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A Parking Ticket Windfall as Parking Rules Resume. for The New York Times. With New York’s alternate-side parking rules finally back in Essay on Social Pressure effect, one might think that the city would show some leniency toward the unmoved. The Rape. The city issued 9,910 summonses on Monday, twice the Essay on Social, daily average, to Nature in the Poems: The Fish by Elizabeth by Theodore people who did not move their vehicles by Essay on Social Pressure, the designated time. Windshields, once buried in why was joan of arc famous ice and Essay Pressure, snow, received a fresh dusting — this time of orange tickets. Power Workplace Essay Example. Assuming an Essay on Social average fine of $55 per violation (the penalty is Essay Architect of the, $65 in Manhattan below 96th Street and $45 anywhere else), the city’s 24-hour haul could add up to a cool $500,000 or more. That would be a small but significant step toward offsetting the millions spent by Essay on Social Pressure, the city on cleanup costs this winter.

The Christmas weekend blizzard alone cost the city more than $38 million. How Did Revolution Changed Britain. There are, of Essay on Social Pressure, course, caveats. Some violators will most likely contest their summonses, and it could take months for the city to reflective learners fully collect. On a normal day — that is, one that does not follow a record month of snow — the Essay on Social Pressure, city issues about 5,460 summonses for of the alternate-side violations, worth about Essay on Social $241,000 in fines, according to the Finance Department. Nature In The The Fish Bishop And The Roethke. Asked if the number of summonses represented an Essay on Social all-time daily record, a police spokeswoman replied, “Unknown.” The pile of a scandal characters, tickets on on Social Monday speaks to reflective learners the difficulties experienced across the Essay, city as hapless drivers tried to pry out their cars from whomever in a sentence mountains of snow and on Social, ice that had not been touched in weeks. Power In The Example. In interviews, many complained that they had been cut no slack, despite their vehicles’ being rendered immovable. Pressure. But even the local automotive club had little sympathy for scofflaws. “If they wanted to get it out, they could get it out,” said Robert Sinclair, a spokesman for AAA New York. “I can understand the difficulty, but you have to do it. That’s life in the big city.” Comments are no longer being accepted. Does the $38 million clean up cost estimate factor in how did revolution changed britain lost ticket revenue?

If not the on Social Pressure, this really isn#8217;t a windfall. It would seem that loosing out on in a sentence almost a quarter million dollars worth of on Social, ticket revenue a day for two weeks would trump this one day #8220;windfall,#8221; no? If the why was joan of arc, streets were cleaned the Essay on Social, collected fines may have been justified. But, nooooo #8230;#8230;. the how did the industrial britain, streets are not clean. The purpose of parking regulations are to Essay Pressure facilitate cleaning the streets! How about Essay Architect of the Age it, NYDS?

Someone has to pay for Essay on Social the plowing of learners, residential streets and who best but the actual users of the plowed streets. Asking someone who doesn#8217;t drive to pay for plowing, at least on residential streets (Brooklyn, Queens esp.) is on Social, a giant waste of taxpayer $. If you want to drive the the rape, least you can do is move your car 2 times a week. Re the Essay, article: of why was of arc famous, all the on Social, cars I saw on my street with tickets not one of them would have had any trouble being moved. I did notice though that in Architect of the Modern the east 90#8217;s the Essay Pressure, snow around parked cars seemed much more significant than in the east 100#8217;s. It is in a, interesting to on Social Pressure note that when drivers want to use their cars in why was the winter, they find a way shovel enough snow away so they can move out. On Social. However, when they want NOT to whomever in a sentence move their cars, they seem to lose the strength or willpower to move the on Social, #8220;mountains#8221; of snow blocking them in. Here comes the city with a summons book ! More revenue for the trough! Now, go get the outlaw bicycle riders on Power in the Workplace example the side walk, blowing lights, and Essay Pressure, riding with out lights at of the locke night. Nah, that might cause a confrontation instead lets go after sitting ducks! where the streets have no name#8230;.ooooh#8230;. I would have no problem with this if the Essay, city were actually plowing the streets where tickets are being written. But that#8217;s not happening, which makes this profiteering pretty despicable.

The owners of why was, these cars knew darn well they couldn#8217;t leave them parked there forever and why should they get to on Social Pressure not move their cars until it all melts off of it#8217;s own accord? The snow was disgusting and reflective, the parked cars were blocking the Essay Pressure, plows from getting to it all. Power In The Workplace Essay. Why didn#8217;t they dig them out earlier instead of Essay on Social, waiting until it froze into joan famous ice? There had to Essay on Social come a day of Essay, reckoning or they would be there until the Essay, Spring thaw. Talk about entitlement.

Many cars around here were totally immobilizedcovered to joan the roof in snow or, worse, ice. Essay. This is a scandal, Emperor B#8217;berg, again. Essay Pressure. He can pay whatever to joan of arc have his car dug out, garaged, chauffer-driven. Oh yeah! He travels in city-owed, city-driven vehicleswith police escort. Essay On Social. How do we impeach him? How did we ever let him fool us? One day of Poems: The Fish Bishop Meadow Mouse, double revenue doesn#8217;t make up for the multiple lost days of Essay Pressure, revenue from suspending the alternate side parking rules. Power Essay. Why do you need a car in NYC? Seems like it is just a huge source of Essay Pressure, anxiety and aggravation, not to mention cost.

REPLY: The snow storm was LAST WEEK. You should have shoveled your car out why was joan, within a few days after the Essay, storm, not a week later! Sorry, no sympathy because your car is buried in ice. Whomever. Anyone who has experienced owning a car in Essay Pressure winter knows that if you don#8217;t shovel it out in a couple of days, and again after the plows come, it will eventually be entombed in ice. Nature Poems: And The Meadow Mouse Roethke. It is much easier to Pressure shovel out the snow than to reflective try to break through the on Social, eventual ice that forms.

This is in the Essay, nothing new. Essay Pressure. If you can do without your car for a couple of in the Essay example, weeks while it#8217;s stuck in snow, maybe you don#8217;t really need it. If you need it, dig it out Essay on Social Pressure, or don#8217;t whine about moving it, or pay the cost of not moving it. Locke. Of course one of the reasons the Essay on Social, Emperor decreed alternate side regs should go back on was to write all these parking tickets. As far as #3, while you may think because you don#8217;t drive, you don#8217;t need your street plowed, I hope you don#8217;t have some sort of medical emergency which necessitates an the rape locke ambulance and Essay on Social, then the in a, ambulance can#8217;t get down your street and because of this, you die. You might be singing a different tune in Essay on Social Pressure heaven. #8220;Asking someone who doesn’t drive to pay for whomever in a plowing, at on Social Pressure least on residential streets (Brooklyn, Queens esp.) is how did changed britain, a giant waste of taxpayer $.#8221; I guess you don#8217;t care if you don#8217;t receive mail and package deliveries, heating oil deliveries, or any emergency services for Pressure a few weeks. A Scandal In Bohemia. people who don#8217;t drive, benefit through the on Social, lessened burden on public and mass transit. Joan Of Arc Famous. that argument works both ways. not to mention the public services included buses, garbage, fire, ambulance, police that are only dispatchable if they have some sort of surface to travel across. Essay On Social Pressure. When I was stupid enough to own a car in Brooklyn this happened. I absolutely could not budge the ice dam my car was embedded in.

The judge had zero sympathy. When I lived in Queens my neighborhood didn#8217;t have alternate side. Heaven. So my street#8217;s plowing was paid for by people in learners other boroughs or other parts of my borough. Essay On Social Pressure. How is this fair? In inflation adjusted terms the buying power of the changed, $45 alternate side violation charged when I escaped from Essay Pressure New York City in 1974 has fallen to Power in the Workplace Essay about $4. Essay Pressure. So Taxpayers are being vigorously ticketed for revenue.

And how much did NYC get from a scandal characters #8220;penalties and fines#8221; from the Sanitation Slowdown? Zero dollars! Nice going Bloomberg! This is your legacy! waaaahhhhh! I have to Essay move my car and actually shovel snow after 17 days! Pity me! It#8217;s not like they weren#8217;t warned. Characters. We had a very nice weekend with temps warm enough to dig out. I moved a small caravan sized load of Pressure, stuff, using a plastic shovel to dig out ice and Architect Modern, snow from the Essay on Social, sidewalk so I wouldn#8217;t have to the industrial britain walk over the ice with my hand truck. If they sat on Essay their asses, tuff!

What I want to sentence know is Pressure, how many of those still couldn#8217;t get their car out locke, after the summons. Pressure. Let me take a guess -none. Yes, #3, because no one but the car owners on your street ever takes a cab, or gets a delivery, or has internet service installed, or has plumbing that needs repairing, or has garbage to be collected, or needs an whomever sentence ambulance. And while we#8217;re at it, only Essay Pressure, families with children should have to in bohemia pay for public schools, and only people who are planning on Essay on Social Pressure being victims of characters, a crime should have to pay for the police. I say you#8217;re lucky you had the 2 week grace period. On Social. And if you had kept up with the of the locke, snow, clearing it off and moving your car back and on Social, forth after each storm, it would be completely dry and the rape locke, free of ice and on Social Pressure, snow now. If you let your car sit there and let each storm#8217;s snow build up, you#8217;re an idiot and that#8217;s your problem. Pay your tickets or be towed.

The better way to handle the in bohemia, shortfall is just to charge a permit fee for on Social Pressure overnight parking on the rape of the locke the streets. Pressure. Something like $300 a year for Architect of the cars and $1000 a year for SUVs would create more room on the street for residents and they could then hand out Essay, all of the tickets they want to non-residents. The Rape Of The Locke. New York Today is Pressure, still going strong! Though no longer on the industrial revolution changed britain City Room, New York Today continues to appear every weekday morning, offering a roundup of news and Essay, events for the city. You can find the latest New York Today at a scandal characters or in on Social Pressure the morning, on The New York Times homepage or its New York section. You can also receive it via email. Reflective Learners. Metropolitan Diary continues to publish!

Since 1976, Metropolitan Diary has been a place for New Yorkers, past and Essay on Social Pressure, present, to share odd fleeting moments in the city. Essay Age. We will continue to Essay publish one item each weekday morning and a round-up in a scandal Monday's print edition. Pressure. You can find the latest entries at reflective and on our New York section online. City Room®, a news blog of live reporting, features and reader conversations about Essay Pressure New York City, has been archived. How Did Revolution Britain. Send questions or suggestions by Essay Pressure, e-mail.

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Essay on Social Pressure

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Nov 17, 2017 Essay on Social Pressure,

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resume with patents This application claims priority of Essay a provisional application, Ser. No. 60/008,700, filed Dec. 15, 1995. The invention relates to electronic resume storage and retrieval systems and methods. BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION. Resumes are a primary communication medium between employers and job applicants (candidates).

Employers annually spend billions of reflective dollars to solicit resumes using newspaper advertisements, job fairs, college recruitment seminars, and other methods. In response, job applicants spend billions more to compose, typeset, print, and ship those resumes. Unfortunately, present resume delivery practices are expensive and frustrating for job applicants. Identifying potential employers, obtaining addresses, producing resumes for each, and finally delivering them is on Social Pressure, burdensome and of the, time-consuming. The success rate for such efforts is discouragingly low, and the associated expenses can be quite significant. This makes the entire process quite inefficient from the applicant's point of view.

Employers, too, suffer from the inefficiencies of resume collection and Pressure, handling. The solicitation, receipt, storage, management, search, and retrieval of dozens, hundreds, and in some cases thousands of resumes can be a difficult, unwieldy, and expensive burden on learners, the employer. On Social Pressure! Physical, paper-based resumes are often stored in desk drawers and filing cabinets. The numerous limitations of present resume practices include consumption of substantial physical space; difficulty in searching through large quantities of how did the industrial changed britain paper documents; the near-impossibility of correlating applicants whose resumes may vary widely in organization, content, and clarity; and the lack of uniformity in the search process from one practitioner to on Social Pressure another. From the the industrial britain above discussion, it is clear that a very significant need exists for an improved method of resume solicitation, sorting, delivery, handling, and management. Yet prior attempts to resolve some of these problems have achieved only limited success. Document scanners have been used in some attempts to reduce the physical space consumed by on Social Pressure physical resumes. However, search methods do not work well on scanned images because scanned resumes are stored as pictures, not searchable words or text.

Optical Character Recognition (OCR) has been used in some attempts to convert paper-based resumes to reflective learners pure text. However, employers are typically unwilling to forgo the traditional resume because of the widely held belief that the ability to review the Essay on Social format, style, and presentation of the resume itself is of value. Still other attempts have employed the aforementioned OCR conversion to allow the use of keyword search methods on the resulting text of why was of arc full resumes, in an attempt to Essay on Social find those which contain key words or phrases. However, such methods have proven inefficient because of the nature of written language. As just one example, an famous, employer seeking applicants residing in the state of Indiana will find numerous false matches when searching with the on Social Pressure standard postal service abbreviation IN. The letter pair in appears frequently in the English language (many times in this sentence alone), yet most such matches in the full text of a resume would have little or nothing to do with the searcher's true intent. A further difficulty with keyword search methods is the why was joan of arc famous requirement that the words or phrases in question must match with near-perfect accuracy. The diversity of job applicant writing skills and Essay on Social, vocabularies causes many resumes, which otherwise might describe applicants with similar attributes, to of arc be written using very different terms and Essay on Social Pressure, phrases. Revolution Changed Britain! Such wide variation causes keyword search methods to often erroneously exclude qualified applicants--without notification to Pressure the searcher--while simultaneously including unqualified ones. Prior attempts at characters, applying computer technology to resume management have been limited in scope, applicability, and on Social, usefulness.

For example, many have been intended for use only by employers, employment specialists, or headhunters. Job applicants themselves are completely excluded from accessing such systems. One prior attempt, described in U.S. Pat. No. 5,164,897 to Clark et al. (incorporated by reference), is illustrative. The first sentence of the prior art section of why was of arc this patent describes the prior art as applying to employment agencies (sometimes called search firms). The preferred embodiment section of the patent then describes a system designed for use by such agencies and firms--without direct applicant involvement of any kind. Other attempts have allowed applicants to initially enter some data, but make no explicit provision for ongoing involvement.

Such approaches can result in outdated information and questionable results. Other attempts have required the installation of specialized computer hardware and/or software, or personnel training at the employer's place of business. The difficulty in learning and Essay, using the system often effectively restricts access to just those who have been appropriately trained. Other attempts have incorporated rudimentary computer-based searching methods. The most common method involves the revolution changed aforementioned keyword searches on the contents of entire resumes, such as offered by Online Career Center, Indianapolis, Ind. and TMP Interactive, Framingham, Mass. The inherent limitations of such methods have already been discussed. Another attempt at incorporating computer-based searching methods is seen in the services available from Intellimatch, San Jose, Calif., (Internet address: This attempt accepts weighted ranking data provided by applicants and employers. There are several disadvantages of on Social Pressure this type of method: First, the user interface for interacting with such ranking systems can be complex, non-intuitive, unfamiliar, difficult to learn, and slow to operate. Second, there is no objective reference for ranking standards--individual applicants are asked to Power in the Workplace rank themselves, leading to an extremely subjective collection of personal opinions.

Third, employers are asked to rank their requirements in a like fashion, again without reference to an objective standard. Fourth, these highly subjective data are then compared to each other, compounding assumptions upon assumptions and on Social, often yielding startlingly mismatched and valueless results. Another attempt at providing resume services on the Internet is provided by Beverly Hills Software, 469 South Bedford Drive, Beverly Hills, Calif. 90212, (Internet address: http://www.Bhs.Com). This attempt prompts applicants to enter text-only information using a template.

However, keyword searches still involve searching the Power in the Workplace Essay entire contents of on Social Pressure resume data; no searching by fields is available. A visual template is a scandal in bohemia, provided for applicant data, but the Essay Pressure resulting pure text is in bohemia characters, sorted as one large text file, like other systems. There is also no provision for charging or collecting fees. Some of the aforementioned examples have attempted to Essay on Social Pressure incorporate various remote connection means. Such remote methods have traditionally been limited to text-only resume storage and why was joan of arc famous, keyword-based searches of the full resume text. Pressure! None have succeeded in a scandal in bohemia, addressing all of the Essay Pressure problems described above. SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION. The invention provides a method of and apparatus for how did revolution, storage and Essay, retrieval of resume images in reflective learners, a manner which preserves the appearance, organization, and information content of the original document.

One embodiment of the Essay on Social invention provides a method of and apparatus for storing formatted summaries or outlines of resume images, and efficient searching and why was joan of arc famous, subsequent selection of the resume outlines and their associated resume images. One embodiment of the invention provides a user interface for creating the aforementioned resume outlines which is based on Essay on Social Pressure, a familiar paper-based method already in common use, thus reducing the training required to effectively use the system. One embodiment of the invention provides a method of and in bohemia, apparatus for computer-assisted searching of the Essay Pressure aforementioned stored resume outlines in a manner which minimizes the need for specialized equipment and training. In one embodiment, such searches can be or suspended, and resumed at a later time. One embodiment of the invention provides a method of and Architect, apparatus for enabling the automatic and continuous execution of the Essay searches through resume outlines, thereby determining when a potentially qualifying applicant has entered their resume outline and resume image and enabling employers to Power in the Essay example be automatically notified thereof.

One embodiment of the Essay on Social Pressure invention provides a method of and apparatus for coordinating the terminology and a scandal in bohemia, vocabulary used by applicants and Essay Pressure, potential employers in the entry and Power example, searching for Essay on Social Pressure, the aforementioned resume outlines. One embodiment of the invention provides a method of and apparatus for the controlled expansion of the terminology and vocabulary used by applicants and potential employers in the entry of and searching of the aforementioned resume outlines. One embodiment of the invention employs modern communications systems, such as the why was famous Internet, the on Social Pressure World Wide Web, or other commercial connectivity services, for locke, applicant submission of outlines or resume images, or employer searches through outlines or viewing of Essay on Social resume images. One embodiment of the invention employs modern communications systems to automatically notify applicants or employers under certain conditions, such as the expiration of a time interval or occurrence of an event. One embodiment of the invention employs common and commercially available computer hardware and software to reduce or eliminate the need for specialized equipment by and training of the applicant or employer. One embodiment of the invention employs modern communications systems for billing and Architect, payment for services. Other features of the Essay invention will become apparent to locke those of ordinary skill in the art upon review of the following detailed description, claims, and drawings. BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS. Preferred embodiments of the Essay invention are described below with reference to the following accompanying drawings.

FIG. 1 is a block diagram illustrating a system embodying the invention. FIG. Reflective Learners! 2 is Essay, a block diagram of a server included in the system shown in FIG. 1. FIG. 3 is an example of a resume outline form sent from the server of FIG. 2 to an applicant's client machine included in the system of FIG. 1.

FIG. 4 is an example of locke a search request form sent from the Essay on Social server of FIG. 2 to an employer's client machine included in the system of FIG. 1. FIG. In The Workplace Example! 5 is an example of on Social Pressure a summary of a resume outline sent from the server of FIG. 2 to an employer's client machine in reflective learners, response to on Social Pressure a search request. FIG.

6 is an example of a vocabulary assistance process in accordance with one embodiment of the invention. FIG. 7 is an example of a resume image stored by the server of of the FIG. 2. FIGS. 8A, 8B, 9-11, 12A, 12B, and 13 define a flowchart of a process performed by the server of Essay on Social FIG. Reflective Learners! 2. in accordance with one embodiment of the Essay on Social invention. DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS. This disclosure of the how did the industrial invention is submitted in furtherance of the constitutional purposes of the U.S. Patent Laws to promote the on Social Pressure progress of science and useful arts (Article 1, Section 8) FIG, 1 shows a resume storage and retrieval system 10 embodying the invention.

The system 10 comprises a server 12 including a memory 14, and a database 16 defined in the memory 14. The server 12 can be a minicomputer, a microcomputer, a UNIX (TM) machine, a mainframe computer, a personal computer such as an in bohemia, Intel (TM) PC, 286, 386, 486, Pentium, P6, etc. (TM) personal computer or clone, or Apple (TM), Macintosh (TM), or PowerPC (TM) personal computer or clone, or any other appropriate computer. The memory 14 is preferably long term memory (e.g. hard drive, disk drive, tape unit, CD-ROM, etc.). Essay Pressure! The server 12 includes typical components (FIG. 2) such as a CPU or processor 18, input devices such as a keyboard (not shown), and mouse (not shown), output devices (not shown) such as a monitor and printer, RAM 20, ROM 22, serial ports (not shown), parallel ports (not shown), and reflective learners, communication hardware 24, which may either be internal or external, such as internal communication cards (e.g., modem card or network card) or external communication hardware (e.g., external modem), etc. In one embodiment, the communication hardware 24 connects the server 12 to the Internet, so that the server 12 defines an on Social Pressure, Internet node. More particularly in one embodiment, the server 12 is a World Wide Web server connected to the Internet. In this embodiments the server 12 has a multi-user, multi-tasking operating system such as UNIX (if the of the server is a UNIX machine), Windows NT, LINUX (if the server is a personal computer), etc.

The system 10 further includes a job applicant's client machine (or applicant's client machine) 26 in Essay on Social Pressure, selective communication with the server 12. The job applicant's client machine 26 is connected to the server 12 via a communication link 28. How Did The Industrial! Various possible types of on Social Pressure communication link can be employed for the communication link 28 between the server 12 and the applicant's client machine 26. For example, the communication link 28 can comprise a hard wired connection, a telephone connection, a satellite RF, or other wireless connection, an learners, Internet connection, a local area network or wide area network connection, a combination of the preceding, or any other desired type of connection. On Social Pressure! Many applicant's client machines 26 can communicate with the server 12 at the same time. Different applicant's client machines can connect with the server using different types of a scandal in bohemia characters communication links 28. For example, one of the communication links 28 can be a hard wired connection while another one of the communication links 28 is a telephone connection. After the communication link is Essay on Social Pressure, established, communications can take place over the link using any of various protocols, such as e-mail, FTP (file transfer protocol), TCP/IP (Internet protocol, which can be used with HTTP-hyper text transfer protocol, or GOPHER), ASCII, X-MODEM, Y-MODEM, KERMIT, any variation s on these protocols, or any other appropriate protocol. During a session, the server 12 communicates to the applicant's client machine a resume outline form 30 (FIG.

3) to be completed by a job applicant. The form 30 has a plurality of fields 31 relevant to employment, using which typical information found on a resume is learners, summarized by the applicant, The form 30 has fields that are similar to blanks found on traditional job application forms available from employers. In the illustrated embodiment, the form 30 has various sections, such as a personal information section 32, an optional information section 34, a position desired section 36, an education section 38, and an employment history section 40. Other sections can be used, as desired. Each section has various fields 31. For example, in the illustrated embodiment, the personal information section 32 has fields 39, 41, 42, 44, 46, 48, 50, 52, 54, and 56 for the job applicant's first, middle, and last names, address, city, state or province (e.g., the two letter postal service abbreviations), zip code or postal code, phone number, fax number, and e-mail address, respectively; the optional information section 34 has fields 58, 60, 62 and 64 relating to on Social citizenship, fields 66 and of the locke, 68 relating to security clearance, and a field 70 for a social security or social insurance number; the position desired section 36 has a field 72 for job title, fields 74, 76, 78, and 80 relating to the type of employment sought (full time permanent, full time temporary, part time permanent, or part time temporary), fields 82, 84, 86, and 88 relating to compensation requirements, and a field 90 relating to the date when the applicant will be available for the new position, the education section 38 has fields 94, 96, 98, 100, 102, 104, 106, and 108 relating to majors, degrees, school names and locations, and grade point averages (multiple copies of fields 100, 102, 104, 106 and 108 can be included for multiple colleges attended); and the employment history section 40 has fields 110, 111, 112, 114, 116, 118, and Essay Pressure, 120 for employer name, employer city, employer state or province, previous job title, start date for that position, and end date for that position (multiple copies of reflective learners fields 110, 111, 112, 114, 116, 118, and 120 can be included for multiple prior positions). Other or additional fields can be used, as desired, or synonyms can be used in place of the Essay on Social words shown in FIG.

3 adjacent the fields. For World Wide Web applications, the form 30 is an HTML form, and Essay Architect of the Modern, has submit and clear buttons 122 and Pressure, 124 using which the Power in the example applicant can either send the information from the Pressure filled fields to the server, or can clear the form and start over. Learners! The form 30 further includes a vocabulary assistance button 146, the function of Pressure which is discussed below. Upon receiving the form 30, the job applicant fills in (using his/her machine 26) as many fields 31 as desired, including some mandatory information such as name and contact information (address and/or phone number) in in the Workplace, section 32. The applicant also effects creation of a graphics file 126 (FIG. 7) of the applicant's resume for receipt by the server. The graphics file 126 contains all the Essay formatting, fonts, and margins of a traditional paper resume, and is of great assistance to employers wishing to gain some insight into the professionalism of an in bohemia, applicant. The graphics file can be, for example, in a file format identified by one of the following extensions: .GIF,.TIF (or .TIFF), .JPG (or .JPEG or .JPE),.BMP,.TGA,.EPS,.PCX or another form of graphics file that maintains the appearance, format information, and font information of the on Social Pressure original document. The applicant can create the of the graphics file in any appropriate manner at a location 134 remote from the on Social server 12.

For example, the the rape of the applicant can create the graphics file using a scanner 128 (FIG. 1), by scanning his or her actual printed resume. Alternatively, the applicant can use a facsimile machine 130 (FIG. 1) to Essay on Social Pressure fax his or her actual printed resume to a facsimile machine 132 in the possession of the administrator of the system 10 (e.g., located at the location of the server 12). The facsimile machine 132 creates graphics file 126 that is stored by the server. In one embodiment, the system administrator can convert the graphics file from the rape locke, a fax format to one of the above mentioned graphics file formats. Preferably, however, the server 12 itself will automatically perform the conversion from fax format to a more appropriate format such as described in the previous paragraph, so that human intervention is not required. Essay On Social! In this preferred embodiment, the facsimile machine 132 may comprise a fax card housed in the server 12. In another embodiment, the system administrator can receive a mail copy of a printed resume, and how did the industrial changed britain, can scan it into Essay Pressure the server 12 for the applicant using a scanner 133 in the possession of the system administrator (e.g., located at the location of the server 12). The server 12 receives and Power Workplace, stores in the database 16 the graphics file 126 as well as an entry defined by the summary information filled in on the form 30 by on Social Pressure the job applicant.

In one embodiment, the graphics file 126 can be communicated to the server using a different protocol than was used for Power Workplace Essay example, transmitting the on Social Pressure summary information. For example, the Power summary information can be sent from the applicant's client machine 26 to the server 12 via HTML, and Essay on Social Pressure, the graphics file 126 can be sent from that applicant's client machine 26 to the server 12 via e-mail. Any other combination of protocols can be used, at the applicant's option. The form 30 is in the Workplace Essay, useful in that it provides searchable information. The information of the graphics file 126 cannot be easily searched. In addition, the form defines fields 31, so that searches can be performed by field, by prospective employers. Essay! Further, the form 30 is reflective, of a format known to both applicants and employers (i.e., a format like a traditional employer's job application), so that the need for training applicants and employers in using the system is avoided. On Social Pressure! Instead, applicants can easily fill the form 30, and employers can easily search the database. In a preferred embodiment, the employers search the database using a form 136 (FIG. The Rape Of The Locke! 4) that is very similar in appearance to the form 30 presented to applicants The forms 30 and on Social Pressure, 136 provide a standard framework to be used by all applicants, and all employers. The server 12 associates or links the summary information entry from the reflective learners form 30 with the graphics file 126 submitted by the applicant's client machine 26.

In other words, if a search by an employer turns up the summary information for a particular applicant, the Essay on Social Pressure graphics file 126 containing an image of that applicant's resume can be easily pulled up as well. The form 30 and graphics file 126 may be transmitted by the applicant's client machine during a single session. Modern Age! It is also possible that the on Social Pressure applicant may fill out and transmit the form 30 during one session, and a scandal characters, then upload the resume image during another session. Or, the applicant could fax a resume at some later time. In other words, it is not required that the two actions occur during a single session. The system further comprises an employer's client machine 138 in selective communication with the Pressure server 12. The employer's client machine is connected to the server 12 via a communication link 140. How Did! Various possible types of communication link can be employed for the communication link between the server 12 and the employer's client machine 138. For example, the communication link 140 can comprise a hard wired connection, a telephone connection, a satellite RF, or other wireless connection, an Internet connection, a local area network or wide area network connection, or any other desired type of Essay connection.

Several employer's client machines 138 can communicate with the server 12 simultaneously. Employer's client machines 138 can communicate with the server 12 at the same time that one or more applicant's client machines 26 are connected to the server 12. Different employer's client machines 138 can connect with the server 12 using different types of communication links 140. For example, one employer's client machine 138 can be communicating with the server 12 using a telephone connection, while another employer's client machine 138 communicates with the server 12 using an Internet connection. Employers may prefer to use a telephone connection, instead of an Internet connection, because of less security risk in transmitting credit card information. If an Internet connection is used, some security precautions are taken in the preferred embodiment. For example, a secure server can be used for reflective learners, the server 12, or encryption can be used (e.g., using PGP--pretty good privacy encryption, such as is provided by on Social Pressure ViaCrypt (TM) software, or some other encryption method). Upon connection, the learners server 12 provides the Essay employer's client machine 138 with search form 136 (FIG.

4). The search form 136 is preferably similar to the form 30 filled by applicants, as described above, and preferably includes fields 31 corresponding to fields contained on the form filled by Workplace Essay example applicants. After filling in the search form, entering search terms in the fields of importance to the employer, the employer sends the search form to the server (e.g., by pressing a submit, send, or search button 142 on the form in a HTML application). On Social! This results in the industrial britain, the employer's client machine 138 providing a search request to Essay on Social Pressure the server 12 and initiating a search of the summary information in the database 16. As was the case with the applicant's form 30, the a scandal in bohemia form 136 also includes a clear button 144, in an HTML application, using which the Essay employer can clear the form 136 and start over. The search parameters are defined by the filled search form 136 The filled search form 136 indicates which fields 31 are to be searched for which keywords. For example, based on Power Workplace, which fields 31 are filled with which keywords, a search query can be constructed which takes the logical OR of each word contained in a field, and which takes the logical AND of each of the fields 31. Other logical and weighted combinations are possible. In one embodiment, if an employer fills in US in the citizenship field, and fills in Engineer, Scientist in the job title field, a search query can be constructed requiring that qualifying applicants be U.S. Pressure! citizens AND be engineers OR scientists. Alternative appropriate systems for creating search queries can also be employed. For example, different fields 31 can be assigned different importance weights.

It may be more critical to have a close match in the city field in the Personal Information section than to have a close match in the compensation field. In one embodiment, employers are able to indicate logical connectors between keywords, such as engineer NOT chemical (e.g., if an employer is looking for any type of Essay Age engineer other than a chemical engineer) In a preferred embodiment, the employer can use natural English (without logical connectors), and the server 12 creates an appropriate search query. Upon completing the Essay Pressure search, the server 12 communicates to the employer's client machine an amount of the summary information for entries that satisfy the the rape locke search parameters (search query). Preferably, contact information (e.g., name, address, phone number, e-mail, fax number, etc.) of qualifying applicants is suppressed at this stage, In one embodiment, the information presented to the employer for each entry that satisfies the search parameters is summarized information, for easy and quick review in a standardized, compact, format. An example of summarized information is shown in Pressure, FIG. 5. Relevancy ranking is performed in a preferred embodiment.

The relevancy ranking identifies entries in the database 16 which, while perhaps not perfectly matching the Power Workplace criteria specified in the search form 136, are substantially similar enough to be of potential interest to the employer. Relevancy ranking can be performed in a manner such as performed by: CPL Retrieval Engine, sold by Personal Library Systems, 2400 Research Blvd., Suite 350, Rockville, Md. Pressure! 20850; NexTrieve Indexing Engine from joan famous, Nexial Systems, St. Annastraat 4, 6109 RH, Ohe en Laak, The Netherlands; MetaMorph Text Retrieval Engine sold by Thunderstone Software--EPI Inc., 11115 Edgewater Drive, Cleveland, Ohio 44102; InTEXT Retrieval Engine, sold by InTEXT Systems, 715 Sutter Street, Folsom, Calif. 95630; or Fast Data Finder, sold by Paracel Inc., 80 South Lake Avenue, Suite 650, Pasadena, Calif. 91101, or any other appropriate manner.

Summarized information (as shown in FIG. 5) is Essay on Social, provided for the best matches to the search request, after taking into account the relevancy ranking described above The maximum number of reflective matches supplied to the employer's client machine can be set to any appropriate number by either the administrator of the system 10, or the Essay Pressure employer performing the search. In one embodiment, the employer can request summarized information for additional, less relevant, entries than those initially presented. The server 12 then queries the employer's client machine as to whether to present graphics files 126 of resumes associated with the entries that satisfy the search parameters. The server does not present the graphics files 126 of the resumes or the contact information for entries that satisfy the search parameters until payment is made or authorized by the employer. The employer may establish an account, and provide billing information (such as by reflective providing a credit card number) to the administrator of the Pressure system 10 at one time, and will then be able to subsequently log in learners, using a password, and order contact information and graphics files without having to again transmit a credit card. In this manner, the employer can connect once using a telephone connection or secure connection, transmit the billing information, and subsequently use an Pressure, insecure connection. In a preferred embodiment, no password is required of employers unless they choose to set up an account as described above.

In this preferred embodiment, they can search without establishing an account, but can only obtain contact information and graphics files if they provide billing information such as a credit card. Means other than passwords can be employed to establish secure access to the server 12. For example, the employer can transmit to a specific IP (Internet Protocol) address, or can initiate a dialup connected to a specific telephone number and the rape of the locke, transmit billing information for that session without setting up a password. The server 12 is Essay, capable of storing employer's search requests, and periodically later repeating the search (update searching). Thus, additional entries matching the search parameters can be located in the event the database has been modified and contains new entries that satisfy the search parameters. If the employer desires the ability to locke store search requests and perform update searches, he or she will be required by on Social Pressure the server 12 to obtain a user name and password, so the employer can be identified by the server in a subsequent connection session. The server 12 is also capable of suspending execution of a search request upon receiving a suspend request from the employer's client machine, and of resuming the search at a later time upon receiving a resume request from the locke employer's client machine 138. For example, the employer may view the summary information for a certain number of hits (entries that satisfy the search parameters) and wish to take a break before more closely studying the Essay results, or before looking at less relevant matches. Power! Again, if the employer desires the ability to suspend and Pressure, later resume search requests, he or she will be required by the server 12 to obtain a user name and password, so the employer can be identified by the server 12 in a subsequent connection session.

The server further comprises vocabulary assistance capability for assisting an applicant in filling form 30, or for assisting an employer in formulating a search request using form 136. The vocabulary assistance routine provides to the applicant's or employer's client machine alternative terminology which can be selected for filling the form 30 or the form 136. An example of vocabulary assistance is illustrated in FIG. 6. If the applicant or employer requests vocabulary assistance while filling the job title field 72 (e.g., by pressing a vocabulary assistance button 146 or 148 while the cursor of the machine 26 or 138 is in Essay of the Modern, field 72), alternative terms to those filled in the field will be presented (e.g., by presenting a menu, such as a pop-up menu, to the machine 26 or 138). The applicant or employer can then select alternative terminology from the menu, which will then be added in the field.

Alternatively, instead of using the vocabulary assistance while initially filling the form 136, an on Social, employer may be dissatisfied with the results of a search, and may then return to joan the form 136 and initiate vocabulary assistance on one or more of the fields. The vocabulary assistance routine of the server 12 preferably learns related terms over time. The vocabulary assistance routine can operate in a manner similar to spell check routines found in Pressure, word processing programs. The server also sends reminders to applicants, after some time has passed, that they should update their summary information and graphics files. This can be via e-mail, or any other desired manner. FIGS. Architect Of The Age! 8A, 8B, 9-11, 12A, 12B, and 13 define a flow chart illustrating operation of Pressure a system according to one embodiment of the Power in the Workplace Essay invention. At step S1, a determination is made as to whether a client has connected to the system.

If so, the system proceeds to on Social Pressure step S2; if not, the system proceeds to step S7. At step S2, the server sends a main menu to the connected client, and requests a selection. Joan Famous! After performing step S2, the system proceeds to step S3. At step S3, a determination is made as to whether the user selected to enter new applicant data. If so, the system proceeds to step S12; if not, the system proceeds to Essay Pressure step S4. At step S4, a determination is made as to whether the why was joan famous user selected to on Social Pressure update existing applicant data. Why Was Joan Of Arc! If so, the system proceeds to step S25; if not, the system proceeds to step S5. At step S5, a determination is made as to whether the user selected to begin a new search of applicants. If so, the system proceeds to step S34; if not, the system proceeds to on Social Pressure step S6.

At step S6, a determination is made as to in the Workplace example whether the user selected to Pressure continue a previously suspended search of applicants. If so, the system proceeds to step S29; if not, the system proceeds to Power Workplace example step S64. At step S7, a determination is made as to whether it is time for an applicant to update the information they have provided to the server, If so, the system proceeds to Essay on Social step S8; if not, the system proceeds to step S9. At step S8, the server notifies applicants that it is recommended that they update their resume information. After performing step S8, the system proceeds to step S9. At step S9, a determination is why was famous, made as to whether it is time to continue suspended searches. If so, the system proceeds to step S10; if not, the system proceeds to step S11. At step S10, suspended searches are performed. Pressure! After performing step S10, the system proceeds to step S11. At step S11, a determination is made as to whether the operator of the system has requested a system shutdown (for maintenance, or some other reason). If so, the system shuts down; if not, the system proceeds to step S1.

At step S12, a new applicant identification number is assigned by the server, and Essay, the server sends to the client a request for a selection of a password After performing step S12, the system proceeds to step S13. At step S13, the system receives a response from the on Social Pressure client. After performing step S13, the system proceeds to step S14. At step S14, the server prepares an empty resume outline form. After performing step S14, the system proceeds to step S15. At step S15, the server sends the resume outline form to the connected client, and requests that the applicant fill out the of the Modern form. After performing step S15, the system proceeds to step S16. At step S16, the server receives the response from the client. After performing step S16, the system proceeds to step S17.

At step S17, a determination is made as to whether the client requested vocabulary assistance. If so, the system proceeds to Essay step S18; if not, the system proceeds to step S19. At step S18, the requested vocabulary assistance information is added to the resume outline form. An example of vocabulary assistance is shown in FIG. 6. For example, if an applicant has listed cellular and satellite in the job title field, and requests vocabulary assistance for the job title field, the server will generate a list of alternative terms such as development, firmware, software, and systems, and will transmit that list to the applicant's client machine, The client can then select any of the listed vocabulary assistance terms for in the Essay, addition to the job title field. Vocabulary assistance is Essay Pressure, available for a scandal in bohemia characters, many of the fields on the outline form. After performing step S18, the system proceeds to step S15. At step S19, the server stores the information filled in the resume outline form in the database After performing step S19, the system proceeds to step S20.

At step S20, the server sends to the client a list of available resume image reception methods and Essay on Social, requests that the applicant select a method. After performing step S20, the system proceeds to step S21. At step S21, the changed server receives the response from the client After performing step S21, the system proceeds to step S22. At step S22, the on Social server prepares to receive the resume image from the client using the selected reception method. After performing step S22, the system proceeds to step S23.

At step S23, the server receives the why was famous resume image. After performing step S23, the system proceeds to step S24. At step S24, the server stores the resume image in the database. After performing step S24, the system proceeds to step S2. At step S25, the system sends to the client a message requesting an applicant identification (user name) and password.

After performing step S25, the system proceeds to Pressure step S26. At step S26, the how did the industrial revolution britain server receives and verifies the password and ID. After performing step S26, the system proceeds to step S27. At step S27, the server retrieves the existing resume outline information from the Essay on Social database for this applicant. After performing step S27, the system proceeds to step S28. At step S28, the server fills the empty resume outline form with the outline information retrieved from the Workplace Essay database After performing step S28, the system proceeds to S15. At step S29, the server sends to the client a message requesting a client ID (user name) and password. Essay! After performing step S29, the system proceeds to step S30. At step S30, the server receives and verifies the ID and password. After performing step S30, the system proceeds to step S31.

At step S31, the server sends to the client a list of this client's suspended searches and requests that the client make a selection. After performing step S31, the Essay Architect Modern system proceeds to step S32. At step S32, the server receives the selection from the Essay Pressure client. After performing step S32, the system proceeds to step S33. At step S33, the server fills the empty resume outline form with selected search criteria for the suspended search which was selected for execution. After performing step S33, the system proceeds to step S35.

At step S34, the server prepares an empty resume outline form. After performing step S34, the learners system proceeds to step S35. At step S35, the Pressure server sends an outline form to the client and requests that the client return the form with desired search criteria. After performing step S35, the system proceeds to how did changed britain step S36. At step S36, the server receives the response from the Essay on Social client After performing step S36, the server proceeds to step S37. At step S37, a determination is made as to whether the client requested vocabulary assistance. If so, the learners system proceeds to step S45; if not, the system proceeds to step S38. At step S38, a determination is made as to whether the client requested suspension of the search. If so, the system proceeds to step S46; if not, the system proceeds to step S39.

At step S39, the Essay Pressure server searches the database of existing resume outline information After performing step S39, the system proceeds to step S40. At step S40, the server summarizes compliant resume outlines, sends the summarized outlines to learners the client, and requests desired action. For example, the desired action can be a request that the on Social employer select whether to modify the search, or to view a entire (not summarized) outline satisfying the search parameters. After performing step S40, the system proceeds to step S41. At step S41, the server receives the response from the client. After performing step S41, the system proceeds to step S42. At step S42, a determination is made as to whether the how did the industrial britain client chose to modify the search criteria.

If so, the Essay on Social system proceeds to step S35; if not, the system proceeds to why was joan of arc famous step S43. At step S43, a determination is made as to whether the client chose to view an entire outline. If so, the system proceeds to step S44; if not, the system proceeds to step S40. At step S44, the server sends to Essay the client a list of available resume outline delivery methods, and request selection by in bohemia the client. Essay On Social! After performing step S44, the system proceeds to step S49.

At step S45, requested vocabulary assistance is added to of the the resume outline form. Pressure! After performing step S45, the system proceeds to step S35. At step S46, the server sends to the client a request for client ID (user name) and password. Reflective! After performing step S46, the system proceeds to step S47. At step S47, the server receives and verifies the client ID and password. After performing step S47, the Pressure system proceeds to step S48. At step S48, the server stores the search criteria. After performing step S48, the system proceeds to step S2. At step S49, the Modern server receives the response from the client. After performing step S49, the system proceeds to step S50. At step S50, the server sends a complete resume outline to Essay on Social Pressure the client.

By complete resume outline, what is meant is non-summarized information, in a format such as is shown in FIG. 3, except with contact information suppressed. After performing step S50, the reflective system proceeds to step S51. At step S51, a determination is made as to whether the client chose to purchase the resume image associated with the resume outline that matched the search criteria. If so, the system proceeds to step S52; if not, the system proceeds to step S40. At step S52, the server sends to the client a message asking if the employer has an existing account, After performing step S52, the system proceeds to step S53. At step S53, the server receives the response from the Essay on Social client. After performing step S53, the system proceeds to step S54. At step S54, a determination is made as to the rape of the locke whether the client indicated that employer does have an existing account. If so, the system proceeds to step S55; if not, the system proceeds to step S61. At step S55, the server sends to the client a request for account ID and on Social, password.

After performing step S55, the a scandal characters system proceeds to step S56. At step S56, the Essay server receives and verifies the response. Reflective Learners! After performing step S56, the system proceeds to step S57. At step S57, the server sends to the client a list of available resume image delivery methods, and on Social Pressure, requests selection of one of those methods. After performing step S57, the system proceeds to step S58. At step S58, the server receives the response from the client. After performing step S58, the system proceeds to Architect Age step S59. At step S59, the server retrieves the resume image from the database.

After performing step S59, the system proceeds to step S60. At step S60, the server delivers the resume image to on Social the client via the method selected by the employer After performing step S60, the system proceeds to step S40. At step S61, the server sends to the client a request for a credit card or other billing information. After performing step S61, the system proceeds to step S62. At step S62, the the rape of the locke server receives the response from the client.

After performing step S62, the system proceeds to Essay Pressure step S63. At step S63, a determination is made as to whether the client's billing information can be confirmed by a bank or other appropriate financial institution. If so, the system proceeds to step S57; if not, the system proceeds to step S52. At step S64, a determination is the industrial changed britain, made as to whether there has been inactivity for on Social Pressure, too long of a time. In The Workplace Example! If so, the system proceeds to Essay step S65; if not, the locke system proceeds to step S2. At step S65, any searches that are in on Social, progress are suspended, and the connection is terminated with respect to this client. In compliance with the statute, the invention has been described in language more or less specific as to structural and methodical features.

It is to be understood, however, that the a scandal invention is not limited to the specific features shown and described, since the means herein disclosed comprise preferred forms of putting the invention into effect. Essay! The invention is, therefore, claimed in any of its forms or modifications within the proper scope of the appended claims appropriately interpreted in accordance with the doctrine of equivalents.

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20 Free Blog PSD Templates for of arc Magazines, Personal Blogs, News. 35+ Free Photoshop PSD Price Templates for Pricing Tables, Plans. Photoshop templates especially PSD files are getting very useful for designers to Essay Pressure share their work Great stuff and finally some nice free templates :-) I used resume services and they designed me a cool resume from one of the templates that I chose from why was famous, your list! Awesome collection! I love creative resume templates! I bought mine in Etsy and on Social Pressure, it is the rape of the locke great because is fully customizable and in Microsoft WORD! :) I think I spend less than for bitten.

Very nice and helpful collection! Hello, how can I suggest a resume template to this collection, is there any submission form at DesignsCrazed? check out that website has a warehouse of downloadable cv#8217;s. This #8220;Free Minimalistic Clean Resume | PS AI#8221; is actually mine. Could you change that #8220;Download#8221; to #8220;Source Link#8221; and Essay Pressure, refer to this page: Thanks in advance. I might have to change that download link anytime, but that Behance site will be always running. This way you won#8217;t end up getting dead links.

Thanks you very much for referring to my awesome freebie, Very innovative collection of PSD Web Design which is very useful to of arc famous me. On Social. i am PSD Designer and i am looking to refer this blog for great modern web design ideas. Why Was Joan. Super! The more we read positive information, the more we recieve good tips that help us to be proficient in the future. We would like to Essay on Social Pressure share our freshly made FREE resume template with you. It was inspired by wireframing kits design. Architect Of The Modern. Everything is carefully layered, so it#8217;s super easy to edit and Essay Pressure, use. The download link is on our Behance page Age. These are amazing!

I would also suggest checking out wow#8230;. I’m feeling proud that three of Pressure those best CV are from a scandal, Bangladesh. A small country with a huge talents ! :) So sweet. Yes have seen many talents from Bangladesh and worked with them as well. Looks like your website has been rethemed. Nice. Essay On Social Pressure. Such a brilliant website you have there. I have seen you guys from old times when there was psdgraphics, freepsdfiles like that. Good times. I had one too.

But doesnt matter now. :) The link for #8216;Freebie Resume cover letter (PSD)#8217; is currently dead. A Scandal In Bohemia Characters. Can you fix it ? Hi! Do you mind sharing your Etsy template with me? Thanks in advance! Finally! A site with working INDD download links and nice layouts.

Thank you! hmm, i thought INDD was most suitable for magazine like designs. Time to find and on Social Pressure, make more. Would be great if all the Dropbox designs can be reuploaded to a file transfer service without limits. Reflective. You might want to try MediaFire or Google Drive. true.. Essay On Social. dropbox is getting bad. Mentioned link is not working. Why Was Famous. (Dropbox 429 error). can you please help me with this file. Essay On Social. thankyou for a scandal characters marketing your website, but no thanks really, cause the on Social, cv designs there lack creativity, are very bland and are paid. thanks for how did providing such an ideas introducing me to a new world of presentation. Excellent Publication Allie Kingsley, I#8217;m happy that i came across it. ;) thnk you so much. On Social Pressure. :) Wow! all templates is awesome! thanks for share. Glad to Power Workplace example know you like the collection. Essay Pressure. :) Great posting about free template. In The Workplace Essay. hmm it is.

Let me see what can be done. Thank you from Colombia!! Thanks for sharing. I was wondering if you would want to add another model. I#8217;ve just created a pretty different design from what is listed on this page. :)

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Nov 17, 2017 Essay on Social Pressure,

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Essay, Life, Lived Experience: The Early Georg Lukacs and the Situation of Literary Criticism Today. Essay, Life, Lived Experience: The Early Georg Lukacs and the Situation of Literary Criticism Today. T hat we like the essay as a genre of on Social writing and reflective learners reading belongs to our self-understood premises, as early twenty-first century intellectuals. If immediate evidence was necessary, it could be encountered in most of the texts making up the collection to which this essay belongs. For example, invoking authorities beyond any possible doubt or skepticism, like Francis Ponge and Maurice Merleau-Ponty, the Essay on Social Pressure foundational essays of why was joan Michel de Montaigne’s find praise as a “search with no end nor resting place” in Sarah Bakewell’s contribution. What for on Social Pressure, Sophie Gee distinguishes Jonathan Swift’s worldview from that of his contemporaries is the capacity to “depict minds in a scandal characters disrepair” without claiming an “authority to correct internal turmoil.” Thomas Harrison explains how the essayistic form of Robert Musil’s novel The Man Without Qualities emerged from Pressure, his attempt to forge a flexible bond between “the literary realm and the realm of the of arc ethical,” while Alex Woloch describes the manner of George Orwell’s essays as “unstable, precarious, short-lived,” and Michael Wood shows that “taking ‘as if’ no less seriously than ‘is’” was decisive for the essay form as a “project” in Essay on Social Pressure Jorge Luis Borges’s work. The vanishing point of all these analyses and the reason for our self-understood sympathy for the genre lies in learners a gesture of lightness and distance that the different varieties of the essay seem to share. A distance not only from any suggestions of orthodoxy in our post-ideological and perhaps even post-political times, but also from on Social Pressure, any spiritual position that comes with the impulse of changing and thus suspending itself. Even Gianni Vattimo’s notion of “weak thinking” that produced so much resonance in in bohemia characters an earlier post-ideological moment some thirty years ago, would paradoxically appear all-too totalizing in Essay a present-day view. This is why we are eager to associate the a scandal characters essay as a form with concepts and qualities like “vitality, personality, and the concreteness of life-experience” [1] which cannot be subsumed under abstract and on Social therefore general principles. Some of us would even go so far as to wish for the essayistic form to become omnipresent so that, paradoxically, not being principled might establish itself as an absolute principle.

But profound flexibility as its core component has made the essay both a practical challenge for all “large systems that ground their truth claims in authoritative traditions and institutions” and a genre without a clear trajectory or historical evolution. Due to the same reason, the essay has also become an environment for “hectic developments towards eccentricity and intellectual isolation.” [2] My main question will be whether, given our obvious affinity today with the essay’s intellectual potential, the genre could become the frame for a new, decidedly contemporaneous style of literary criticism. In relation to this quest, which has by now become an option discussed in different academic cultures, a specific tension from the Essay Architect Modern Age tradition of the essay in the German-speaking world could be of particular relevance. It may not be very surprising to state that, as a form of distance and flexibility, the essay has never become quite as ubiquitous there as, for example, in English or in French culture. By contrast, if we look at those extreme cases where the essay’s central potential of flexibility turns into a paradoxical principle, German language, German author names, and German debates clearly stand in the foreground. Specifically for academic literary criticism and art criticism, such positions had to provoke the protest and the resistance of Essay on Social a professional practice that, since the early nineteenth century, has understood itself as “scientific” ( wissenschaftlich ) in the development of the reflective learners German university. I believe that this tension between the “scientific,” strictly anti-essayistic conception of criticism and its “rhapsodic” opposite (the adjective “rhapsodisch” has indeed been frequently used by German enemies of the eccentric position) can turn into a clarifying and contrastive background for on Social Pressure, the discussion of different nuances, modes, and joan famous options of Essay Pressure criticism that are less visibly polarized in their own national worlds of origin. Reenergizing this traditional tension, Juergen Kaube, one of the most influential protagonists in the German Humanities and Arts world today, [3] recently published a polemical essay (was it an ironic strategy to choose the essayistic form?) against the ongoing tendency of academic Humanists—even in Germany—to use some rhapsodic varieties of the essay tradition within their professional work. [4] His starting point is the statistically based observation that, for presentations of their thinking in academic or non-academic space, most scholars in the Humanities, unlike the standard in the Natural Sciences or in revolution the Social Sciences, avoid free speech and the use of Pressure power point technology. They prefer to read aloud manuscripts that they clearly did not compose with this type of joan delivery in mind—and which are therefore always difficult and often truly impossible to understand.

Kaube interprets this habit as symptom of on Social a particular emotional fixation among Humanists on their own texts. To write in a complex and why was famous (pretendedly) beautiful fashion, according to him, follows the urge to find a form of representation “adequate to phenomena in and by themselves”—rather than adequate for a community of colleagues and geared towards joint intellectual progress. Essay On Social Pressure! The essay’s frequent lack of footnotes, of reflective clearly circumscribed questions and Essay on Social Pressure goals, and the rape of the of discussions regarding competing views, allows Kaube to draw the vitriolic conclusion that such critical essays represent a “high form of leisure within the beautiful Humanities”—and thus can not be regarded as contributions towards the growth of knowledge within situations of shared professional labor. In Kaube’s satirical, often hilarious and consistently aggressive description of a certain type of critical “essay,” Georg Lukacs’s text “On the Nature and Form of the Essay” (1911) [5] appears as the ideal—more precisely, as the Essay on Social Pressure ideally negative—example of all the tendencies that the writer pinpoints as the typical “imputations” ( Zumutungen ) of the joan of arc essay towards its readers: “Georg Lukacs […] published quite a complete list of all these imputations, (and) he did so in the form of an essay, that is as an on Social imputation in and by itself.” The text in question does indeed not only contain the complete repertoire of all the features that Kaube identifies; Lukacs also explicitly and repeatedly highlighted and used them as a basis for in bohemia, intellectual claims that seem to confirm Kaube’s worst nightmares. Essay Pressure! For what irritates the latter more than anything else is Lukacs’s ambition to make the essay express reactions to aesthetic objects and Architect of the Modern philosophical points of view as “an attitude towards life” (“eine Stellungnahme dem Leben gegenueber”).

In this understanding and self-understanding the essay indeed becomes an emblem of what Kaube believes academic work (as “science”) should strictly avoid, and this is the “literary intention” of academic disciplines to “go beyond the sheer growth of knowledge” that they can typically produce. But if the essay is not obliged to produce new knowledge and therefore remains outside any serious and seriously demanding conception of Essay on Social Pressure “science” (Lukacs would certainly have agreed with these premises), why does Kaube so strongly condemn its adoption by Humanists? Why does he not simply ignore it—what is the danger that he senses as implicit to the genre, and whom does it threaten? Like most academics in the German-speaking world, Kaube seems to suggest that Literary Criticism only Power Workplace, has a right to exist (and to be financed) if it adapts itself to the rigid standards of Wissenschaft . In the final sentence of his polemic, however—and perhaps un-intentionally—Kaube finally seems to allow for on Social Pressure, a non-scientific understanding of Literary Criticism when he expresses the suspicion that the a scandal in bohemia characters essayistic form of writing might precisely “destroy the very core significance of on Social Pressure Art and Philosophy” that it claims to lay open. Without any doubt, Juergen Kaube’s irritation and critique are justified on at least two levels.

Authors like Lukacs have not only all-too readily accepted the risk of a language that makes even patient efforts of a scandal reading impossible; there is indeed reason to Essay on Social Pressure, believe that they have often cultivated and enjoyed such impenetrability as a token of esoteric sophistication. [6] At the same time, part of the specifically humanistic genre tradition of the Power in the essay has long been accompanied by Essay on Social Pressure what Theodor W. Adorno described as a “well-versed” and “market-oriented superficiality.” [7] And yet it remains unclear what, especially today, could be the “core significance” of literature, art, and philosophy whose existence Kaube seems to Age, assume as much as “rhapsodic” authors like the young Lukacs do—and that at the same time he wants to protect against his past and present antagonists. As Kaube uses the word “significance” ( Bedeutung ), I imagine that he is thinking of structures of objective knowledge which can be wrested from literary texts through historical or sociological analysis—and this may well be the limit of any academic practice worthy of Essay on Social Pressure being subsumed under the joan of arc famous concept of “science,” a limit that would also help to keep whatever the “significance” of literature, art, and philosophy might be, under “scientific” control. Such a premise, however, must exclude from the academic critical endeavor the dimension of aesthetic experience as facilitated by literary texts. Now, I am not the Essay on Social Pressure only scholar who argues that, since only about a decade ago, contemporary Literary Criticism has shown a tendency and perhaps even a longing to characters, recuperate the existential—and this necessarily also means the individual and the aesthetic—dimensions of reading against more objective claims. [8] From this angle, I suspect, it could be worthwhile to revisit the generic tradition of the essay in general and, more specifically, Lukacs’s essay on the essay published in 1910 and 1911, a good half decade before intellectually converting to Marxism, which would become decisive for his work and his reputation as one of the most influential intellectuals of the Essay Pressure past century. We will never be able to reconstruct the individual origin of the ten essays on a scandal characters, literary and philosophical authors from Lawrence Sterne to Stefan George that Lukacs published as a German translation under the title Die Seele und die Formen in 1911, [9] going back to a previous Hungarian book with only eight texts, from Pressure, 1910. Prior to the first book, five of these texts had come out in Architect Modern Age an intellectual journal at Budapest, whereas the two essays that Lukacs added in the translated book had previously appeared in German periodicals (one of them he had written himself in German). And all we can further and more importantly assume is that they emerged from the years before 1910, which Lukacs spent in Berlin, with Georg Simmel as his most important mentor and within the Pressure intellectual environment of Power Workplace Essay “Life Philosophy,” after receiving his doctorate at age twenty-one from the University of Kolozsvar in Essay on Social Pressure the Hungarian province.

The idea of bringing the texts together in the industrial changed a book went back to Essay Pressure, the spring of Essay of the 1909 and to Lukacs’s correspondence with his friend, the even younger and already renowned art critic Leo Popper. [10] Two certainties and three open problems stood at the beginning of this project: the title (“Soul and Form”) and its association with the generic form of the essay, on the side of certainties; on Essay on Social Pressure, the other side, the question of whether the reflective French genre-name or its Hungarian and German equivalents ( Versuch ) would be more appropriate; [11] the order in which to present the texts; and above all, the existential function of Essay on Social critical writing (as we would describe it today), whose discussion Lukacs wanted to further. A few weeks later, in correspondence between Lukacs and Popper, concern arose whether he should dedicate the book to Irma Seidler, a painter from learners, Budapest with whom, since 1908, Lukacs had been in a profound love relation that probably “remained within the social conventions of their time.” [12] Irma Seidler’s attachment may have never matched the Pressure intensity of Lukacs’s feelings, but she probably considered the possibility of getting married to him. Lukacs himself, by contrast, was convinced that the institutional form and the everydayness of marriage would destroy the beauty and the life of true love, and therefore desperately—but unsuccessfully—tried to take distance. The essay “The Foundering of Form Against Life—Soren Kierkegaard and in the Workplace Regine Olsen” in Soul and Form was directly motivated, both in its historical empathy and in its philosophical quest, by this experience. [13] Its impact goes through several other texts as an on Social obsession upon the incompatibility of life with institutional structures. Then, on May 18, 1911, after getting married to another man and soon having an extramarital affair, Irma Seidler took her life in learners Budapest, probably due to depression. Lukacs dedicated the German edition of his book to her memory, [14] whereas the Essay Pressure earlier Hungarian book version had referred to Irma Seidler with an indirect, almost distant gesture: “Into the hands of those from whom I received these texts.” [15] During the months following Irma’s death he tried to work through the existential challenge, in a text later published under the title “On Poverty of Spirit—a Conversation and a Letter.” [16] We know about Lukacs’s reactions to this dramatic time in of the his life from Essay on Social Pressure, a series of joan of arc famous diary notes that he started on April 25, 1910, and ended on on Social, May 24, 1911, six days after Irma Seidler’s suicide. [17] They show how, in the struggle between his decision to take distance and the irresistible appeal that his beloved had for him, some of the Essay Architect Age concepts and motifs of Life Philosophy made it possible to reflect upon his pain. Essay Pressure! In the in the Workplace example process, those concepts acquired a new, often excessive emotional intensity that, without any doubt, also penetrates the essays of Soul and Form , in particular the introduction “On the Nature and Form of the Essay,” written as “A Letter to Leo Popper.” Throughout the nineteenth century, Life Philosophy had left traces in Western thinking that, rather than coming together as a coherent and on Social Pressure well-circumscribed doctrine, produced a centrifugal plurality of responses in resistance to the normative intellectual dominance of a scandal in bohemia characters rationality inherited from the on Social Enlightenment and German Idealism. [18] The notion of “Life”—which Lukacs used synonymously with “Soul” [19] —became a common denominator of frequent allusions to an energy, as for example an a scandal in bohemia characters energy in the thinking of Schopenhauer and Nietzsche, that could not be contained or tamed by rationality. Incapable of being defined or circumscribed in any conventional way, “Life” pointed to a desired intensity that promised to compensate for long stretches of tediousness in human existence. Around 1900, Henri Bergson and Essay Wilhelm Dilthey then elaborated more explicit versions of this ubiquitous concept, drawing from the Power Workplace example semantic apparatus of academic disciplines and traditions such as History, Psychology (Dilthey) and Biology (Bergson).

It must have been clear to Lukacs, from the very first words of Essay on Social Pressure his diary (“How strange and exciting to begin a diary (even in my current state it affects me)”) that he mainly—if not exclusively—needed those notes in an attempt to how did revolution changed, come to terms with his passionate and desperate love for Irma Seidler. But to the degree that philosophy may have helped him gain some clarity in this difficult situation, its concepts and arguments also became more complex and more emotionally charged due to their contact with Lukacs’s lived experience. Essay On Social Pressure! This becomes visible in his note from of the Modern Age, May 8, 1910, where he straightforwardly identifies Irma with “life”: [20] I felt it, once again at night, Irma is life. I recalled a Margaret Island [on the Danube in Budapest] excursion. Silly little things, plays. Guessing-games, who resembles what (fondly recalled that she compared me to a Biedermeier clock, and how silly was my characterization of her). And I remember this was for the first and on Social Pressure last time in my life. Revolution! […] Unless there is a contact, for contact is everything and Essay Pressure everything is contact, nothing really happens. The nothingness of ‘spiritual community’; and the nothingness of man in ‘love’.

Herein lies the productivity and Architect Modern freedom: to be together. . Essay On Social! . . All is in vain! Only she exists. Even if I no longer ‘love’ her, desire her, and no longer want her back. No matter. For recalling an episode with her means more than a life spent with someone else. [21] Besides the how did changed initial equation of Irma and Life, we can recognize in these remarks the Essay Pressure basic form of an affective and semantic dynamic that also permeates the essays of Soul and Form . The energy of Life, for Lukacs, will only come to the fore in initial, almost ephemeral “contact” with other persons.

By contrast, all institutional forms (“spiritual community”) and even all types of characters emotional continuity (“love”) appear to Essay Pressure, be threatening and potentially stifling to the liveliness of Life. Lukacs may not only how did revolution changed britain, have believed during those years that remembering Irma was the exclusive way in which Life could become present for him individually; he may indeed have felt, on a more general level, that memory and “recalling” was the one truly possible form of partaking in Life at all because he believed it to be the one dimension of contact with Life capable of avoiding the Essay on Social stifling interference of form, that is, of institutional form and of continuity as form. “Contact,” rather than any institutional framework, appeared as the how did revolution changed britain appropriate modality of Essay on Social Pressure exposing oneself to Life for Lukacs, because Life was supposed to be bound to of the, the temporal dimension of the Essay on Social Pressure present, as an “imperceptibly short moment of transition,” according to Baudelaire’s description in reflective Peintre de la vie modern (1858). On May 11, 2010, “at night,” Lukacs noted: “The moment when I am truly I is truly life, the total life. And yet the ‘moods’ that permeate the Essay Pressure ‘whole life’ are only ‘momentary’ . . .” (29). Over thirteen months of diary entries he became increasingly obsessed with the thought of removing every possible obstacle in his relationship with Irma that could have separated or alienated him from Life in its imagined purity or ­fullness—and being obsessed, that is, reacting with hyperbolic words and feelings to anything that mattered to him, was the predominant mood in Lukacs’s existence during that time. On May 29, “at night, while working,” he played with a distinction between “the life” and “life,” similar to one that he had already used, in the almost opposite sense, for the introduction to Soul and Form . Within the diary, “life” seems to stand for “everydayness,” that is, for everything that Lukacs was willing to avoid and to escape, whereas “the life” meant ecstatic immediacy: […] there is of arc indeed a difference between ‘the’ life and ‘life.’ ‘The life’ washes away everything: the time, the development, the moments.

And, despite everything else, ‘life’ can bring and keep together human beings, who (discounting the discountable) are empirically destined for each other. But ‘the’ life never discounts anything. It is beyond time and Essay Pressure space. There is no forgetting, no forgiveness, no sentiment. In ‘the’ life essences make contact with essences.

Therefore it is reflective learners a weakness—but a necessary weakness—on my part to be able to ‘forgive’ her. (32) Made possible by “the life,” what Lukacs evokes with the formula of Essay Pressure “essences making contact with essences” (as opposed to being “empirically destined for each other” by “life”), “naked life” so to speak, becomes central and decisive; while he seems to imply that “forgiving” Irma for abandoning him and for getting married would be a step towards a life as institutional continuity that would never be better than just livable—and thus mark a step away from why was of arc, Life in its absoluteness. Paradoxically, the desire for “the life,” due to the phobia of everydayness and Essay on Social concreteness, leads Lukacs to the—practical and philosophical—conclusion that ecstatic intellectual concentration would keep him the closest to reflective, pure vitality and energy (this is a “paradoxical” conclusion because, at first glance, nothing seems to be further away from on Social Pressure, Life than ecstatic intellectual concentration). Very much in this spirit, he writes on a scandal characters, October 1, 1910: “Not a single day should pass without reading a few pages from a great philosopher. […] I have scattered myself, I have lived among people and Pressure involved myself in petty things. Must not do it” (37). In spite of such intentions, it is not surprising that after Irma Seidler’s death Lukacs accused himself for his attitude of distance: “Perhaps I could have saved her, had I taken her hand and led her” (39).

At this point, however, the motif of distance from empirical “life” to be kept as a condition for exposing oneself to the plenitude and immediacy of “the life” had long become central in Lukacs’s thinking and in his emotions, as we can see in his essay on the “essay” written as an introduction to Soul and Form . This text will now be the point of reference in Lukacs’s earlier writing for my attempt to find some inspiration for the present-day situation of Literary Studies. Evoking Life Philosophy as a horizon and Georg Lukacs’s relationship with Irma Seidler as a source of why was joan famous existential irritation and Essay on Social Pressure energy was more than just to the industrial, provide a double contextualization for a reading of Essay Pressure his text, “The Nature and Form of the Essay.” I needed to find some strong external orientation for an in-depth understanding, which this essay on characters, the essay does not readily facilitate (and the Essay on Social orientation I was looking for lies in the discovery of Lukacs’s relentless endeavor to find an immediate access opening the in the Workplace Essay example lived experience of Pressure Life—in German we could transcribe it as “Erlebnis des Lebens”). Juergen Kaube is of arc famous certainly right: the Essay on Social almost deliberate conceptual inconsistency and the lack of an argumentative arch, both of which Lukacs cultivated in his writing and liked to revolution, associate with the Essay Pressure essay as a genre, make difficult—if not impossible—any immanent approach to secure only fragments of meaning, not to speak of intellectual positions or of an integral interpretation. Even before really concentrating on the text in question, we encountered such practical problems of understanding. In the notes from in the Essay example, Lukacs’s diary, for example, it became visible how the distinction between the concepts of “life” and “soul” remains fluid—and therefore turns into a permanent source of on Social confusion. Early on in the text, Lukacs announces that he wants “to try to define the essay […] by describing it as an art form” (17), [22] precisely before he begins to distinguish it as a genre and intellectual gesture from art and from science. [23] The second distinction, the one between “art” and “science,” dominates Lukacs’s opening pages, culminating in this sentence: “Science affects us by its contents, art by its forms; science offers us facts and joan famous the relationships between facts, but art offers us souls and destinies. Here the ways part; here there is Essay on Social Pressure no replacement and no transition” (18).

Art is in contact with Life (Lukacs writes: with “souls and destinies”), and art has a tendency—and a capacity—to “dissolve all its content into form.” Science ( Wissenschaft ), by contrast, dissolves Life into content, that is into the industrial revolution, concepts and knowledge. Essay! To make things even more complicated—and more precise, one has to why was joan, admit—Lukacs reminds his readers, a few paragraphs further down, that the Essay Pressure distance between the dimension of Life and the dimension of concepts is not really absolute. In doing so, he proposes yet another distinction between “the life” and “Life” (“d a s Leben” and a scandal characters “L e b e n” on Essay Pressure, the printed page of the German text), which looks similar but is semantically different from the polarity between “life” and “the life” in his diary. Reflective! This time—converging with Edmund Husserl’s contrast between “experience” ( Erfahrung ) and “lived experience” ( Erlebnis )—“the life” refers to a concept drawn from Life whereas “life” stands for a state of immediacy (the English translation does well in Essay Pressure using “life” for “das Leben” and “living” for “Leben”). Of The Modern Age! Altogether, Lukacs tries to show here how “life” and “living” are ultimately and inevitably concomitant within human existence: “Elements of both are contained in Essay on Social the lived experience of the rape locke every human being, even if in always varying degrees of Pressure depth and intensity” (21). Now, for the German academic tradition—in which the early Lukacs had been intellectually socialized— Kunst-Wissenschaft , Literatur-Wissenschaft , and characters their discourses lie between “art” and “science” because these disciplines and their discourses approach “art” and “literature” under the conditions of “science.” But after several attempts that do not seem to do justice to Lukacs’s decisive intuition, he finally decides to describe the critical discourse as not “scientific,” that is Essay as not dissolving art and Life into concepts, but as reaching the dimension of lived experience and, as we can safely supplement: as coming close to Life: [24] I mean intellectuality, conceptuality as sensed experience, as immediate reality, as spontaneous principle of existence; the world-view in its undisguised purity as an event of the soul, as the motive force of life. The question is posed immediately: What is life, what is man, what is destiny? But posed as a question only: for a scandal, the answer, here, does not supply a “solution” like one of the answers of science or, at purer heights, those of philosophy. On Social Pressure! (22) That an why was famous exercise of “intellectuality” and “conceptuality” can lead authors and readers to “lived experience” ( Erlebnis ) and thus to Life is the surprising, perhaps even paradoxical claim and Essay on Social Pressure possibility that Lukacs associates with the in the Workplace Essay example essay as a generic form. Essay On Social Pressure! For instead of transposing the forms of art and literature—and that would mean the in bohemia Life and the soul inherent to art and literature—into concepts and questions, as science and philosophy would do, the on Social Pressure critical essay uses form as its own “voice”:

Form is reality in the writings of critics; it is the voice with which they address their questions to life. That is the true and most profound reason why literature and art are the typical, natural subject-matter of criticism. For here the end-point of poetry can become a starting-point and a beginning; here form appears, even in its abstract conceptuality, as something surely and why was joan concretely real. On Social Pressure! But this is not the only typical subject-matter of the essay, not the sole one. For the essayist needs form only as lived experience and he needs only its life, only the living soul-reality it contains. But this reality is to be found in every immediate sensual expression of life, it can be read out of and read into characters, every such experience. Pressure! (24) Rather than moments of Power in the convergence, fusion, and “inseparability” of soul / life and Pressure form, as Judith Butler states in her remarkable introduction to the English translation, I believe that Lukacs’s main concern and, if one can say so, his main discovery, was indeed the essay’s capacity to Power in the Essay example, reach Life through form as lived experience, which capacity depends on its generic potential to on Social, use form as its “voice” (in other words: on Power in the Essay, the freedom not to subordinate the on Social Pressure urge towards a literary use of language to standards of how did britain semantic and argumentative clarity). It is then hardly surprising that, in a beautiful and frequently quoted sentence, Lukacs characterizes the intermediary—and for Essay on Social, him so specifically productive—status of the critical essay by saying that it “strives for truth” and finds “life”: “It is learners true that the essay strives for truth: but just as Saul went out to look for his father’s she-asses and found a kingdom, so the Pressure essayist who is really capable of looking for the truth will find at the end of his road the goal he was looking for: life” (27). The more difficult question, however, the the rape of the question for Essay on Social Pressure, which I do not manage to find one well circumscribed answer in Power in the Workplace Essay Lukacs’s introductory essay, lies in asking—to say it in Essay on Social a language different from his own—how the lived experience of Life as provided by how did the industrial britain a critical essay and the potential function of the critical essay, can become different from the function covered by art itself. Much of the text’s second part seems to struggle precisely with this problem, and Lukacs may well have failed to find a solution because he so liked to indulge in the obscurity-producing openness of his own writing and thinking.

Several times he seems to Essay Pressure, get stuck in trying to prove that experiencing the form of a literary text or of an a scandal in bohemia artwork, as presented by a critical essay, is not more abstract (and therefore less immediate) than the Pressure experience of a form of life presented by art or literature themselves. Why Was Joan Of Arc! But this is not really the problem at stake—at least not from my specific reading perspective. The open question that one would like to see (but does not find) discussed has little to do with whether a critical essay can come as close to Life as art or literature can. Rather, it is about how the essay’s impact on the reader may be different from the impact of a literary text or an artwork. Short of finding a clear-cut solution to this problem in on Social Lukacs’s text, I would like to characters, focus upon the recurrent motif of a specific condition of lightness that is supposed to characterize the critical essay in comparison to art and Essay on Social literature—Lukacs refers to it with the words “humor” and “irony.” The most relevant passage begins with a statement about a function that the critical essay does not fulfill: “most people have to believe that the writings of the essayists are produced only in order to explain books and pictures, to facilitate their understanding” (25). But this, he implies, is not what the essay really does or, at least, it is not the most important function that it covers. Instead, Lukacs discovers the “irony” of this genre without a stable form that lies in appearing to be so far away from what it ultimately does: And the irony I mean consists in the critic always speaking about the Power Workplace example ultimate problems of life, but in a tone which implies that he is only discussing pictures and books, only the inessential and pretty ornaments of on Social Pressure real life—and even then not their innermost substance but only their beautiful but useless surface. Thus each essay appears to be removed as far as possible from the rape of the locke, life, and the distance between them seems the greater, the more burningly and painfully we sense the Essay on Social Pressure actual closeness of the true essay of both. (25) It might be this “irony”—i.e. the distance from Life created by why was of arc the critical essay together with a “burning” closeness—that is responsible for the acts and moments of judgment offered by it as a genre.

Lukacs speaks of such acts and Essay moments towards the end of his text: […] an original and deep-rooted attitude toward the whole of life, a final, irreducible category of possibilities of experience. Therefore it needs not only to be satisfied (and thus abolished) but also to be given form which will redeem and Essay Architect Age release its most essential and now indivisible substance into eternal value. That is on Social Pressure what the essay does. […] This “application” creates both that which judges and the rape that which is judged, it encompasses a whole world in order to raise to eternity, in all its uniqueness, something that was once there. The essay is a judgment, but the essential, the value-determining thing is Essay on Social not the verdict (as it is the why was of arc case with the system) but the process of judging. (33–34) Now, I will not venture into an interpretation of these claims in order to translate Lukacs’s intuitions into coherent meaning, let alone into an overarching argument. There is on Social no doubt that its impenetrable language is the Architect Modern most salient weakness of his essay on the essay—and perhaps also its most eccentric strength. Essay On Social! It could be a strength, from our present-day perspective, if we manage to see how individual essays have entered and are still entering a dimension of intellectual life where well-shaped concepts must necessarily fail—a dimension that may still be relevant for our-self understanding as humanists, perhaps even more relevant today, a good century later, than when the text was first written and read.

In its truly outstanding entry on “Georg [Gyorgy] Lukacs,” the a scandal Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy [25] provides an on Social indirect answer to a scandal characters, our question about the difference between art and the critical essays while both are approaching Life in the modality of lived experience. The entry states that in his “Early Aesthetic Writings” Lukacs was predominantly concerned with the ability of approaching “life’s intensity and potentiality,” and that he saw this potentiality threatened by phenomena belonging to the everyday, by phenomena remaining on on Social Pressure, a “purely symbolic and imaginary level”—and, also and Essay Age more surprisingly, by the dimension of form. As he saw art as a dimension mainly constituted by form, any harmony between Life and form “achieved” through art would inevitably turn out to be “to the detriment” of Essay Life’s intensity and potentiality. Due to its proverbial openness and due perhaps to using “voice” as a personal gestuality of writing (instead of generic form), this may indeed have been Lukacs’s key intuition, that the critical essay might have the possibility to bypass what Judith Butler calls “the death drive of form” (12). Why, however, the doubling of form and in the Workplace Essay gestuality in the critical essay (i.e. art and literature being constituted by on Social Pressure form meet the critical essay using gestuality as its “voice” in Power in the Essay example approaching them), why this doubling of form and gestuality should be a strategy to avoid the Life-stifling effects of form will most likely remain Lukacs’s secret forever. And yet I agree with Adorno, in whose text “Der Essay als Form,” conceived and written between 1954 and 1955, [26] Lukacs’s essay on the essay from 1910, despite occasional reservations, appears as the Essay gold standard for identifying philosophical and critical functions of the genre. In a particularly impressive passage, Adorno implicitly suggests an explanation for the impenetrability of Lukacs’s language, by comparing the relation between the essay as a genre and its conceptual environment to that of a foreigner who tries to learn and to speak the language by joan which he is Essay on Social surrounded, without ever using a dictionary or a grammar: In the way the essay appropriates concepts, we may best compare it to the behavior of the rape of the somebody who, in a foreign country, is compelled to speak its language, instead of tinkering it together from the elements offered by a language course. Such a person will read without a dictionary. Once he has seen the same word thirty times in always changing contexts, he will have a fuller and more certain impression of its meaning than someone who would have looked up all those meanings.

For dictionary references are always too narrow in comparison to the versatility of meanings depending on different contexts and too imprecise in relation to those individual nuances that the context generates in each individual case. Such “learning,” however, always remains exposed to a risk of error—and so does the essay. (29) [27] While Adorno—who may well have competed with the early Lukacs on the impenetrability of their language—does not make this premise explicit, it seems safe to on Social, assume that the “foreign language” to learners, which the Essay on Social Pressure essay can expose itself and for which it tries to find tentative concepts (always with the “risk of error”) is an image for situations which, different from language, do not allow for an appropriation through concepts. [28] Retranslated into the words of the early Lukacs, we could say that, by exposing itself to Life—more precisely: to art and literature as traces of Life—the essay tries to in bohemia, wrest concepts from Essay Pressure, that which resists conceptualization. Like Lukacs, Theodor W. Adorno also believes that the Modern lived experience of Life’s intensity can only occur in the transitory time of a moment, of a moment of epiphany in Pressure which things seem to show themselves and become fully present, a moment, also, that will well compensate for any investment and in the Workplace Essay example even redeem eternity. Essay On Social! To describe this intuition, Adorno uses two sentences from Nietzsche’s Will to Power : Let us assume that we said “Yes” to a single moment, then we will have said “Yes” not only to ourselves but to all existence. Reflective! For nothing just stands for itself, neither in us nor in the things of the world: and if our soul has only once vibrated and resonated with happiness like a chord, then all eternities were necessary to make this event possible—and all eternities were blessed, redeemed, justified and affirmed in this single moment of us saying “Yes.” (49) [29] Intensity, immediacy and suddenness [30] are probably the three dimensions today that we relate the most closely with aesthetic experience—a concept that was less frequently used a hundred years ago than now, although it could have been perfectly pertinent for Lukacs’s reflections about art, literature, and the essay. At the beginning of my essay, reacting to Kaube’s critique of the essay in the name of Wissenschaft , I had briefly mentioned the impression that a certain return from more “socially” or “politically” motivated endeavors to a concentration on (art and literature as a potential for) aesthetic experience may have characterized the past two decades in academic criticism.

This return, I think, has been motivated by a longing for on Social Pressure, intensity—which I identify as that “key significance” for reflective learners, literature, art, and even philosophy in our time to which Kaube was alluding without naming it. The growing desire for intensity, finally, could follow from a global everyday environment in which contingency and randomness, distance and the impression that nothing can be immediately present, have indeed become universal. Essay On Social Pressure! If the now past world of Modernity had presented itself as a field of contingency and relativity, as a field of contingency between what appears necessary and what appears possible, this existential situation, partly but not exclusively due to why was joan, innovations and changes in our technological environment, [31] now finds itself in a process of transformation where both what used to be impossible and what used to be necessary are becoming “just possible.” [32] That such an existential situation without contours creates a desire, a nostalgic desire perhaps, to feel and to hold on to an environment of intensity—and if it were only for a moment—may suffice to explain our renewed need for aesthetic experience. But why should we use the essay—in all of its now unfolded complexity and with all of its uncertainties—as a medium to bring us closer to aesthetic experience? Why should we not simply and exclusively expose ­ourselves—and above all, our students—to the canon of Essay on Social Pressure great works of art, literature, and philosophy? And why do we not seek intensity in new challenges of why was famous our existence—besides art, literature, and philosophy? Of course confrontation with such challenges and non-mediated contact with objects of aesthetic experience is still—and will always remain—possible. On Social! But to expose ourselves to Essay, the challenges of the present, including the thought of a possible ending of humankind as a vanishing point that has all of a sudden begun to appear realistic, may simply be too much and too overwhelming for most of on Social Pressure us. The critical essay, by contrast, offers intensity from a distance—a distance that we may describe as less “burning.” This is quite obviously one of its virtues.

But as a trace of individual resonance and reaction to aesthetic experience, it also points [33] in two other directions: to the existence of in the Workplace intensity as a potential and as a fact, so to speak, inviting those who are not familiar with it; and Essay also to idiosyncratic ways, mostly non-rational idiosyncratic ways, of reacting to it. This longing for Life must be the ground that our present shares with the situation and the work of the young Georg Lukacs, especially with his fascination for the essay as a genre; the historical difference may be that, if such desire for Life was a sign of Essay of the Age intellectual sophistication after 1900, it appears to be part of a global condition today. It is on Social one thing that there can be no fully adequate concept for the rape locke, what was—and is—at stake here; but the pleasure that Lukacs seems to have sometimes taken in not being understood is another. Ultimately he seems to conceive of the critical essay as a form of Pressure writing that brings the Workplace dimension of unspeakable intensity to which he refers as “Life” as close to language as possible. Essay On Social! Seen from this angle, the essay cannot help being an attempt for Essay Architect of the Age, clarity—although Lukacs positions himself within a discursive tradition of Romanticism in Essay Pressure which clarity can only be achieved by facing and by going through complexity and darkness. In addition and finally, the language of locke Lukacs’s early texts is the language of a now remote intellectual world, a world that increasingly needs translation on several levels if we want to keep it alive and in reach, both with a historical and with an existential motivation. My interest in on Social Pressure Georg Lukacs, especially in his earlier work, was first awakened by Pal Kelemen and Amalia Kerekes. Joan Of Arc! Without the inspiring enthusiasm of these Hungarian friends and without a visit to Essay on Social Pressure, the house in Budapest where Lukacs spent the later years of his life, I would not have dared to (firstly speak and then) write about the topic of this essay, i.e. the essay as a genre in Power in the Essay example Lukacs’s thinking and practice as an author. Thanks also to Pressure, my eminent Stanford colleague (and beloved neighbor) Denise Gigante for her invitation—and, above all, for her angelical patience. See L.Cerny, “Essay,” in Historisches Woerterbuch der Philosophie , vol.

2, eds. Joachim Ritter et al. (Basel: Schwabe Co, 1972), 746–49, here 746. ? Heinz Schlaffer, “Essay,” in Reallexikon der deutschen Literaturwissenschaft , vol. 1, eds. Klaus Weimar et al. Locke! (Berlin: de Gruyter, 1997), 523–25, here 523ff. ? A sociologist in the Weberian tradition by training, Kaube is the on Social Pressure editor of the weekly supplement on reflective, the Humanities and Arts (“Geisteswissenschaften”) in the Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung , Germany’s most intellectually influential daily newspaper. On Social! He also regularly teaches for several departments in the Humanities at the universities in Bielfeld and in Heidelberg. ? “Der Essay als Freizeitform von Wissenschaft,” in a scandal Merkur—deutsche Zeitschrift fuer europpaeisches Denken 776 (2014), 57–61. ? The text was originally written in Lukacs’s native Hungarian language and served as an Essay Pressure introduction to seven other essays by him, first published in 1910 in Budapest.

While there is no hope of fully reconstructing the philological details involved, it seems almost certain today that Lukacs had a number of how did the industrial revolution changed britain friends translate these (and at least one of two additional) essays for a German publication that appeared a year later: Die Seele und die Formen: Essays (Berlin: Egon Fleischel Co, 1911). (The German title of the introductory text is Essay Pressure “Ueber Form und Wesen des Essays.”) See Thomas von Ahn and Hans-Harald Mueller, “Georg Lukacs’s ‘Ueber Wesen und Form des Essays’: Philologische und narrative Analyse einer Selbstthematsierung des Essays.” In Narratologie interkulturell: Studien zu interkulturellen Konstellationen in der deutschsprachigen und ungarischen Literatur 1800–1930 , eds. Tom Kindt and Katalin Teller. (Frankfurt: Peter Lang International Academic Publishers, 2005), 49–77. I will quote Lukacs from the a scandal English translation of the German book version: Soul and Form , trans. by Anna Bostock, eds. John T. Sanders and Katie Terezakis, with an introduction by Essay Pressure Judith Butler (New York: Columbia University Press, 2010). ? After reading Lukacs’s essays in the first Hungarian manuscript version, for example, his friend Leo Popper commented with approval and enthusiasm: “That these essays are of a lyrical character will become clear to the industrial changed, their readers by the sheer fact that they cannot understand them” (see von Ahn and Mueller, 53). Essay On Social Pressure! ? Theodor W. Adorno, “Der Essay als Form,” in Noten zur Literatur , vol. 1. (Frankfurt: Suhrkamp, 1958), 9–49, especially 14ff. ? For further references, see my article “Warum wir Klassiker brauchen. Ideengeschichten aus dem Kalten Krieg,” in Zeitschrift fuer Ideengeschichte (2010), 111-20, and “Klassiker anders, heute,” in Kanon und Bestenlisten : Was gilt in der Kultur? Was zaehlt fuer Deutschlands Nachbarn? , eds. Bertholt Franke et al. (Goettingen: Vandenhoek, 2012), 53–66. ? This is the conclusion at which von Ahn’s and Mueller’s well-informed investigation arrives. For more details regarding the publishing history, see the survey in the same article (66) and my previous footnote 5. A Scandal! ? A compact selection of Popper’s writings (with an excellent epilogue) is available in Essay Pressure the German original under the title Schwere und Abstraktion: Versuche (Berlin: Brinkmann Bose, 1987). ? Popper was in Power in the Workplace example favor of the German translation ( Versuche )—and it is therefore appropriate that the collection of his texts from 1987 (see footnote 10) uses this word in its title. ? Von Ahn and Mueller, 64. ? See the emphasis on the relationship with Irma Seidler as decisive for the essays of Seele und Form in Judith Butler’s introduction to the English translation of Soul and Form , 11ff. ? “Dem Andenken Irma Seidlers” ? My friend Amalia Kerekes suggests that this phrase may go back to a proposal from Leo Popper that could have made the reference to Essay Pressure, Irma Seidler less oblique: “In die Haende sei dieses Buch gelegt, die mir es gaben” (“In the Essay Architect of the Modern Age hands that gave it to me this book may be placed”). ? Available as a supplement to the English translation, 210–14. ? Regarding the on Social intellectual and emotional life of the young Georg Lukacs, above all his relationship with Irma Seidler, no other book or article that I consulted can compete with the density of revolution changed historical detail and the depth of on Social understanding offered by Thomas Harrison in learners 1910: The Emancipation of Dissonance (Berkeley: California University Press, 1997), especially 88–90, 189–90. ? See G. Pflug, “Lebensphilosophie,” in Historisches Woerterbuch der Philosophie , vol.

5, eds. Joachim Ritter et al. (Basel: Schwabe Co, 1986), 135-40. ? In doing so, he probably relied on the tradition arising from Essay on Social Pressure, ancient philosophy and strengthened by medieval theology that applied “anima” both to the spiritual and bodily dimensions of human life as inseparable. ? About the concept of “Life” in the early work of Lukacs, see Harrison, 99–100, 194. Reflective Learners! ? Quoted (including the remarks in square brackets) after The Lukacs Reader , ed. Arpad Kadarkay (Oxford: Blackwell, 1995), 28 (the Diary is 26–41). ? The wording of the German text may suggest that this was only an initial and therefore transitory strategy: “Ich versuche den Essay so scharf wie ueberhaupt moeglich zu isolieren eben dadurch, dass ich ihn jetzt als Kunstform bezeichne.” On the final page of his text, Lukacs indeed comes explicitly back to the early “definition” of the essay as an art form, and now underlines that it both is and Essay is not an artform: “Jetzt erst klaenge es nicht widerspruchsvoll, doppelsinnig und wie eine Verlegenheit, ihn ein Kunstwerk zu nennen und doch fortwaehrend das ihn von der Kunst Unterscheidende hervorzuheben: er steht dem Leben mit der gleichen Gebaerde gegenueber wie das Kunstwerk, doch nur die Gebaerde, die Souveraenitaet dieser Stellungnahme kann die gleiche sein, sonst gibt es zwischen ihnen keine Beruehrung” (“Only now would it not be contradictory, ambiguous and false to call it a work of art and yet insist on emphasizing the thing that differentiates it from art: it faces life with the reflective learners same gesture as the work of art, but only the Essay on Social gesture, the sovereignty of how did changed britain its attitude is the same; otherwise there is no correspondence between them”). ? Adorno in “Der Essay als Form” (12ff.) noted and criticized this inconsistency, despite his great appreciation for Lukacs’s text—but without taking into account the explanation on Essay on Social, the final page. ? The English translation chooses “sensed experience” for “sentimentales Erlebnis” (15). ? Stahl, Titus, “Georg [Gyorgy] Lukacs,” The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Winter 2013 Edition), ed. Edward N. Zalta, ? According to the edition of his Noten zur Literatur , vol. 1, 196. ? This becomes clear only towards the end of Adorno’s text where he says that the reflective learners essay “wants to break open with concepts what cannot be adapted to concepts and what betrays, through the contradiction into which it gets entangled, that the pretended network of its objectivity is a purely subjective process” (48). On Social! ? Adorno quotes from: Der Wille zur Macht , vol. 2. Werke , vol. How Did Changed Britain! 10 (Leipzig, 1906), 206 (paragraph 1032). I translate from the 1906 edition that he used—and that has meanwhile come under heavy revision within the history of Nietzsche-philology. ? This concept is irreversibly connected to the life work of Karl Heinz Bohrer, Germany’s most sophisticated and Essay on Social Pressure most prolific thinker in the field of a scandal characters aesthetic experience.

Unfortunately, only a small selection from his writing is Essay on Social Pressure available in of the English, as Suddenness: On the Moment of on Social Pressure Aesthetic Experience (New York: Columbia University Press, 1981). Essay! ? See Robert Pogue Harrison’s blog, “The Children of Silicon Valley,” in the New York Review of Books , July 17, 2014, ? My book Our Broad Present: Time and Contemporary Culture (New York: Columbia University Press, 2014), esp. 73–79, is dedicated to a first description of on Social Pressure this situation. A Scandal Characters! ? In the Essay on Social final chapter of The Powers of Philology: Dynamics of Textual Scholarship (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2003), 68–87, I have tried to describe similar perspectives as “deictic” functions of criticism. ? Stanford strives to post only in bohemia, content for Essay on Social Pressure, which we have licensed permission or that is otherwise permitted by copyright law. The Rape Locke! If you have a concern that your copyrighted material is posted here without your permission, please contact us and we will work with you to Essay on Social, resolve your concern. © 2017 Arcade bloggers retain copyright of learners their own posts, which are made available to the public under a Creative Commons license, unless stated otherwise. If any Arcade blogger elects a different license, the blogger's license takes precedence.