most of the rural people are not aware about the ongoing rural development programmes. The steps taken by the government in order to enhance the awareness level of the beneficiaries is not adequate. Good Teacher Essay! The Government should open special cells for the publicity of the rural development programmes. The Government is required to True Love, adopt the publicity method, which is conducive to the nature and requirement of the rural people. The people are to be provided with adequate instruments for enhancement of awareness level. The existing system of publicity about the qualities of a good rural development is required to True Essay, be re-considered and should be based on rural realities prior to the Selection of the Scheme as well as the Beneficiaries, the implementing agencies should provide details of the programme to the rural people, who are likely to be benefitted serious endeavour is, therefore, needed to make the rural people aware about the resources earmarked for rural development in various Government departments. 2. In our country a number of definition, rural development programmes have been launched, implemented since 1952.

It is often said that, the rural development programmes failed to attain its desired goal due to improper identification of the programmes, schemes and the beneficiaries therein. The Implementing Agencies attitude to implement the programme is target oriented. The target-oriented approach of the identification in different levels is believed to be made in a hurry. This approach forced the agencies for wrong identification of programmes, schemes and beneficiaries. As against this, the Government should lay more emphasis on the reality rather than the target. The schemes should be appropriate to the rural conditions and the beneficiaries therein are to be selected by the villagers or the effectively functioning Gram Sabha. The implementing agencies should take the matter seriously, while selecting the scheme as well as the beneficiaries. The selection of the schemes is needed to be made by the beneficiaries. Essay! Emphasis to lever, be given to the interest, intention, and Essay, attitude of the beneficiaries towards the scheme for rural development programmes. It is to conclude that, A realistic programme on rural development with the qualities of a good potentiality of the successful implementation, can only be prepared if rural poor are taken into confidence and are assisted to draw the development programme, taking the village as unit.

Outsiders, as technocrats, Economists etc. should only assist them as Friends to True Essay, make their own decision. 3. The important objective of definition, rural development programme is to True Essay, eradicate poverty, reduce imbalance and increase productivity of rural economic sectors. Thus, the beneficiaries of rural development programmes are rural poor living below the poverty line. Point Forming! The poverty line in India determined by the relative standards. A less importance has been laid on absolute standard of poverty determination.

Whatever, emphasis laid again converted to money terms, which appears to be unrealistic. True! A household earning income more than Poverty line income level may be poor in relation to the calorie intake. Thus, the determination of poverty line required re­considered. Besides the financial accounting identification of beneficiaries living below the poverty line (BPL) should be fixed at the realistic level. 4. The beneficiaries of the Self-employment programmes need training and education prior to True Essay, their involvement in the programmes. The implementing and monitoring agencies is required to impart required training to the selected beneficiaries, before the developmental activities undertaken. Besides, rural people should be provided with the scope of qualities good teacher essay, expressing their own felt needs and need to be provided with an opportunity to choose economic activities for their own development. 5. Love! The wage employment programmes can be fully focused on rural infrastructure development and local natural resources development.

This approach will not only improve the 2nd class infrastructure network but also help village people to improve their farm as well as non-farm production for which a favourable environment exists. 6. The working of the Rural Development Programme in the last decades has shown that the initiative for implementing the programmes is vested on DRDA. The role of DRDA is more or less confined to the planning and release of subsidies for True Love Essay rural development programmes. The DRDAs should play an Technology Lithium-Ion Batteries Essay important role for the Implementing and Love, Monitoring of rural development programmes. Regular monitoring and Point Incremental Essay, evaluation of True Love Essay, rural development programmes in real manner could solve the ongoing problems encountered therein and can also helpful to solve the problems. This will pave the path of lever, success to the rural development programmes and attainment of rural development. 7. The village plans would have to be dovetailed into the district plan, which would prepare by True Essay, the DRDA.

Proper appraisal of the rural development schemes is 2nd class needed. Besides, for True Love Essay the success of Rural Development Programmes it should be ensured that the Project Directors of the lever definition DRDA are given tenure of not less than three years so as to True Love, inculcate in them a sense of commitment to eharmony pricing, the programme. The other staff in the key posts should not be disturbed frequently. 8. The various Government departments with specialised expertise and banks should work in close co-operation with the district planning unit in order to have a coordinated and scientific plan, the availability of local resources, the True Essay potential for alternative productive works and of viable schemes, to eharmony, be looked into. 9. Love Essay! Voluntary effort will no doubt continue to grow in the coming years but it can accelerate if the environment is more congenial to its growth. Voluntary Organisations with professional and Managerial Capabilities can act as a catalyst and can organise beneficiaries, involve people in planning and development and provide the necessary support to make development a reality. In this respect, the Government should provide required assistance to the Voluntary Organisations. 10. The prosperity of the Introducs Lithium-Ion Essay rural economy depends directly upon the development of agriculture and industry. These to dependent variables for development again controlled by a number of independent variables. Love! These are, power, credit, transport facilities, which include railways, roads, waterways, market, communication, information facilities etc.

All these facilities and services constitute collectively the infrastructure. The development and expansion of these facilities are an essential pre-condition for definition attainment of economic development and rural development. The link between infrastructure and development is not once for all affair. It is a continuous process and progress in development has to be preceded, accompanied and followed by progress in infrastructure, if we are to fulfill our declared objectives of a self-accelerating process of economic development. Despite its importance the desired infrastructural development has not been achieved due to True Essay, resource constraint. In view of the Essay on The Depths Norman resource constraint, further expansion of facilities may be secured by a shift of priority from high cost technology to low cost technology, from public funding to private financing and from large-scale public management to small-scale private/co­operative/community management in appropriate areas required for rural development. 11. The planning, implementing, monitoring of rural development programmes has been made by True Love, the Planning Commission and its subsidiaries. In the process they have been facing a number of difficulties.

Political interference is one of the difficulties faced by on The Depths of Night, the Planning and Implementing agencies. True Essay! This undue interference seems to be one of the 2nd class definition important causes of True Love, failures of rural development programmes. Technology! In order to attain rural development the Planning and Implementing agencies in our country should perform independently like the Judiciary System. Before publishing your articles on this site, please read the following pages: